Home Page for Geoffrey Zubay's Lab

Geoffrey Zubay

Columbia University Biological Sciences
751 Fairchild Center, M.C. 2418
New York, N.Y. 10027
212-854-4578
zubay@columbia.edu

Return to Biology HomePage

Epic discoveries made in the early 1980's that nucleic acids could function like enzymes provided the logical basis for an RNA-only world. In such a world, RNA is pictured as a molecule that can store useful information, undergo replication, change by the process of Darwinian selection and carry within itself a range of catalytic activities. This description is not too different from the known functions of RNA so it is not too difficult to imagine. But what of the developments that led to this RNA-only world? Where did the nucleotides that were used as building blocks for the first RNAs come from? Considerable research effort was directed to this problem in the 60s and 70s which subsequently subsided. In view of the RNA-only world hypothesis a resurgence of effort to find more effective pathways to the first nucleotides takes on added importance. That is the focus of our research at the present time.

Thusfar my laboratory has made several contributions to our understanding of possible prebiotic pathways for the synthesis of the first nucleotides which I consider to be quite significant. We have found efficient conditions for the conversion of aminoimidazole carbonitrile (AICN) and aminoimidazole carboxamide (AICA) into adenine and hypoxanthine respectively. We have developed new and more effective methods for phosphorylation of nucleosides and nucleotides. We have developed a lead-catalyzed system for the synthesis of the aldopentoses with yields of about 30%. Presently we seek to improve the system for ribose synthesis and to resolve some of the other remaining problems in the prebiotic synthesis of activated adenosine and inosine nucleotides.

Professor Zubay did his undergraduate work and some graduate work at the University of Chicago, where he worked under Henry Taube and Willard Libby. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Harvard under Paul Doty. Postdoctoral work was done in England where he worked under M.H.F. Wilkins, P.B. Medawar and Hugh Huxley. Further postdoctoral work was done at Rockefeller University in the laboratory of Fritz Lipman.

Currently he is on the editorial board of two journals: Origins of Life, Chemtracts Biochem. and Mol. Biol.


Representative Publications:

161. Zubay, G. and Schechter, A. New thoughts on the Origin of Biochirality, Chemtracts 14 : 291 296, 2001.

160. Zubay, G. Introduction on Origins of Life, Chemtracts 12 : 1 7, 1999.

159. Schechter, A. and Zubay, G. A Central Role for Sugars in Prebiotic Chemistry, pp 42 51 in Fundamentals of Life, 2001. Editors scientifiques et medicoles Elsevier SAS.

158. Zubay, G. and Schechter, Prebiotic Routes for the Synthesis and Separation of Ribose, Chemgtracts-biochem and Mol. Biol. 14 : 117 124, 2001.

157. Zubay, G. Biochemical Pathways May provide Leads for Prebiotic Pathways, Chemtracts 13, 357, 2000.

156. Zubay, Contribution on the Catabolite Gene Activator Protein, For McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of genetics, 2000.

155. Zubay, G and Schechter, A. Current Status of the RNA-Only World, Chemtracts, 13, 836, 2000.

154. Zubay, G. Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos, 2nd edition, Academic Press. 600 pages, to appear in January 2000.

153. Zubay, G., and Mui, T. (2000). Prebiotic Synthesis of Nucleotide. Presented at the International Conference on the Origin of Life. To appear in a specific edition of Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere in the year 2000.

152. Zubay, G. (1999) Synthesis of the First Nucleotides Chemtracts Biochem and Mol. Biol. 12, 432.

151. Reimann, R., and Zubay, G. (1999). Nucleoside Phosphorylation: A Feasible Step in to Prebiotic Pathway to RNA. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 29: 222-247.

150. Zubay, G. Biochemistry, 4th ed. WCB/McGraw-Hill, 1998. 990+ pages.

149. Zubay, G. (1998) Studies on the Lead-Catalyzed Synthesis of Aldopentoses. Origins of Life and Evol. Of the Biosphere, 28: 13-26.

148. Zubay, G. (1997) Did Carbohydrates Provide Carbon Skeletons for the First Amino Acids to be Synthesized on Planet Earth? Chemtracts, Biochem and Mol. Biol., 10, 407.

