Major Types of Christ
These are the large foreshadowings of the Messiah in Hebrew Scriptures.
- And Mel-chiz'edek king of Salem
brought out bread and wine; he was priest of God Most High.
- And he blessed him and said, "Blessed
be Abram by God Most High, maker of heaven and earth;
- and blessed be God Most High, who
has delivered your enemies into your hand!" And Abram gave him a tenth of
- A Psalm of David. The LORD says to
my lord: "Sit at my right hand, till I make your enemies your
- The LORD sends forth from Zion your
mighty scepter. Rule in the midst of your foes!
- Your people will offer themselves
freely on the day you lead your host upon the holy mountains. From the womb of the
morning like dew your youth will come to you.
- The LORD has sworn and will not
change his mind, "You are a priest for ever after the order of
- The Lord is at your right hand; he
will shatter kings on the day of his wrath.
- He will execute judgment among the
nations, filling them with corpses; he will shatter chiefs over the wide earth.
- He will drink from the brook by the
way; therefore he will lift up his head.
Jesus is an eternal priest who offers bread and wine, which become his very self.
- After these things God tested
Abraham, and said to him, "Abraham!" And he said, "Here am
- He said, "Take your son, your
only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Mori'ah, and offer him
there as a burnt offering upon one of the mountains of which I shall tell
- So Abraham rose early in the
morning, saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and his son
Isaac; and he cut the wood for the burnt offering, and arose and went to the
place of which God had told him.
- On the third day Abraham lifted up
his eyes and saw the place afar off.
- Then Abraham said to his young men,
"Stay here with the ass; I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and
come again to you."
- And Abraham took the wood of the
burnt offering, and laid it on Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire
and the knife. So they went both of them together.
- And Isaac said to his father
Abraham, "My father!" And he said, "Here am I, my son." He
said, "Behold, the fire and the wood; but where is the lamb for a burnt
- Abraham said, "God will
provide himself the lamb for a burnt offering, my son." So they went both
of them together.
- When they came to the place of
which God had told him, Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in
order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood.
- Then Abraham put forth his hand,
and took the knife to slay his son.
- But the angel of the LORD called to
him from heaven, and said, "Abraham, Abraham!" And he said,
"Here am I."
- He said, "Do not lay your hand
on the lad or do anything to him; for now I know that you fear God, seeing you
have not withheld your son, your only son, from me."
- And Abraham lifted up his eyes and
looked, and behold, behind him was a ram, caught in a thicket by his horns; and
Abraham went and took the ram, and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of
- So Abraham called the name of that
place The LORD will provide; as it is said to this day, "On the mount of
the LORD it shall be provided."
- And the angel of the LORD called to
Abraham a second time from heaven,
- and said, "By myself I have
sworn, says the LORD, because you have done this, and have not withheld your
son, your only son,
- I will indeed bless you, and I will
multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven and as the sand which is on
the seashore. And your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies,
- and by your descendants shall all
the nations of the earth bless themselves, because you have obeyed my
- So Abraham returned to his young
men, and they arose and went together to Beer-sheba; and Abraham dwelt at
Isaac is a type of Christ. Like Jesus, he carried the wood that
would be used to offer him. Just as Abraham offered his only son to
God, God offers his only Son for all men: "God will provide
himself the lamb", whereas God actually provided Abraham with a
ram to sacrifice.
Jesus, as a descendant of Abraham, fulfills the prophecy "by
your descendants shall all the nations of the earth bless
- The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in
the land of Egypt,
- "This month shall be for you
the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year for you.
- Tell all the congregation of Israel
that on the tenth day of this month they shall take every man a lamb according
to their fathers' houses, a lamb for a household;
- and if the household is too small for
a lamb, then a man and his neighbor next to his house shall take according to
the number of persons; according to what each can eat you shall make your count
for the lamb.
- Your lamb shall be without blemish,
a male a year old; you shall take it from the sheep or from the goats;
- and you shall keep it until the
fourteenth day of this month, when the whole assembly of the congregation of
Israel shall kill their lambs in the evening.
- Then they shall take some of the
blood, and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which
they eat them.
- They shall eat the flesh that
night, roasted; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it.
- Do not eat any of it raw or boiled
with water, but roasted, its head with its legs and its inner parts.
- And you shall let none of it remain
until the morning, anything that remains until the morning you shall burn.
- In this manner you shall eat it:
your loins girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and
you shall eat it in haste. It is the LORD's passover.
- For I will pass through the land of
Egypt that night, and I will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt,
both man and beast; and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am
- The blood shall be a sign for you,
upon the houses where you are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you,
and no plague shall fall upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of
- "This day shall be for you a
memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the LORD; throughout your
generations you shall observe it as an ordinance for ever.
- Then Moses called all the elders of
Israel, and said to them, "Select lambs for yourselves according to your
families, and kill the passover lamb.
- Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it
in the blood which is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts
with the blood which is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of the door
of his house until the morning.
- For the LORD will pass through to
slay the Egyptians; and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two
doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not allow the destroyer
to enter your houses to slay you.
- You shall observe this rite as an ordinance
for you and for your sons for ever.
- And when you come to the land which
the LORD will give you, as he has promised, you shall keep this service.
- And when your children say to you,
'What do you mean by this service?'
- you shall say, 'It is the sacrifice
of the LORD's passover, for he passed over the houses of the people of Israel
in Egypt, when he slew the Egyptians but spared our houses.'" And the
people bowed their heads and worshiped.
- Then the people of Israel went and
did so; as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.
Jesus is the spotless lamb whose blood saves us from death, so that
we can escape to the Promised Land.
- From Mount Hor they set out by the
way to the Red Sea, to go around the land of Edom; and the people became
impatient on the way.
- And the people spoke against God
and against Moses, "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the
wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this worthless
- Then the LORD sent fiery serpents
among the people, and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died.
- And the people came to Moses, and
said, "We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD and against
you; pray to the LORD, that he take away the serpents from us." So Moses
prayed for the people.
- And the LORD said to Moses,
"Make a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and every one who is bitten,
when he sees it, shall live."
- So Moses made a bronze serpent, and
set it on a pole; and if a serpent bit any man, he would look at the bronze
serpent and live.
Just as the bronze serpent was raised up, so was Jesus raised up on
a tree to be not only a sign of our salvation, but our very salvation.
As Victim and Savior
16 When he summoned a famine on the land, and broke every staff of bread,
17 he had sent a man ahead of them, Joseph, who was sold as a slave.
18 His feet were hurt with fetters, his neck was put in a collar of iron;
19 until what he had said came to pass the word of the LORD tested him.
20 The king sent and released him, the ruler of the peoples set him free;
21 he made him lord of his house, and ruler of all his possessions,
22 to instruct his princes at his pleasure, and to teach his elders wisdom.
As originally told in Genesis 37ff, Joseph's brother's sold him into
slavery. God used his enslavement to save not only Israel and his
sons, but all people of that region. Similarly, Jesus was sold into
the bondage of suffering and death, and his bondage has meant our
Also of interest: Prophesies of the Messiah
© The Augustine Club at Columbia University, 2001-2002
Last update: March 5, 2002