Vi Van An

Vi Van An was born in the Chi Khe village in the Con Cuong District of the Nghe An Province. He graduated from Hanoi University with a major in ethnology and history. He has done research in ethnology, served as a member of Vietnam’s Ethnology Association, and has served as a member of the Thai Study in Vietnam. His specialized field of research is the traditional society of the Thai people in Vietnam.

An has been published numerous times for his research work, including that of the formation process of Muong (administratives of Thai people) and the traditional clothes of the Xapho in Lao Cai. Other publications include a cultural mosaic of ethnic groups in Vietnam, as well as an overview of the structure of social organization and land ownership of the Thai in the Highway No. 7 of the Nghe An Province. An has written about marriage customs of Thai people in Western Nghe An, funeral customs of the Dao Tranh Phan people in Quang Ninh Province, and funeral customs of the Tay Muong group in Western Nghe An. An has contributed to the study of folk beliefs and rites of the Thai ethnic group in the highlands of Nghe An and has made ethnological notes on Ruc people in Quang Binh Province. He has also contributed to the study of ethnonyms and the history of residence of the Thai local group living along Seventh Road of Nghe An province. He has also published research on the customs clothes of woman in the Thai ethnic group in the highlands of Nghe An Province and an overview on the Ancestral lines of the Thai group living alongside the Road No. 7 of Nghe Tinh Province.

Two papers by Vi Van An:

1. Introduction

In October 1996, I had the chance to participate in the VIth International Conference on Thai Studies held in Chiang Mai, Thailand. After I delivered my paper, "Some ideas about the social structure and land tenure system of Thai people in the region of Highway 7 in Nghe An province," and people came to know that I am myself a Thai person of Nghe An, many scholars came to see me to ask about the "Red Thai". Their questions were, are there or are there not "Red Thai" people in Vietnam? What are Vietnamese researchers’ current thoughts about this? Since time was limited, I could not answer them definitively, because this problem is still being debated and many ideas remain disputed. However, it is clear that the name "Red Thai" has attracted the attention of many researchers. That is why I feel it necessary to write a short article presenting my personal ideas about this, hoping to contribute to resolving in part the questions and different ideas about the name "Red Thai" in Vietnam. I concur that the question is very interesting, since I am Thai myself, born in Nghe An - a province where we find many communities who identify themselves as Tay Deng and who have been identified (incorrectly, as I will argue) as Red Thai.

It seems that the name "Red Thai" has been taken up by many people since the appearance of the monograph Notes sur les Tay Deng de Lang Chanh (Thanh Hoa - Annam) by R. Robert, a French scholar, published by the Imprimerie d'Extreme-Orient in Hanoi in 1941 [1]. Even acknowledging certain shortcomings, it can be said that this is a good ethnological monograph that took up the economical, cultural and social aspects of the people. Included therein was an explanation of the name of a Thai group called Tay Deng in Lang Chanh district, Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

In the book: "Cac dan toc o mien nui Bac Trung Bo" (The ethnicities in the North-Central mountainous region) written by the ethnologist Mac Duong, published by Su Hoc in Hanoi in 1964, in his chapter "Su phan loai dan cu va nhung dac trung van hoa" "Classification of inhabitants and cultural characteristics", the author used the name Tay Deng to denote Thai groups living in the mountainous districts of two provinces, Thanh Hoa and Nghe An [2: 26]. However, he did not further analyze the meaning of the name Tay Deng. That is to say that, when classifying Thai groups, the author followed the usage of R. Robert in the monograph mentioned above.

In the late 1960s, study on Thai people in Vietnam was encouraged and many documents in Thai language were collected and translated systematically, especially those of Thai people in Northwest Vietnam. The first Vietnamese monograph on the three ethnic groups Tay, Nung, and Thai in Vietnam was published. Its authors were two ethnologists named La Van Lo and Dang Nghiem Van. The sections about the Thai people was written by Dang Nghiem Van. He wrote: "The Thai branch in Moc Chau emigrated from Laos to Vietnam in the 19th century. And, it is clear that the family name Xa is the ancestor of the noble family of the Red Thai branch in Moc Chau, Vietnam today" [3:154]. The author emphasized that the period when the Red Thai branch were first present in Moc Chau, Vietnam can be dated to the 9th year of the dynasty of Tran Hien Tong(1337 C.E.), according to historical documents such as Toan thu and Cuong muc. Thus, according to Dang Nghiem Van, one group of Thai people in Moc Chau, Vietnam belongs to the Red Thai branch and is not a local sub-group of another ethnicity. However, the author did not explain why the people concerned are called Red Thai.