147. Zubay, G. (1996) Arguments in Favor of an AII-Purine RNA First, Chemtracts, Biochem and Mol. Biol 6: 251-260.

146. Zubay, G. (1996) Gene Regulation Studies in the Early Days, Chemtracts, Biochem and Mol. Biol 6: 85-99.

145. Zubay, G. Origins of Life on the Earth and In the Cosmos, Win. C. Brown Pub Co., 1996. 426 pages.

144. Zubay, G. Principles of Biochemistry, June 1995, 850 pages. Win. C. Brown Pub. Co.

143. Zubay, G. (1995) A Feasible Prebiotic Pathway to the Purines Chemtracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 5, 179-198(1994).

142. Maas, W.K., Wang, C., Lima, T., Zubay, G. and Lim, D. (1994) Multicopy Single-Stranded DNAs mismatched base pairs are mutagenic in E. coli. Molecular Microbiology 14 (3): 437-441.

141. Goldman, E., and Zubay, G. (1994) Investigating Codon Usage in E.coli pps 159-178 in Methods in Molecular Genetics Vol 3, Academic Press.

140. Zubay, G. (1994) Self-Replication of Complementary Nucleotide-Based Oligoiners. Chemtracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol 5:133-135. A review and commentary.

139. Zhang, S., Goldman, E., and Zubay, 0. (1994) Clustering of low usage codons and ribosome movement. J.theor.bio. 170:339-354.

138. Goldman, E., Rosenberg, A.H., Zubay, 0., and Studier, F.W. (1995) Consecutive Low-Usage Leucine Codons Block Translation Only When Near the 5’ End of a Message in E. coli. J.Mol.Bio., in press.

137. Winter, D., and Zubay, 0. (1994) Binding of adenine and Adenine-Related compounds to the Clay Montmorillonite and the Mineral Hydroxylapatite. Origins Life and Evol. of the Biosphere, 25: 61-81, 1995.

136. Zubay, G., Vance, D., and Parson, W. (1994) Principles of Biochemistry, Win. C. Brown, December, 1994.

135. Zubay, G. (1993) To What Extent Do Biochemical Pathways Mimic Prebiotic Pathways. Chemtracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 4:317-323.

134. Zubay, G . (199J) Suppression of the negative effect of minor arginine codons on gene expression: Preferential usage of minor codons within the first 25 codons of the E. coli genes. Chemtracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 2: 98-102. A review and commentary.

133. Zubay, 0., and Goldman, E. (1992) Unusual resistance of peptidyl transferase to protein extraction procedures. Chemtracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 3:157-161 (1992). A review and commentary.

132 Zubay, 0. (1992) The recent African genesis of humans vs the multiregional evolution in humans. Chemtracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 3:133-] 35. A review and commentary.

131. Zubay, G. (1990) New data on excision of Mu from E. coli; cast doubt on the directed mutation hypothesis. Cheintracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 1: 269-273. A review and commentary.

130. Zubay, G. (1995) Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos. Win. C. Brown, to appear in 1995. Approximately 400 pages.

128. Rosenberg, A.H., Goldman, E., Dunn, J.J., Studier, F.W., and Zubay, G. (1993) Effects of consecutive AGG codons in translation in Escherichia Coli demonstrated with a versatile codon test system. J. Bact. 175:716-722.

127. Zubay, G. (1991) Molecular Biology of prion diseases, Chemtracts, Biochem. and Mol. Biol. 2: 252-256.

126. Zhang, S., Zubay, G., and Goldman, E. (1991) Low-usage codons in E. coli, yeast, fruit flies and primates. Gene 105: 61-72.

125. Zhang, S., and Zubay, G. (1991) The peculiar nature of codon usage in primates, p. 73-114 in Genetic Engineering Principles and Methods (1991) Vol. 13. Ed. by Jane K. Setlow, Plenum Press, New York.

124. Zubay, G. (1991) An all-purine precursor of nucleic acids. Chcmtracts, Biochem.and Mol. Biol. 2: 439-442.

123. Chen, H-z., and Zubay, G. (1989) Two nearby sites bind zen protein independently. Mol. and Cell. Biochem. 90: 27-35.

122. Chen, H-z., Hoey, T., and Zubay, G. (1988) Purification and properties of the Drosophila zen protein. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 79:181-189.

