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Graduate Courses

Please note that not all courses are given every year. To see which courses are offered in a given year please check the Registrar's Directory of Classes.

Prefixes: EEEB = Environmental Biology, ANTH = Anthropology

ANTH G4002 Controversial Topics in Human Evolution. 3 pts. R. Holloway
Controversial issues that exist in current biological/physical anthropology, and controversies surrounding the descriptions and theories about particular fossil hominin discoveries, such as the earliest australopithecines, the diversity of Home erectus, the extinction of the Neandertals, the evolution of culture, language, human cognition. Enrollment limited to 15 students plus Instructor's permission. Taught every other year.

EEEB W4010 Evolutionary Basis of Human Behavior 3 pts.
This course addresses the role of evolution in contemporary human social behavior including such topics as kind selection, sexual selection, parenting, altruism, and conflict. Populations explored will include both industrialized and traditional societies with an emphasis on the interaction between evolutionarily influenced behavior and the local ecological context. Prerequisites: A course in evolutionary biology such as EEEB V1010 Human Species, V1011, Behavioral Biology of Living Primates or EEEB 2001 Environmental Biology 1 is highly recommended. Or instructor permission.

EEEB W4015y Animal Communication: A Primate Perspective 3 pts. Prerequisites: EEEB V1010 Human Species or EEEBV1011 Behavioral Biology of Living Primates or Animal Behavior or instructor permission. Animals employ a staggering diversity of sounds, gestures, and chemicals to communicate. This course examines the four primary signal systems--vocal, visual, chemical, and tactile--used by primates and the various ecological, social, and physiological factors that relate to their evolution. Using current research, historical perspectives, and hands-on lab exercises, students will explore the central issues of animal communication as they relate to primates. [Max 20. EBHS students have priority]

EEEB G4030y Phylogenomics:a hands-on course exploring phylogeny and genomics 3 pts. R. DeSalle. A hands on course in genome level evolutionary approaches. The course will examine the approaches and technology involved in genome level data collection and analysis. Whole genome scans for population genetics and whole genome phylogenetics are two of the major subjects to be covered. The course will include a session in each class studying computer programs that are commonly used in both population genetics and phylogenetics at the genome level.

EEEB W4060 Invasion Biology 3 pts. Prerequisites: A course in Environmental Biology or instructor's permission This course examines the spread of non-indigenous species to habitats and areas outside their home range, and the effects, both negative and positive, that establishment of new species may have in different environments. Using lectures, class discussions and student presentations, we will examine the processes and major vectors that can lead to the introduction of non-indigenous species, the interaction between species' and habitat characteristics in determining the success of a potential invader, and the political and economic consequences of invasive species management actions. Two proposed day trips will also expose students to some practical methods that aim to limit the introduction and spread of potentially damaging invasive species in local terrestrial and marine environments.

EEEB G4086 Ethnobotany: the Study of People and Plants 3 pts. M. Balick. Priority given to students with backgrounds in ecology or plant systematics. A survey of the relationships between people and plants in a variety of cultural settings. Sustainability of resource use, human nutrition, intellectual property rights, and field methodologies are investigated.

EEEB W4110 Coastal Estuarine Ecology
The course covers marine and estuarine processes, features and biota, with relevant discussions on how fundamental concepts such as reproduction, dispersal, population connectivity and productivity may differ in aquatic and terrestrial contexts. Descriptive classes on these processes and features are augmented with discussions on recent and current research within each habitat type, including potential effects of decreases in biodiversity, habitat fragmentation, and changes in water chemistry, which may be brought about through anthropogenic activities. Students will thus gain a basic understanding not only of ecological biological processes operating within these environments, but of the current state of research within these areas.

EEEB W4111x Ecosystem Ecology and Global Change 3 pts. D. Menge. This course will provide an introduction to ecosystem ecology. Topics include primary production carbon storage, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem feedbacks to climate change. By the end of the course, students will be well versed in the basics of ecosystem ecology and have exposure to some current areas of research. Topics covered will include some aspects that are well established and others that are hotly debated among scientists. Throughout the course, students will be encouraged to think independently and act like research scientists.Discussion Section Required.