In the book, "Cac sac toc thieu so o Viet Nam" (Ethnic minorities in Vietnam), published in 1972 by Sai Gon Publishing House, the researcher Nguyen Dac Tri mentioned the Red Thai living in Hoi Xuan district, Thanh Hoa province [4: 109]. However, he offered no explanation about the meaning of their name.

In an article published in Tap chi Dan toc hoc (The Ethnology Review) number 4/1992, apart from explicating the meaning of the name Tay Deng, the researcher Cam Trong came to affirm that the Tay Deng are a local group of the White Thai branch. He wrote: "In the west of Thanh Hoa province live Tay Deng people, meaning Thai people living in Muong Deng (this muong no longer exists at present). The meaning of deng is ‘red’, that is why we have made a mistake for a long time and called them Red Thai, like White Thai, Black Thai. Now, it is determined that this Thai group call themselves Tay Khao, means White Thai" [5: 14-20]. This is a well-grounded definition, but it is regrettable that the author did not analyze and argue the problem more thoroughly, and that he did not offer necessary comparative data. In addition, he mistakenly confused the Tay Khao (i.e., Thai people living in Muong Khao) with the Tay Khao (i.e., White Thai), and wrongly concluded that the former are White Thai.

Recently, in an article, "Nguoi Thay Deng o Lao va moi quan he van hoa lich su voi nguoi Thai o Viet Nam" (Thay Deng people in Laos and cultural-historical links with Thai people in Vietnam)", the amateur researcher Dao Van Tien has suggested three different ways to analyze the meaning of the name Tay Deng:

Of these three explanations, the author found them all reasonable and persuasive. He came to affirm that the name Thay Deng is the basis which proves that they constitute a Red Thai branch, comparable to the Black Thai or White Thai. Apart from establishing the historical relations between the Thay Deng in Laos and the Tay Deng in Vietnam, the author also provided some information about the Thay Deng population in Hua Phan province of Laos (in 1985: 53,200 people), which makes up 70% of the total population of Phu Thay groups in the province.

Before continuing, I would like to provide some more information related to the red costume which is common among the Tay Muong and Tay Do groups in Nghe An (who call themselves White Thai). During a funeral, all of the daughters-in-law of the family must wear a red tunic to stand next to the coffin of the death. Concerning this point, further information can be found in the epic Quam to muong of the Black Thai in Northwest Vietnam. These texts of Thai people in Muong La, Son La province were collected and studied by four ethnologists - Dang Nghiem Van, Cam Trong, Kha Van Tien and Tong Kim an - and published by them in the book titled: "Tu lieu ve lich su xa hoi dan toc Thai" Documents on history and society of Thai people. They write that: "Ta Ngan [a Black Thai who was chief of Muong Muoi territory, Thuan Chau district, Son La province, Vietnam], who was named lord in the 19th century by the King, was head of a large region where people were living in stilt houses and wearing red costumes" [7: 78]. According to Dang Nghiem Van, during battles among different groups in the highlands, the generals always wore red costumes. So, "people...wearing red costumes" here should be understood generally to include all of the different minorities in the mountainous areas of Northwest Vietnam. This detail proves that wearing red costume is only a ceremonial habit of generals during battles or a custom practised during funerals by certain individuals. That is why explaining the meaning of the name Tay Deng through the costume colour is not persuasive enough. However, I would like to add that Tay Deng women always wear skirts with red belt. That is why, in Nghe An, Vietnam, other Thai groups call them Tay xin hua ®eng (Thai people wearing red belt skirt). In this case, it is clear that the name "Red Thai" has the meaning related to the colour of the costume - the skirt belt.