121. Zhang, S., and Yan, L.P., and Zubay, G. (1988) Regulation of gene expression of the ColEl plasmid: delayed expression of the kit gene. J. Bact. 170: 5460-5467.

120. Zubay, G. (1988) Biochemistry, 2nd ed. Macmillan, New York, 1988.

119. Zubay, G. (1988) A case for an additional RNA base pair in early evolution: in The Roots of Modern Biochemistry published by Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 1988.

118. Okada, A., Shin, T., Dworkin-Rastl, E., Dworking M.B., Zubay, G., (1985) Constancy of DNA organization of polymorphic and nonpolymorphic genes during development in Xenopus. Differentiation, 29: 14-19.

117. Zhang, S., Faro, A., and Zubay, G. (1985) Mitomycin-induced lethality of E. coli cells containing the ColEI plasmid: involvement of the kit gene. J. Bact. 163: 174-179.

116. Spangler, R., Zhang, S., and Zubay, G. (1985) Colicin synthesis and cell death. J. Bact. 163: 167-173

115. Zubay, G. (1984) Isolation of regulatory proteins affecting gene transcription. J. of Biosciences 6: 503-524.

114. Zubay, G. (1983) Biochemistry, 1200 pages. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. January, 1983.

113. Zubay, G. (1987) Genetics, 973 pages. Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company.

112. Foster, D., Hantzopoulos, R., and Zubay, G. (1982) Resistance of adenoviral DNA replication to aphidicolin is dependent on the 72-kilodalton DNA binding protein. J. virol. 43: 679.

111. Chen, H.z, and Zubay, G. (1983) Analyses of Col El expression in vitro after chromosome fragmentation. J. Bact. 154: 650.

110. Spangler, R., and Zubay, G. (1983) Regulation of the Synthesis of the ~ and ~‘subunits of the RNA polymerase of E. coli. In multifuntional proteins, CRC Press Inc. p. 73-86.

109. Chen, H-z., Yang, H-l., Zubay, G., and Gellert, M. (1982) The effects of super-coiling on promoter function in prokaryotes. In promoters: structure and function, Plenum Press. ed. by Chamberlain and Rodriguez. p. 241-252.

108. Chen, H-z., and Zubay, G. (1983) Prokaryotic coupled transcription-translation. Methods in enzymology 101: ~744tO

107. Yang, H-i., Ivashkiv, L., Chen, H-z., Zubay, G., and Cashel, M. (1980) Cell-free coupled transcription-translation system for investigation of linear DNA segments. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 7029.

106. Foster, D., Spangler, R., and Zubay G. (1981) Inhibition of host DNA synthesis by adenovirus is reversed at elevated temperatures. J. Virol. 37: 493-495.

105. Yang, H-L., and Zubay, G. (1981) Negative regulation of ~ and ~‘ synthesis by RNA polymerase. 4 Mol. Gen. Genet. 183: 514.

104. Yang, H-L., Ivanshkiv, L., Chen, S-in., Zubay, G. (19W) A cell-free coupled transcription translation system for investigation of linear DNA segments. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 7029.

103. Yang, H-L., Heller, K., Gellert, M., and Zubay, G. (1979) Differential sensitivity of gene expression in vitro to inhibitors of DNA gyrase. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 3304-3308.

102. Chen, S-in., Zubay, G., Ginsberg, H.S. (1980) The in vivo replication pattern of adenovirus DNA reproduced in vitro. Europ. J. Biochem. 104: 587-594.

101. Zubay, G. (19W) The isolation and properties of CAP, the catabolite gene activator. Methods in Enzymology 65: 856-877.

100. Zubay, G. (19W) Regulation of transcription in procaryotes, their plasmids and viruses. Cell Biology 53: 153-2 14.

99. Mitra, S., and Zubay, G. (1976) Restriction fragments: A model system for studying the regulation of the lac operon. In molecular aspects of lx operon control. Cold Spring Harbor.

98. Yang, H-L., and Zubay, G. (1978) Expression of the cell gene in Col El and certain hybrid plasmids derived from Eco Ri treated Col El. In microbiology, 1978 (D. Schlessinger, ed) Am. Soc. Microbiology.

