Bob the Builder
A series of exhibitions and symposia offers new perspectives on the city that Robert Moses Built

By Michael B. Shavelson

When discussing Robert Moses ’14GSAS, ’52HON, it is amazing how many times historians and journalists use the word ram as a verb. Sometimes it’s figurative, sometimes it’s literal. “Moses rammed through the Board of Estimate most of his original plan for Washington Square Southeast, including the high rises and arterial roadway,” writes Joel Schwartz in The New York Approach: Robert Moses, Urban Liberals, and Redevelopment of the Inner City.

Moses treated the map on New York City as a blank canvas, says biographer Robert A. Caro. Fernand Bourges photographed the master builder in 1938 for Fortune magazine.
Courtesy MTA Bridges and Tunnels Special Archive

“After the war,” says biographer Robert A. Caro, “Robert Moses rammed six huge expressways across the heart of New York.” Caro ’67JRN is the author of the colossal (and colossally popular) The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York, the 1974 book that defined Robert Moses for most of us. If ever there was a story of a human battering ram — and of those who got in the way — then Caro’s book is it.

“Robert Moses believed his works would make his name immortal,” says Caro, “and looking at New York today, it would be hard to argue that he was wrong. The city, and indeed the whole region in which we live our lives, is still one shaped by his vision and by the savage determination with which he drove it to realization. He was for 44 years the shaper of New York, and today, decades after he left power, his influence in New York simply dwarfs that of any other public official or any private developer.”

That influence on the city — the roads and parks and buildings Moses left behind — is the primary focus of a series of exhibitions and symposia opening around the city this season under the rubric Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York (see page 36). More than 25 years after Moses’s death, we’ll have the opportunity to reassess his creations and proposals through the lens of early-21st-century New York, a city and time that share little with the tottering New York of the mid-’70s, when The Power Broker was published and the Daily News relayed President Ford’s sentiments to the city: Drop Dead.

Courtesy Andrew Moore
The ceiling of the art deco entry pavilion to Brooklyn’s Sunset Pool and Recreation Center, one of 11 polls Moses opened in 1936. Andrew Moore photographed many of Moses’s recreation facilities for the upcoming exhibition.
Cutting Through the Politics

“There’s a pent-up frustration that big public building and infrastructure projects can’t seem to get built in New York any more,” says the exhibitions’ curator Hilary Ballon, architectural historian and professor in Columbia’s department of art history and archaeology. “The failure of anything to happen at Ground Zero, in particular, triggered a sense that a strong leader who could cut through the politics and the parochialism might make a difference. Moses is a metaphor for action in the face of big problems.”

Moses tackled big problems from the very start. His reign began in 1924, when Governor Al Smith named Moses to head the New York State parks council. In his first decade on the job, Moses built close to 10,000 acres of parks and the first of the automobile parkways that run across Long Island. Immediately after becoming Mayor La Guardia’s parks commissioner in 1934 (and while still holding the state job), Moses threw himself into hundreds of projects large and small that in short order would lead to the rehabilitation of the Central Park Zoo, the construction and renovation of hundreds of parks and playgrounds, the building of a dozen beautiful swimming pools in working-class sections of the city, and the completion of the West Side Highway and the Henry Hudson Bridge. Before World War II, through force of will and the brilliant exploitation of Depression-era federal funding, Moses reshaped the contours of New York City through such public-works schemes as the Triborough Bridge complex and the Grand Central and Interborough Parkways. But it was the postwar explosion of federal money for slum clearance and public housing and, in the ’50s, for interstate highways, that made his control over public works nearly absolute.

MTA Bridges and Tunnels Special Archive
After World War II, Moses sea the problems of the city more and more in terms of traffic flow and proposed three three cross-Manhattan expressways to keep things moving. The never-built Lower Manhattan Expressway, shown on the cover of a 1959 brochure, would have connected the West Side Highway and the Holland Tunnel with the Williamsburg and Manhattan Bridges — carving up parts of downtown on the way.

After the war, adds Caro, Moses also began to build in populated areas. Whether for high-rise housing projects or highways, Moses’s indifference to the neighborhoods his projects bulldozed and to the hundreds of thousands of people he displaced was chilling. As he once said during a television interview, “People must be inconvenienced who are in the way.”

But people got sick of being “inconvenienced,” a cynical euphemism indeed for being evicted and having their communities dynamited off the map — as happened to the 5000 Bronx residents who lived where Moses wanted the Cross Bronx Expressway to go. (He dismissed alternative routes out of hand). “Cities are created by and for traffic,” he wrote. No wonder many felt that Moses and other planners who branded this or that block “blighted” simply didn’t like cities. That was the view of Jane Jacobs, whose 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, takes aim against what urban renewal had come to mean. Jacobs and other neighborhood-oriented urbanists saw that the neighborhood — the street and sidewalk — were what made the city, not the speed of the traffic cutting through it. Although Moses was still an awesome force, society’s way of thinking about cities was changing. Neighborhoods, for so long seen by Moses as impediments to traffic and progress, were coming to be understood as the fabric that kept cities together.

The Mid Manhattan Expressay would have included air rights for buildings.

Rendering by Julian Michele

Built to Last

“In some ways, we’ve been coasting for half a century on what Moses already built,” says Kenneth Jackson, Barzun Professor of History and the Social Sciences. “He was swimming with the tide of history. Without those bridges and tunnels, without those expressways, without the public housing, without the recreational facilities, the quality of life in the region would be much lower than it is now. Horror though it may well be, how do you travel between Boston and Pittsburgh if you don’t go on the Cross Bronx Expressway? You’ve got to move laterally at some point. I agree with all the points that Jane Jacobs made about neighborhoods and not being slaves to the automobiles. But at the end of the day we have to have roads. We can’t just damn the automobile and the truck.