Thus, most researchers accept the fact that one part of Thai people living in the mountainous areas of Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam are called Tay Deng. The question then has been raised whether Tay Deng is a separate branch - the Red Thai branch - which is equivalent to the other two branches, Black Thai and White Thai, or are they only one local group of the Black or White branch? (See the note above about the specific terminology used by Vietnamese ethnologists.) This has given rise to much debate, that has yet to reach a consensus. Briefly stated, there are two opinions in Vietnam:

Beside some Vietnamese researchers, there are some from Thailand who accept this second idea. Their argument for this is based on the result of research on the historical origins, language, and especially the ethnic consciousness of the Thay Deng group who are one of many groups of Phu Thay people living in Phong Sa Ly, Hua Phan, Xieng Khoang, and Kham Muon provinces of Laos. If there are Black Thai and White Thai branches in Vietnam, why are there no Red Thai? For this point, I would like to say that research and knowledge of researchers from Thailand about Tay Deng in Vietnam have not yet been thorough.

In my opinion, to find out a conclusive answer for this problem, it is necessary to resolve two things:

2.1. The meaning of the name Tay Deng

Thai people in Vietnam call themselves Con Tay or Phu Tay (following the Black Thai tone system), Con Tay or Phu Tay (following White Thai tones). These terms all mean Thai people. The word Tay or Tay has both a broad meaning (indicating an ethnic community which is equivalent to "ethnicity" or "nation") and a narrow meaning (indicating a part or a specific local group, corresponding to the Vietnamese scholars’ usage "local groups").

Thai people in Vietnam are classified into two branches which are Tay Dam (Black Thai) and Tay Khao or Tay Don (White Thai). This classification was not invented by researchers, it has been existing for ages and is used by Thai people themselves. However, while the classification is clear in the Northwest of Vietnam, in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An the division of Black and White is not so clear. In many cases when people are asked whether they belong to the Black or White branch, they cannot answer, because they are accustomed to using their local names.

It is necessary to remember that the classification of Black and White branches embodies social meanings and has a long historical origin, even if there are not any conclusive explanations about the origins of the classification system. Normally, the classification is based on differences of clothing, houses, language, custom, habit, and so on. Moreover, the differences in these characteristics between the two branches Black and White is a reality. To have more information about this, please read the article written by Cam Trong and Le Sy Giao [8,9].

Coming back to the names of various Thai peoples, there is a popular phenomenon of calling people according to the characteristics of agriculture, the environment and the location (past and present). As a result, ethnic names often express very specific descriptions and qualities. In fact, there are names to distinguish Tay Huoi (Thai people living along the stream side) and Tay Pao (Thai people living along the river side); Tay Hay (Thai people practicing swidden agriculture) and Tay Na (Thai people practicing irrigated agriculture) or Tay Men (Thai people living in Muong Xieng Men), Tay Xang (Thai people living in Muong Xang), Tay Muoi (Thai people living in Muong Muoi), and so on.

In Thanh Hoa and Nghe An provinces, sometimes local groups have different names: Tay Deng people have other names, such as Tay Nhai, Tay Thanh, Man Thanh; Tay Muong people have other names, such as Tay Xieng, Tay Do, Hang Tong, and so on.

The practice of calling people by their location is very popular for the Phu Thay groups in Laos. According to figures published in the book "Cau truc toc nguoi o Lao" Ethnic structure of Laos by Nguyen Duy Thieu, the Phu Thay community in Laos consists of 29 local groups and many groups among them have the name of the areas where they live: Thay Vat (people living in the village Chïa), Thay Xam (people living in Muong Xam), Thay Pao (people living along river sides), Thay Men (people who emigrated from Muong Xieng Men, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An) [10:35].

It is necessary to remember that in his monograph R. Robert said: "To say exactly, Tay Deng people are those who live in Muong Deng". Since the meaning was broadened, the author added more explanation: "We call all of the indigenous people who have their own language and custom Tay Deng, that means Tay people of Chau Lang Chanh, Quan Hoa, Ngoc Lac, tong Nhan Son, chau Thuong Xuan, and villages gathering in the South of Chu river... In Nghe An, they are known by the name of Man Thanh and they call themselves Tay Nhai" [1: 8-9].

From general descriptions on language, writing, clothing, and other factors, to affirm his opinion, he emphasised that Tay Deng is only a linguistic and cultural group and the name Tay Deng is only a convention. He wrote: "If the local people are asked if they are Tay Deng, they usually say no and they affirm that they are Tay Khao (people living in Muong Khao) or Tay Mot (people living in Muong Mot)... But if we ask them if they are in the same family with others having the common name Tay Deng, they will say yes" [1: 10].