97. Wu, G-j., Luciw, P., Mitra, S., Zubay, G., and Ginsberg, H. (1977) In vitro approaches to the study of adenovirus transcription. In, Nucleic Acid-Protein Recognition (H. Vogel, ed.) Academic Press, p. 171-188.

96. Zubay, G. (1976) Some aspects of the regulation of gene expression. In Genetic Improvement of Seed Proteins. National Academy of Sciences: Washington, p. 255-273.

95. Mitra, S., Zubay, G., and Landy, A. (1975) Evidence for the preferential binding of the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) to DNA containing the lac promoter. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 67: 857.

94. Cunin, R., Kelker, N., Boyen, A., Yang, H-L., Zubay, G, Glansdorff, N., and Mass, W.K. (1976) Involvement of arginine in in vitro repression of transcription of argmine genes C, B., and H in E. coli K12. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 59: 377.

93. Yang, H-L., Levy, S.B., and Zubay, G. (1976) Synthesis of an R plasmid associated tetracycline resistance is negatively regulated. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 1509.

92. Mailhammer, R., Yang, H-L., Reiness, G., and Zubay, G. (1975) Effects of bacteriophage T4-induced modification of E. coli RNA polymerase on gene expression in vitro. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 4928

91. Kelker, N.E., Mass, W.K., Yang, H-L., and Zubay, G. (1976) In vitro synthesis and repression of arginosuccinase in E. coli K12; partial purification of the arginine repressor. Mol. Gen. Genetics 144: 17.

90. Reines, G., Yang, H-L., Zubay, G, and Cashel, M. (1975) The effects of guanosine tetraphosphate on the cell-free synthesis of E. coli ribosomal RNA and other gene products. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 2881.

89. Landy, A., Olchowski, E., Ross, W., Reiness, G., and Zubay, G. (1974) Isolation of a functional lac regulatory region. Mol. Gen. Genetics. 133: 273-281.

88. Wu, G.j., and Zubay, G. (1974) Prolonged transcription in a cell-free system involving nuclei and cytoplasm. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 1803.

87. Yang, H-L., and Zubay, G. (1974) A possible termination factor for transcription in E. coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 56: 725.

86. Bancroft, F.C., Wu, G-j., and Zubay, G. (1973) Cell-free synthesis of rat growth hormone. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 3646.

85. Yang, H-L., Zubay, G., Urm, E., Reiness, G, and Cashel, M. (1974) The effects of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), guanosine pentaphosphate ~ppGpp) and ~-ymethylenyl-guanosine pentaphosphate (pcppGpp) on E. coli gene expression in vitro. Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. USA. 71: 63.

84. Zubay, G., Yang, H-L., Reiness, G, and Cashel, M. (1973) Regulation of bacterial genes. In Molecular Cytogenics, A Gatlinburg Symposium. Pergamon Press, p. 253-263.

83. Manley, J., Reiness, G., Zubay, G., and Gefter, M.L. (1973) Synthesis of su4~ tyrosyl transfer RNA: Characterization of the 4S product. A.B.B. 157: 50-54.

82. Chambers, D.A., Manley, i.L., ay~(ii. (1973) On the nature of ~-galactosidase synthesized by the DNA-directed cell-free system. Mol. Gen. Genetics 120: 301-303.

81. Reiness, G., and Zubay, G. (1973) The messenger-directed synthesis of the c~fragment on the enzyme ~-galactosidase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 53: 967-974.

80. Squires, C.L., Rose, J.K., Yanofsky, C., Yang, H-L., Zubay, G. (1973) Tryptophan tRNA and tryptophenyl-tRNA synthesis are not essential for in vitro repression of the tryptophan operon. Nature New Biology 245: 131.

79. Rose, J.K., Squires, C.L., Yanofsky, C., Yang, H-L., Zubay, G. (1973) In vitro transcription of the tryptophan operon by purified RNA polymerase: Regulation in the presence of partially purified repressor and tryptophan. Nature New Biology 246: 133.

78. Urm, E., Yang, H., Zubay, G., Kelker N., and Maas, W. (1973) In vitro repression of N-a-Acetyl-l-Ornithinase synthesis in E. coli. Mol. Gen. Genetics 121: 1-7.