“What Robert Moses did, he did well and efficiently and quickly, and do we ever need that today in the public sector, which has become synonymous with slowness, overruns, inefficiency, and wrongheadedness,” says Jackson. “That isn’t what Moses represented. He said, ‘Let’s get it done.’ It doesn’t save the public money to sit around and hassle about it forever.”

Museum of the City of New York, Gottscho Collection
The Rotunda under Riverside Park at 79th street, seen in this 1937 Samuel Gottscho photograph, was built as part of Moses’s West Side Improvement Project.
Hilary Ballon, too, suggests that we need to look at our cities regionally as well as locally. “Jacobs and Moses represented opposing positions,” she says, “which ideally should be brought together. As urbanists, we should attend to the quality of our streetscapes; but not all the problems of the city are neighborhood-scale problems. Transportation infrastructure or big buildings may have some negative impacts on a particular neighborhood, but may be desirable for the city as a whole. I think the interest in Moses now is about a desire for a kind of correcting force.”

Both Jackson and Ballon readily acknowledge the inhuman side of Moses so dramatically portrayed by Caro’s book. “Moses had an arrogant, brutal, pushy, obnoxious quality, and he used that quality strategically to bully his enemies and to intimidate potential enemies so that they didn’t dare object,” says Ballon.

“As a society and a region,” says Jackson, “we’re going to have to figure out a way to put together big projects again. I think the Bloomberg administration understands that if New York wants to remain the greatest city in the world, then you can’t freeze it in the past. It has to grow with the times, and Robert Moses helped it grow with the times. We need someone or some way of dealing with the twenty-first century in the way he dealt with the twentieth.”

MTA Bridges and Tunnels Special Archive
Not long after becoming Mayor La Guardia’s parks commissioner, Moses reconceived the stalled plans for the Triborough Bridge and kick-started construction. The three-bridge complex had been open for less than two years when the toll plaza was photographed by Richard Averill Smith in 1938.

Aarons says he found inspiration in the grassroots nature of the project. “The notion that young people in particular were willing to get engaged and do something that everybody else said would be impossible to do sparked my interest,” he says.

David Mazzuca ’07CC, an urban studies major who was an intern for Friends of the High Line, says the process offers a lesson in working with the city to achieve your ends. “Rather than just demonstrating in the street, [David and Hammond] blended grassroots efforts with the business savvy you need to succeed,” he says.

Indeed, the skillful work of the Line’s advocates has found its way to a GSAPP course. Alschuler uses the High Line as a case study in his course The Political Environment of Real Estate.

It was Alschuler whose early study concluded that the viaduct-turned-park would increase property values and therefore tax revenues, making it worth the city’s while to get onboard. And his predictions have been borne out: “Real estate values around the High Line have skyrocketed,” he says. “The High Line has captured the imagination of New Yorkers, and it’s natural that people would want to live near it and be a part of it.”

Robert Moses and the Modern City: Exhibitions and Symposia

The Road to Recreation, at the Queens Museum of Art from February 4 through May 27, will look into the network of parkways, parks, pools, and beaches Moses built as he accelerated New York’s drive to the automobile age. The exhibition features the reopening of the upgraded Panorama of the City of New York, the 10,000-sq.-ft. architectural model Moses commissioned for the 1964–65 World’s Fair. Call 718-592-9700 or visit

Slum Clearance and the Superblock Solution, at Columbia’s Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery from January 30 through April 24, will cover the sweep of Moses’s urban renewal program, which employed the arts and higher education as engines of redevelopment. Call 212-854-7288 or visit

Remaking the Metropolis, at the Museum of the City of New York from February 1 through May 28, will explore how Moses tied the city to the region through a network of expressways and bridges and how he solidified its position as a world capital by attracting such institutions as the United Nations and Lincoln Center. Call 212-534-1672 x3392 or visit

The Triborough Bridge: Robert Moses and the Automobile Age, at the New York Transit Museum in Brooklyn Heights through 2008, presents a broad picture of the Triborough and its role in unifying the boroughs and linking the city to the region’s emerging highway system. (This exhibition is independent of the three above.) Call 718-694-1600 or visit

Lessons from Robert Moses

Museum of the City of New York

Thursday, February 1 at 5:30 p.m.

A number of theorists today urge a new, more assertive brand of urbanism, but is it possible to build big in New York City in the 21st century? Key city players consider these questions and set out their vision for the future. The symposium will feature a panel discussion including Majora Carter, executive director of Sustainable South Bronx; Anthony Coscia, chairman of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; and John Sexton, president of New York University. Advance reservations required. Call 212-534-1672 x3393.

Robert Moses: New Perspectives on the Master Builder

Columbia’s Davis Auditorium, Schapiro Center

(with sessions at other venues)

March 2 and 3

This public symposium will bring together two dozen historians in a re-examination of Robert Moses. Six sessions will delve into diverse aspects of Moses’s work, his political ideas, and his relationships with other power brokers. For further information, visit

Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York, edited by Hilary Ballon and Kenneth T. Jackson, will be published by W. W. Norton in conjunction with the exhibitions. The book features seven essays by leading scholars, the first comprehensive catalogue of Moses’s works and plans, hundreds of archival photographs, and newly commissioned photographs by Andrew Moore.