EEEB W4112x Ichthyology 3 pts. J. Drew. Fish are an incredibly diverse group with upwards of 27,000 named species. They are important ecologically, represent one of the major vertebrate lineages and face numerous conservation threats. This course will provide students with the tools to understand how the evolution, systematics, anatomy, and diversity of fishes influence their conservation status.

EEEB G4120. Islands: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. 3 pts. Pre-requisites: graduate standing or instructor's permission. Examination of island biology focusing on ecological explanations for current biotic distributions and ecological theories and explanations for island biodiversity, including adaptive radiation, the taxon cycle, island biogeography, and metapopulation dynamics. Includes applications to conservation issues.

EEEB W4122. Fundamentals of Ecology and Evolution. 4 pts. M. Uriarte, J. Cracraft. Pre-requisites: EEEB 2001 and 2002 or equivalent or permission of instructor. An advanced survey of the basic concepts and theories of ecology and evolution, with particular emphasis on topics relevant to conservation biology.

EEEB G4126. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. 3pts. D. Melnick. In this course, will we use evolutionary genetic principles and population genetic models to describe the extent and distribution of genetic variation in populations and species and determine ways to conserve it. A basic knowledge of genetics and mathematics is assumed.

EEEB G4127. Disease Ecology. 3 pts. Maximum: 25 students. The course will introduce students to wildlife diseases, disease ecology and conservation, ecosystem health, and conservation medicine.

EEEB W4128. Management of Ecosystems and Landscapes. 3 pts. M. Pinedo-Vasquez. Prerequisite: coursework in biology, ecology and anthropology. Local groups have changed landscapes and managed tropical ecosystems more actively than was previously acknowledged. Recent findings and debates concerning environmental management and the benefits and limitations of applying localmanagement practices to contemporary conservation and development efforts are studied.

EEEB G4130. Restoration and Urban Ecology. 3 pts. Offered in collaboration with the Wildlife Trust's NY Bioscape Initiative, the course will examine themes of restoration and urban ecology. During the semester there will be a number of field trips to visit local sites that illustrate some of these themes. Class time will be spent discussing the ecology of natural spaces in human-dominated landscapes, and the theory and practice of restoration ecology, based mainly on readings from the primary literature.

EEEB G4134. Behavioral Ecology. 4 pts. D. Rubenstein. An examination of evolutionary and behavioral ecological theory. The course will focus on natural selection, kin selection, and sexual selection, as well as related topics including cooperation, conflict, cooperative breeding, signaling, reproductive skew, and alternative mating strategies among others.

EEEB 4138. Molecular Ecology. 3pts. S. Kolokotronis and M. Mendez. This course will explore various methods of statistical measures of ecological patterns and processes using molecular data. Students will learn the foundations for molecular identification of populations to species, and apply various analytical methods to real datasets. The course will use real data for the inference of population structure and migration, growth and decline, detection of demographic bottlenecks and natural selection. We will end up with a view of the future approaches in the field.

EEEB G4140. Ornithology. 3 pts. S. Elbin. Prerequisites: EEEB 2001 and 2002 or equivalent. The basic ornithology class lays the foundation for more in-depth study as it presents an overview of avian evolution, ecology, and current conservation issues.

ANTH G4146The Human Brain Evolving. 3 pts. R. Holloway. Prerequisite: EEEB V1010, V1011 or Instructor Permission. To better understand human and evolution, and, one might argue, the human species's place in Nature, one must have some understanding of the brain, the human animal's most important organ of adaptation. This course will examine the comparative and paleoneurological evidence for human brain evolution to better understand our consciousness, language ability, intelligence, and offer speculations about its (the brain) future evolution. Taught intermittently.