It seems to be that the confusion of the Tay Deng and Red Thai results from the fact that the location where Tay Deng live in Lang Chanh, Thanh Hoa is called Muong Deng; in addition, Tay Deng women wear skirts attached with red cloth in the upper part. In Thai languages, deng means "red", and as a result of this coincidence of place name and clothing colour, many people, including European researchers, have made a mistake and called them Red Thai, considering them as a branch which is equivalent with other Thai branches in Vietnam.

As I have mentioned above, in his monograph, R. Robert said that, apart from Thanh Hoa, Tay Deng people are present in Nghe An, Vietnam and Hua Phan, Sam Nua, Sam Tí, Xieng Kho, Muong Xoi, and elsewhere in Laos. However, his research field was concentrated in Muong Deng, Chau Lang Chanh, Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam. Since he had no chance to do research in the provinces mentioned above (as he acknowledged), he did not know about the familial cultural relation between Tay Deng people in Lang Chanh, Thanh Hoa and their relatives in Nghe An, Vietnam and in several provinces of Laos. About this matter, many Thai manuscripts such as Quam to muong, Piet muong, legends, narratives or family history of Thai landlords in Vietnam were studied by many researchers and proved that the relation of a shared origin and culture among Thai groups in Vietnam and Phu Thay in Laos is indisputable history. In fact, many locations where Thai people are currently living in Vietnam can be shown to be the original homelands of various communities of Phu Thay in Laos. Among these are Muong Vat (in Yen Chau), Muong Xang or Muong Mook (in Moc Chau), Muong Va (in Song M·), Muong Luan (in DiEn Bien Dong and Son La), as well as various locations in the mountainous districts of Thanh Hoa and Nghe An (for more information, see documents 3, 6, 7, and 10 mentioned above).

Thus, from analysis and examples, we find that Tay Deng is a name derived from the location to indicate a group of Thai people living in Muong Deng, Chau Lang Chanh, Thanh Hoa province. This name is only coincidentally related to red skirt upper part. They are a local group, not a separate branch which is equivalent to Black Thai or White Thai branch in Vietnam nowadays. Additionally, our ideas about this are further reinforced since their relatives in Nghe An and in many provinces in Laos do not use the name Tay Deng, but the name by the location where they live, even if they have shared languages and cultures.

2.2. Some comparisons on linguistic and cultural characteristics.

After having analyzed the meaning of the name Tay Deng and having given some examples, we have come to a conclusion that Tay Deng is a local group, and there is not a separate Red Thai branch. So, which of the two branches do they belong to, Black Thai or White Thai? In the articles about them which have been published in Vietnam, this problem has been seen in different ways. According to Dang Nghiem Van, "After having occupied the Northwest region, one part of Black Thai passed through M· river valley, Laos and came to Thanh Hoa, Nghe An. All of the groups - Hang Tong, Man Thanh or Tay Thanh, Tay Muoi, Tay Deng - are originally Black Thai" [3: 153]. He added that these groups were then influenced anthropologically and culturally by their neighbors. That is why they have some differences from their brothers in Northwest Vietnam. In the book, Van Hoa truyEn thèng Muong Ca Da Traditional culture of Muong Ca Da, edited by Hoang Anh Nhan and published in 1985 by the Cultural Service of Thanh Hoa, in the part of the legend about the foundation of Muong Ca Da - one large muong of Thai people who belong to the same group as Tay Deng people in Thanh Hoa - it is stated that, "The ancestors of these Thai people are White Thai who emigrated from Bac Ha district, Lao Cai province to Muong Pa in the Northwest region, one sub-group came to Muong Xang (Moc Chau), the other arrived in the west of Thanh Hoa, Nghe An in the 13th-14th centuries" [11: 15]

As we have mentioned above, the conception of Black Thai and White Thai in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An is unclear. However, when they are asked, members of the Tay Deng group, like their brothers in Nghe An such as Tay Thanh (Man Thanh), Tay Nhai, and others, call themselves Tay Dam (Black Thai). Otherwise, the Tay Muong, Tay Xieng, Hang Tong, and Tay Do call themselves Tay Don (White Thai).