77. Zubay, G., and Marmur, J. Papers in Biochemical Genetics, 2nd Edition.

76. Zubay, G. (1973) In vitro synthesis of protein in microbial systems. Ann. Rev. Genetics. 7:267.

75. Yang, H., and Zubay, G. (1973) Synthesis of the arabinose operon regulator protein in a cell-free system. Mol. Gen. Genetics 122: 131.

74. Zubay, G., Morse, D.E., Schrenk J., and Miller .1. (1972) Detection and isolation of the repressor protein for the tryptophan operon of E. coil. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 1100.

73. Zubay, G., Cheong, L., and Gefter, M. (1971) The DNA-directed cell-free synthesis of a biologically active transfer RNA: Su+ Ill tyrosine tRNA. Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. USA. 68: 2195.

72. Zubay, G., Gielow, L., and Englesberg, E. (1971) Cell-free studies on the regulation of the arabinose operon. Nature New Biol. ~ 164. 233

71. Eron, L., Arditti, R., Zubay, G., Connway, S., and Beckwith, J. (1971) An adenosine 3’, 5’ -cyclic monophosphate-binding protein that acts on the transcription process. Proc. Nail. Acad., Sci. USA 68: 215.

70. Arditti, R., and Eron, L., Zubay, G., Tocchini-Balentini, 6., Connway, S., and Beckwith, J. (1970) In vitro transcription of the lac operon genes. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 35: 437.

69. Zubay, G., and Schwartz, D. and Beckwith, J. (1970) The mechanism of activation of catabolite-sensitive genes.. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 35: 433.

68. Riggs, A., Reiness, G., and Zubay, G. (1971) Purification and DNA binding properties of "CAP," the catabolite gene activator protein. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA. 58: 1222.

67. Zubay, G., and Chambers, D. (1970) Regulating the Lac Operon. In Metabolic Regulation (H. Vogel, ed.) Academic Press, p. 297-349.

66. Zubay, G., Chambers, D., and Cheong, C. (1970) Cell-free studies on the regulation of the lot operon. In, the Lac Operon (D. Zipser and J. Beckwith, eds.) Cold Spring Harbor Lab. Quant. Biol., p. 375.

65. Zubay, G., Schwartz, D., and Beckwith J. (1970) The mechanism of activation of catabolite-sensitive genes: a positive control system. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA. 66: 104.

64. Zubay, G. (1969) The mechanism of activation of catabolite-sensitive genes: a positive control system. In, the Role of Adenyl Cyclase and Cyclic 3’, 5’ -AMP in Biological Systems (T.W. Pall, M. Rodbell and P. Condliffe, eds.) National Institute of Health: Washington, p. 231-235.

63. Zubay, G., and Chambers, D. (1969) A DNA-directed cell-free system for ~-galactosidase synthesis: characterization of the de novo synthesized enzyme and some aspects of the regulation of synthesis. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 34: 753.

62. Chambers, D.A., and Zubay, G. (1969) The stimulatory effect of cyclic adenosine 3’5’-monophosphate on DNA-directed synthesis of ~-galactosidase in a cell-free system. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 63: 118.

61. Zubay, G., and Lederman, M. (1969) DNA-directed peptide synthesis. VI. Regulating the expression of the lac operon in a cell-free system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 62: 550.

60. DeVries, J.K., and Zubay, G. (1969) Characterization of a ~-galactosidase formed between a complementary protein and a peptide synthesized De Novo. J. Bact. 97: 1419.

59. Lederman, M., and Zubay, G. (1968) DNA-directed peptide synthesis. V. The cell-free synthesis of a polypeptide with ~-galactosidase activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 32: 710.

58. Hercules, K.D., Knacht, R., and Zubay, G. (1968) Differential bacteriophage DNA replication after induction of a strain of E. coli doubly lysogenic for 080 and O8Odlac. Virology 34: 337-343.

57. Zubay, G. (1968) Biochemical Genetics. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

56. Zubay, G. (1968) End-group modifications of sRNA with snake venon phosphodiesterase. Methods in Enzymology 12.

55. Zubay, G., Lederman, M., and DeVries, J.K. (1967) DNA-directed peptide synthesis. III. Repression of fl-galactosidase synthesis and the inhibition of repressor by inducer in a cell-free system. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1669-1675.