ANTH G4147/ANTH G4148. Human Skeletal Biology. 3 pts. R. Holloway. Recommended for archaeology and physical anthropology students, pre-meds, and biology majors interested in the human skeletal system. The course provides an intensive study of human skeletal materials using anatomical and anthropological landmarks to assess sex, age, and ethnicity of bones. Other primate skeletal materials and fossil casts are used for comparative study. G4147--skull, G4148--postcranial bones.

EEEB G4165. Pathogen Evolution: Genes, Organisms, Populations, & Ecosystems. 3 pts. I. Brito. A seminar-based course aimed at examining the pathogenic virulence, emergence in new host species, co-evolution of pathogens and multi-host disease dynamics from an evolutionary perspective.

EEEB G4184. Plant Conservation: Theory and Practice. 3 pts. M. Palmer. A review of the theoretical and practical considerations surrounding the conservation of plant diversity. The focus on diversity ranges from genes to communities and will be applied to both natural and cultivated systems. The practical considerations concerning the social and regulatory context of conservation projects will be explored through case studies and field trips for projects in the New York region.

EEEB G4185. Insect Ecology and Conservation. 3 pts. S. Spector. Pre-requisites: graduate standing or instructor's permission. This course presents an overview of the ecology and conservation of Earth's most diverse group of organisms--the insects. Ecological concepts, as they apply to insects will comprise the first part of the course and how these concepts are applied to the conservation of this important taxon are the focus of the second.

EEEB G4192. Introduction to Landscape Analysis. 3 pts. R. DeFries, R. Rose. Changes in land use and land cover underlie multiple environmental and sustainability concerns, including conservation of biodiversity, impacts of climate change, climate mitigation through terrestrial carbon storage, urbanization and watershed protection. This class provides basic theory in landscape analysis and training methods for analyzing landscapes, focusing on interpretation of satellite images.

EEEB G4195. Marine Conservation Ecology. 4 pts. Instructor: Elisa Bone and Josh Drew. Pre-requisites: Environmental Biology 1 or equivalent; permission of instructor. Marine ecosystems are among the most threatened on the globe, and thus there is a pressing need to develop and implement effective conservation and management measures. Moreover, because marine environments differ in their physics, chemistry and biology, conservation in the marine realm is fundamentally different than in terrestrial habitats. This course is intended to educate students – as members of our global society – as to the basic principles of marine biology that are necessary to understand the most pressing environmental problems affecting the marine sphere. We will do this through providing overviews of physical and biological processes central to understanding marine ecology, examining the impacts of human activities on these processes and on marine environments and communities, and considering potential actions to mitigate or lessen the effects of these activities. More info here.

ANTH W4200 Fossil Evidence of Human Evolution 3 pts. R. Holloway. Prerequisites: EEEB V1010 or the equivalent, and the instructor's permission. Enrollment limited to 12 Intended for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students who are interested in paleoanthropology. Provides a closer look at what comprises the fossil evidence for human evolution from the australopithecines of 4 million years ago to the fully modern human species of 25,000 years ago. Involves hands-on examination of the departmental casts. Taught intermittently.

EEEB W4210. Herpetology. 4 pts. M. Palmer. Prerequisite: at least one course in introductory biology. The course explores the science of herpetology in three parts: 1) the evolution and ecology of amphibians and reptiles; 2) their physiological adaptations; and 3) requirements for conservation, management, policy and monitoring.

EEEB W4240y Animal Migration in Theory and Practice 3 pts. enrollment limit 25, field trips will be scheduled This course presents an overview of migration, from the selective pressures animals face in migrating to the mechanisms of navigation and orientation. We will explore migration in a variety of animal taxa. Bird migration will be studied in-depth, as birds exhibit some of the most spectacular long distance migrations and are the most well-studied of animal migrators. The challenges of global climate change and changing land use patterns, and how species are coping with them, will also be explored.