Like their relatives in the Northwest, the division of Black Thai and White Thai for the Thai of Nghe An is based on differences of pronunciation, spelling, colour of clothing (mainly women’s clothing), ancestor cult practices and especially customs such as marriages, funerals, family ceremonies, and so on. According to their explanation, the origin of the name Tay Dam (Black Thai) is because in the past, men and women always wore black costumes and black headdresses. In their families, white colour has been forbidden: white mosquito nets, white costumes, white headdresses, and so on are prohibited. This taboo has been respected strictly. White colour appears in the family only when they have a funeral, for it is a sign of death.

Although they call themselves Black Thai, in fact, the cultural practices of these groups in Nghe An are not identical or similar to those of Black Thai in the Northwest. By contrast, these cultural characteristics argue that they are closer to the White Thai branch. We do not intend to affirm that they indisputably belong to White Thai branch, because during the process of migration, cohabitation, and cultural exchanges, they are influenced by Mon-Khmer people, by their relatives in Laos, as well as ViEt-Muong people living in the same areas. That is why, even in the same ethnic family, there are differences among them, and things that distinguish them from the two branches, Black Thai and White Thai in the Northwest. These differences are local ones and they can easily be seen. However, among these cultural characteristics, we could find a number of shared characteristics with the White Thai in the Northwest of Vietnam, though these similarities are not comprehensive.

As we know well, language is the expression of a culture. From this point, we can find the similarity in pronunciation of Tay Deng in Thanh Hoa and their relatives in Nghe An and in Laos, when compared to the speech of the White Thai in the Northwest of Vietnam such as those in Mai Chau (Hoa Binh), Moc Chau, Yen Chau, Bac Yen, Phï Yen (Son La), Muong Lay, Phong Tho, and Muong Te (Lai Chau). I would like to add that I myself had many chances to do research in these areas and I can talk with them easily and exactly, even sing folksongs with their proper pronunciation. In 1986, during my fieldwork in Nghe An, I had an opportunity to listen to a folksong of Tay Deng recorded in Kham Cot, Kham Muon, Laos by the Deputy Head of the Committee for Ethnic Peoples of Nghe An. I fully understood the song and felt very close to it, because it is the same melody as that used among Tay Deng in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An.

In his article, R. Robert had some comments: "Tay Deng people have Indian alphabet writing system, which is close to Campuchia, Thailand and White Thai writing. Their language is similar to Laos language in Hua Phan (Laos) and more similar to the language of Da river region" [1 :16]. The writing systems of Tay Deng, Tay Thanh, and Tay Nhai in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An are very close to the one of Lao people. These writing systems are and called by many names, such as Xu Thanh, Xu Tay, Lai Tay or Lai Pao, and so on, and they are written horizontally. In their way of pronunciation, there is falling intonation at the end of sentences, long vibration and there are some regular sound shifts among consonants, vowels, and tones that correspond more closely to White Thai than to Black Thai dialects. Consider the following examples:
Tay Dam
Tay Deng, Tay Don
®- => l-
nh- => j-
to walk
h- => kh-
to climb
-en => -in
to startle
- em => -in
-om => - um
to boil
x- => t-
p- => ph-
to cut
c- => kh-
Despite these sound shifts, the differences are not so large that speakers of any dialect could not understand each other. Especially, it is easy to distinguish Black Thai and White Thai languages by their tone systems. In general, culture has its rule of exchange and influence, so language and voices are not out of rule. And the languages of Thai local groups in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An have the tendency to approach one another. This means that people belonging to one group can not only understand the language of others, but can also speak the language of other groups with appropriate pronunciation. This leads to less differences of words or pronunciations among them (phonetic and meaning). The phenomenon of many ancient words disappearing and many Vietnamese ones used in communication provides an example.

A word about clothing. As a component of material culture, clothing and jewellery, during their process of existence and development, have known many influences and changes. Following this tendency, clothing of Tay Deng group in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An is distinguished by its local characteristics from the costume of the White Thai in the Northwest of Vietnam. However, going back in time, we can find many similarities among them. One is the habit of wearing indigo clothing of men and women. On the black skirts of White Thai (as well as of Black Thai) in the Northwest, we cannot see any embroidered part on the bottom. In contrast, embroidery on the bottom of the skirt is very popular from Mai Chau and Hoa Binh to Thanh Hoa and Nghe An. This habit is also popular in Phu Thay communities in Laos. This proves clearly that they have cultural and historical relations. Relating to clothing, for Tay Deng and White Thai women, gathering hair on the head (tang cau) is considered as a sign of a married woman, but they always have to wear headdresses. Being without a headdress is regarded as a taboo. But for Black Thai, it is popular to wear nothing on the head when they are at home. They put on a head scarf (pieu) only when they go to work or to the market.

