We investigated a possible role for testosterone-induced cell proliferation in the development of sexual dimorphism in the larynx of South African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis. Androgen-induced cell proliferation was studied using [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Nuclei of cartilage, perichondrium, and muscle were labeled in the larynx of sexually immature frogs of both sexes but not in adults. Cell proliferation did not occur with estradiol treatment nor was it seen in nonlaryngeal muscle or cartilage. Electron microscopic/autoradiographic studies of laryngeal muscle indicate that testosterone stimulates satellite cell division which later results in formation of myonuclei. We conclude that testosterone induces both chondrogenesis and myogenesis in juvenile larynx and that this process may contribute to the pronounced sexual dimorphism of the adult vocal organ.