EEEB W4248. Introduction to Population Genetics. 3 pts. At its root, evolution can be described as changes in the genetic composition of populations and other higher order taxonomic grouping. The course traces the effects of individual and population phenomena on the processes of genetic change

EEEB G4250. Understanding Nature through Observation and Experiment. 3 pts. S. Naeem. Pre-requisites: statistics, core E3B grad courses or instructor's permission. An exploration of how contemporary scientific research in the natural sciences uses observation, experiment, and statistics to evaluate ecological and evolutionary theory.

EEEB G4260y Food, Ecology, and Globalization 3 pts. enrollment limited to 30 students E. Sterling, S. Akabas. Prerequisites: Instructor's permission This class examines the social, ecological, and political economic roles of what and how we eat from a global perspective.

EEEB G4280y Writing about global science for the international media 3 pts. This is an interdisciplinary workshop for scientists, future NGO workers and journalists seeking skills in communicating 21st century global science to the public. Scientists will be given journalism skills; journalists will learn how to use science as the basis of their story-telling.

EEEB W4321 Human Nature: DNA, Race and Identity. 4 pts. The course focuses on human identity, begining with the individual and progressing to communal and global viewpoints using a framework of perspectives from biology, genetics, medicine, psychiatry, religion and the law. W4321 evolved from a Columbia College Core Capstone course developed initially from a Ford Foundation grant to the Center for the Study of Science and Religion, and is cross-listed as well with the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race. As a graduate level course, it is open to interested seniors and graduate students including those from the Medical Center campus.

EEEB W4340 Human Adaptation 3pts.
This course explores human adaptation from a biological, ecological and evolutionary perspective. From our earliest hominin ancestors in Africa to our own species' subsequent dispersal throughout the world, our lineage has encountered innumerable environmental pressures. Using morphological, physiological and behavioral/cultural evidence, we will examine the responses to these pressures that helped shape our unique lineage and allowed it to adapt to a diverse array of environments.

EEEB W4601. Biological Systematics. 3 pts. TBA. Prerequisite: evolution or organismal survey course. Phylogenetic systematics, particularly the molecular and analytical aspects of phylogeny reconstruction. Theory of systematics, character evaluation, molecular data types, methods of phylogeny reconstruction, optimality criteria, tree evaluation and comparison, and use of phylogenies in comparative biology.

EEEB G4620. Food, Ecology and Globalization. 3pts. E. Sterling. This class examines the social, ecological, and political-economic roles of what and how we eat from a global perspective. Discussion will include how people across cultures derive identity through food gathering, preparation, and eating systems, as well as the relationships between culture and diversity of food systems.

EEEB G4645. Cultural and Biological Diversity. 3pts. E. Sterling. Prerequisite: instructor's permission. This course examines the articulation of biological, linguistic, and cultural diversity.

EEEB G4650. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes. 3pts. S. Naeem. Prerequisite: E3B courses in Ecology, Evolution, and/or Biodiversity or permission from the instructor. Survey of current advances in scientific research that focuses on the role biodiversity plays in governing ecological processes (e.g. biogeochemistry, resisting invasion by exotic species, or stabilizing communities) and ecosystem services (e.g. soil fertility, water quality, climate regulation).

EEEB W4660. Fish Biodiversity: Systematics and Evolution. 3 pts. M. Stiassny. Prerequisite: open to upper-level biology majors and graduate students. Enrollment limited to 15. Graduate students have priority, then undergraduates according to level of biology background. This taxon-based course will provide students with a broad overview and introduction to the biodiversity of fishes applying a phylogenetic approach and will investigate applications for fish conservation.

EEEB W4655y Biodiversity, Natural Resources and Conflict 3 pts. L. Douglas. Environmental programs worldwide are fraught with disputes between groups of people over natural resources. Such conflict can be highly complex, may undermine or deter environmental conservation efforts, and may even foster violence. These conflicts often involve disagreements between different human parties that are divided by culture, social values, and perceptions about the ethics and appropriatemess of how resources should be allocated or used. Combining specific case studies, ecological and social theory, and a complex systems approach, this course will enhance the proficiency of participants to understand, study, and manage natural resource-based conflicts. The course is designed for conservation scientists, environmental policymakers, rural development specialists, political ecologists, and conflict/peace workers.