54. DeVries, J., and Zubay, G. (1967) DNA-directed peptide synthesis. II. The synthesis of the at-fragment of the enzyme (3-galactosidase. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA. 57: 1010-1012.

53. Lederman, M., and Zubay, G. (1967) DNA-directed peptide synthesis in vitro. I. A comparison of T2 and E. coli DNA-directed peptide synthesis. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 149: 253.

52. Roy, A., and Zubay, G. (1966) RNA synthesis stimulated by sonicated nucleohistone. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 129: 403.

51. Sonnenberg, B.P., and Zubay, G. (1966) Isolation of nucleohistone. In, Procedures in nucleic acid research (G.I. Cantoni and D.R. Davies, eds.) Harper and Row Publishers: New York and London, p. 602.

50. Zubay, G. (1966) Isolation of transfer RNA. In Procedures in Nucleic Acid Research (G.L. Cantoni and David R. Davies, eds.) Harper and Row Publishers: New York and London, p. 455.

49. Sonnenberg. B.P., and Zubay, G. (1965) Nucleohistone as a primer for RNA synthesis. Proc. Nail., Acad., Sci. USA. 64: 415.

48. Woods, P.S., and Zubay, G. (1965) Biochemical and autoradiographic studies of different RNA’s: Evidence that transfer RNA is chromosomal in origin. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA. 54: 1705.

47. Taikanami, M., and Zubay, G. (1964) An estimate of the size of the ribosomal site for messenger RNA binding. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 51: 834-839.

46. Zubay, G., and Takananii, M. (1964) Observations on the configuration of

nucleotides near the 3’-hydroxy end of adapter RNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 15: 207-213.

45. Marciello, R., and Zubay, 0. (1964) Quantitative studies on the rate of reaction of adapter RNA with formaldehyde. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 14: 272-275.

44. Zubay, G. (1963) Structure of adapter RNA. XI International Congress of Genetics.

43. Zubay, G. (1963) Nucleohistone structure and function. First World Histone Biol. Conference.

42. Zubay, G. (1963) The molecular basis of differentiation. Brookhaven Biol. Symposium.

41. Zubay, G. (1963) Molecular models for protein synthesis. Science 140: 1092-1095.

40. Zubay, 0. (1963) Physical and chemical properties of particles. Recent Progress in microbiology VIII: 65-79.

39. Zubay, G., and Marciello R. (1963) A chemical method for studying the detailed secondary structure of RNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 11: 79-82.

38. Zubay, 0. (1963) Apparent inability of polypeptides constructed form D-amino acids to stimulate antibody formation. Nature 200: 484.

37. Zubay, 0., and Bergeron, J. (1962) Physical and chemical properties of ribosomes. Symposium A 11-1, Vllith Inter. Cong. of Microbiology, Montreal.

36. Zubay, G. (1962) The specificity of incorporation of glutamic acid and glutamine into protein. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA. 48: 894.

35. Quastler H., and Zubay, 0. (1962) An RNA-protein code based on replacement data. II. Adjustment and extension. J. Theor. Biol. 3: 496.

34. Zubay, 0., and Quastler H. (1962) An RNA-protein code based on replacement data. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA. 48: 461.

33. Zubay, G. (1962) A theory on the mechanism of messenger RNA synthesis. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 456.

32. Elliott, A.E., Bradbury, E.M., and Zubay, G. (1962) Optical rotary dispersion studies of solid films and solutions of histone. J. Mol. Biol. 4: 61.

31. Huxley, H.E., and Zubay, G. (1962) Methods for the examination of nucleoprotein structures with the electron microscope. Proc. Physiol. Soc;, J. Physiol. 152: 10.

30. Zubay, G. (1962) The isolation and fractionation of soluble ribonucleic acid. J. Mol. Biol. 4: 347.

29. Bradbury, E.M., Price, W.C., Wilkinson, G.R., and Zubay, G. (1962) Polarized infrared studies of nucleoproteins, II nucleohistone. J. Mol. Biol. 4: 50.

28. Zubay, G., and Wilkins, M.H.F. (1962) An X-ray diffraction study of histone and protamine in isolation and in combination with DNA. J. Mol. Biol. 4: 444.