About houses: The common characteristic of the stilt house of Tay Deng and White Thai is that they have two-sided roofs (in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An) or four-sided roofs (in the Northwest region). There are not any khau cut (fern leaves-buffalo horns) as decoration on the roofs.

Transportation means: White Thai and Tay Deng community have the habit of using head strap baskets without shoulder yokes. Black Thai carry baskets with shoulder yokes and they also use hanging buckets.
Tay Deng and White Thai groups Black Thai 
Houses - 2 roofs (Thanh Hoa - Nghe An); 4 roofs (Northwest region) - "tortoise-shaped" roof with rounded ends
  - No khau cut - decorated with khau cut
Transport means - Basket without shoulder support

- Bags

- Good at boating

- use dangling buckets

- Bags

Clothings and jewelry - Embroidered black skirt, skirt highly wore

- black short blouse, round buttons

- Black skirts without embroidery, skirt lowly wore

- black short blouse, plat buttons in form of butterfly, cicada

  - Man clothing is black, brown - Man clothing is black
  - black scarf with designs - Pieu
  - always wear head dress - possible not wear head dress
  - belt made by fibres - belt made by cloth
  - women wear many jewels - women wear not many jewels
Symbolic cult - swift - dragon, naga
Offerings for God cult - white buffalo - black buffalo




1. R. Robert Notes sur les Tay Deng de Lang Chanh (Thanh Hoa - Annam. Imprimerie d’Extreeme - Orient. Hanoi, 1941.

2. Mac Duong: Cac dan toc o mien nui Bac Trung Bo (Ethnic minorities in the south of the Centre region). Se hoc, Hanoi, 1964.

3. La Van Lo and Dang Nghiem Van: So luoc gioi thieu cac nhom dan toc Tay, Nung, Thai o Viet Nam (General introduction of Tay, Nung Thai ethnic groups in Vietnam). Nxb Khoa hoc xa hoi. Hanoi, 1968.

4. Nguyen Dac Tri: Cac sac toc thieu so o Viet Nam (The ethnic minorities in Vietnam. Nxb Sai Gon, 1972.

5. Cam Trong: "Tu nhung ten goi cua tung dan toc trong cong dong ngon ngu Tay, Thai chung ta co the nghien cuu gi ve nguon goc cua ho" (From the name of ethnic groups belonging to Tay-Thai language family, what could we study about their origin). Tap chi Dan toc hoc (Review of Ethnology). N04, 1992.

6. Dao Van Tien: "Nguoi Thay Deng o Lao va moi quan he van hoa, lich su voi nguoi Thai o Viet Nam" (Thay Deng people in Laos and their cultural and historical relations with Thai people in Vietnam) 2nd Bulletin of Thai Studies in Vietnam, 1998.

7. Dang Nghiem Van - Cam Trong - Kha Van Tien - Tong Kim An: Tu lieu ve lich su va xa hoi dan toc Thai (Documents on history and society of Thai people). Nxb Khoa hoc xa hoi, 1977.

8. Le Sy Giao: "Ve ban chat ten goi Thai Trang va Thai Den o Viet Nam" (The nature of the name White Thai and Black Thai in Vietnam). Tap chi Dan toc hoc(Ethnology Review), N0 3, 1988.

9. Cam Trong: Nguoi Thai o Tay Bac Viet Nam (Thai people in the Northwest region of Vietnam). Nxb Khoa hoc xa hoi, 1978.

10. Nguyen Duy Thieu: Cau truc toc nguoi o Lao (Ethnic structure in Laos). Nxb Khoa hoc xa hoi, 1996.

11. Hoang Anh Nhan: Van Hoa truyen thong Muong Ca Da (Traditional Culture of Muong Ca Da). Së Van Hoa Thong tin tInh Thanh Hoa, 1985

12: Dang Nghiem Van: Ethnological and Religious Problems in Vietnam. Social Sciences Publishing House. Hanoi, 1998