EEEB W4666. Insect Diversity. 4 pts. D. Grimaldi. Enrollment limited to 25. Undergraduate environmental biology majors have priority. Prerequisite: upper-division undergraduate or graduate status. Introduction to phylogenetic relationships, evolution and ecology of the major groups of arthropods, with emphasis on insects. Lab: identification of common families of spiders and insects of the northeastern United States.

EEEB W4700. Race: The Tangled History of a Biological Concept. 4 pts. J. Shapiro. Enrollment limited to 15. From Aristotle to the Bell Curve, this course examines the history of race as a biological concept. We will explore the complex relationship between the scientific study of biological differences, real, imagined, or invented and the historical and cultural factors involved in the development and expression of "racial ideas."

EEEB W4789y Biogeography. 3 pts. J. Cracraft. Prerequisite: degree in biological sciences or instructor's permission. Detailed review of modern biogeography from both an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Island biogeography, speciation, extinction, centers of origin and dispersal, cladistic vicariance biogeography, endemism, environmental change, and earth history and conservation applications.

EEEB G4800. Teaching Conservation Biology. 3 pts. N. Degnan. Covers the diversity of ways in which conservation can be popularized or taught, the most effective ways and relevant theories of transmitting this information, and how to evaluate success by the educator. Students are expected to participate in an internship with the New York Botanical garden, the American Museum of Natural History, or Wildlife Conservation Society during the semester.

EEEB 4850. M.A. Thesis Development Seminar. 3 pts. M.A. Program Adviser. Incoming MA students aiming for the thesis-based program are guided through the process of defining a research question, finding an advisor and preparing a research proposal. By the end of the semester the students will have a written research proposal which will be submitted to potential advisors for revision. Subject to a positive review

EEEB W4910. Field Botany and Plant Systematics. 4 pts. M. Palmer. A survey of vascular plants with emphasis on features of greatest utility in identifying plants in the field to the family level. This will be coupled with a survey of the major plant communities of northeastern North America and the characteristic species found in each. The course will consist of one lecture and one laboratory per week with several lab sessions extended to accommodate field trips to local regional natural areas.

EEEB G4990. Ph.D. Thesis Development Seminar. 6 pts. M. Uriarte and D. Rubenstein. This course will help guide E3B Ph.D. students towards candidacy by teaching them the skills necessary to be effective and independent scientists. Students will conduct an extensive literature review, write a preliminary dissertation proposal, and present their research ideas to the group on multiple occasions. Students will learn how to give and receive constructive written and oral feedback on their work.

EEEB G5005. Introduction to Statistics for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. 3 pts. M. Palmer. Prerequisites: Some background in ecology, evolutionary biology, and/or statistics is recommended. An introduction to the theoretical principles and practical application of statistical methods in ecology and evolutionary biology. The course will cover the conceptual basis for a range of statistical techniques through a series of lectures using examples from the primary literature. The application of these techniques will be taught through the use of statistical software in computer-based laboratory sessions.

EEEB G5010. Statistical Modeling in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. 6 pts M. Uriarte. An exploration of data-based models as tools for inference in ecological research. Emphasis on the formulation and development of scientific models, modern statistical and computational methods for estimating model parameters, and evaluation of alternate models using strength of evidence. Laboratory exercises challenge students to apply these methods to real ecological data, including their own research. The course also explores the philosophical underpinnings of different statistical schools of thought including frequentist, likelihoodist, and Bayesian approaches.

EEEB G5022.Experimental Methods in Ecology 3 pts. E. Bone. Prerequisites: EEEB W2001 or equivalent Students in this course will gain a thorough understanding of the principles of sampling in ecological research, from the initiation of a research question, through to sampling procedures, analysis options and presentation and communication of research results. They will gain experience in experimental and survey design and implementation through participating in small research projects throughout the semester, done within the classroom, laboratory and local riparian, coastal and terrestrial field environments.