27. Zubay, G., Wilkins, M.H.F., and Blout, E. (1962) An X-ray diffraction study of a complex of DNA and a synthetic polypeptide. J. Mol. Biol. 4: 69.

26. Zubay, G. (1962) The structure of nucleoproteins. In Chemical Basis of Neoplasia. M.D. Anderson Xth Symposia on Cancer.

25. Zubay, G. (1961) The fractionation of soluble RNA. Symposium No. 1, V. International Biochem. Congress, Moscow.

24. Zubay, G. (1961) A possible template mechanism for the synthesis of RNA by DNA. Trans. Faraday Soc. 55: 493.

23. Wilkins, M.H.F., Zubay, G., and Wilson, HR. (1961) X-ray diffraction studies of the structure of deoxynucleoprotein. Trans. Faraday Soc. 55: 159a.

22. Huxley, H.E., and Zubay, G. (1961) Preferential staining of nucleic acids containing structures for electron microcopy. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cyt. 2: 273.

21. Huxley, H.E., and Zubay, G. (1960) A comparison of the structures of microsomal particles form E. coli and turnip yellow mosaic virus by negative staining and positive staining techniques. Proc. Eur. Reg. Conf. on Electron Microscopy, Vol. IL p. 703. DeIft.

20. Huxley, HE., and Zubay, G. (1960) Fixatioi and staining of nucleic acids for electron microscopy. The proceedings of the Europes Regional Conference on electron microscopy, vol. II. Do Nederlanden Veraniging Voo: Electronmicroscopie. p. 699. Delft.

19. Brown, G.L., and Zubay, G. (1960) Physical propeities of S-RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 2: 287.

18. Huxley, H.E., and Zubay, G. (1960) Structure of the protein shell of TMV. J. Mol. Biol. 2:189.

17. Zubay, G., and Wilkins, M.H.F. (1960) X-ray diffraction studies on the structure of ribosomes from E. coli. J. Mol. Biol. 2:105.

16. Huxley, H.E., and Zubay, G. (1960) Electron microscope observations on the structure of microsomal particles from E. coli. J. Mol. Biol. 2:10.

15. Medawar, P.B., and Zubay, G. (1959) Preparation of nucleoprotein and DNA from small quantities of lymphoid tissue disintegrated by ultrasound. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 33: 244.

14. Wilkins, M.H.F., Zubay, G., and Wilson, H.R. (1959) X-ray diffraction studies of the molecular structure of nucleohistone and chromosomes. J. Mol. Biol. 1: 179.

13. Zubay, G. (1959) The transition between straight and coiled-coil configuration of the at-helix. J. Mol. Biol. 1:186.

12. Wilkins, M.H.F., and Zubay, G. (1959) The absence of histone in the bacterium E. coli. U. X-ray diffraction of nucleoprotein extract. I. Biophys. Biochem. Cyt. 5: 55.

11. Zubay, G., and Watson, M. (1959) The absence of histone in the bacterium E. coli. I. Preparation and analysis of nucleoprotein extract. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cyt. 5: 51

10. Zubay, G. (1959) Interaction of nucleic acid with Mg-ions. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 82: 233.

9. Zubay, G. and Doty, P. (1959) Isolation and properties of deoxynucleoprotein particles containing single nucleic acid molecules. J. Mol. Biol. 1:1.

8. Zubay, 0. (1958) A template model for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid from deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature 182: 1290.

7. Zubay, 0. (1958) A tlu~e-stranded polyribonucleotide structure. Nature 182: 388.

6. Zubay, G. (1958) A possible mechanisms for the initial transfer of the genetic code from DNA to RNA. Nature 182: 112.

5. Zubay, G, and Doty, P. (1958) Nucleic acid interactions with metal ions and amino acids. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 29: 47.

4. Zubay, G. (1957) Mechanism of mild acid denaturation of DNA. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 28: 644

3. Zubay, G. and Doty, P. (1957) Complex formation between serum albumen and sodium deoxyribonuclease induced by heat. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 23: 213

2. Zubay, G. (1957) Chelate formation between cations and polyelectrolytes. J. Phys. Chem. 81: 377

1. Doty, P. and Zubay, G. (1956) Preparation and properties of completely dispersed thymus nucleoprotein. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78: 6207.

 



Back to the top | Return to Biology Homepage