EEEB G6020. Fundamentals of GIS. 4 pts. Maximum: 15 students. Introduction for graduate students to the fundamentals of GIS, including its design and implementation. Students will learn about data structures, input, storage, analysis, and display. Laboratory exercises accompanying the lectures are designed to illustrate the applications of GIS in ecology and conservation research, as well as to provide hands-on experience with Arc/Info and ArcView GIS software.

EEEB G6040 Patterns and Processes of Biological Diversification 3 pts. Prerequisite: general ecology and evolution. Examines patterns of diversity on Earth and through the phanerozoic in terms of factors controlling rates of speciation and extinction.

EEEB G6110. Evolution. 3 pts. R. DeSalle, Prerequisite: Priority given to first-year students in EEB or Conservation Biology Certificate program. Lecture course covering principal topics of evolutionary biology from genetics, genome organization, population and quantitative genetics, the history of evolutionary theory, systematics, speciation and species concepts, co-evolution, and biogeography.

EEEB G6112x Ecology 3 pts. Lectures cover principle topics in behavioral, population, and community, and ecosystems ecology.

EEEB G6125. Behavioral Ecology and Conservation. 3pts. E. Sterling. Prerequisites: Prior coursework in Conservation Biology & Animal Behavior. Permission of instructor. An examination of theoretical & practical arguments for considering behavior patterns in attempts to conserve biodiversity.

EEEB G6130x Environmental Policy Workshop 3 pts. Enrollment limited to 15. Open only to students in the E3B Ph.D. program. Students work as members of small teams for selected clients (e.g. NGOs) on conservation policy topics. Presentation of findings at the culmination of the workshop directly to clients.

ANTH G6146. Human Evolution. 3 pts. R. Holloway. The fossil data bearing on human evolution, with a survey of other lines of evidence from archaeology, the neurological sciences, and evolutionary biology.

EEEB G6148. Primate Behavior. 3 pts. M. Cords. Broad coverage of the fundamentals and recent developments in the field of primate behavior. An evolutionary perspective in the study of behavior is stressed, but is not limited to questions of evolutionary function. Constraints on evolutionary design inherent in the causal mechanisms underlying behavior (e.g. limits on cognition).

EEEB G6150. Advances in Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology. 2 pts. This course will critically evaluate major scientific advances in ecology, evolution, and environmental biology based on primary literature in leading journals and symposia published in the last three years. The purpose of the course is to review contemporary advances in the natural sciences, evaluate the merits of these advances, explore their applications to current environmental problems, and identify future directions.

EEEB G6185y Measuring Biological Diversity 3 pts. Prerequisites: a graduate level ecology course. Enrollment limited to 15. The course presents an overview of the methods of community diversity calculation and estimation. Following a brief introduction to conducting biotic inventories, half of the time during the course will be hands-on work in a computer lab so students can gain experience collaboratively analyzing data.

EEEB G6200. Professionalism in Science. 1 pt. Instructor TBA. This seminar provides an introduction to important ethical, professional, and general methodological issues encountered by professionals in conservation biology and conservation policy.

EEEB G6260x-G6261y Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Latin America: The Scientific, Political and Regulatory Framework for the Andean Region 6 pts. enrollment limited to 20 students. A year long seminar focusing on the scientific, regulatory, and political (policy) context of climate change in the Andean Region. The seminar will take advantage of the technical-scientific information and socio-politcal initiatives that have emerged before, during and after the Kyoto Protocol. Students must commit to both semesters.

EEEB G6300. Research Methods Seminar. 1 pt. Faculty. Prerequisite: Degree in biological sciences. Graduate students in EEB program have priority. Seminar series includes lectures on methods and case studies of specific biological research projects; emphasis on evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Weekly lectures by Columbia faculty, researchers, students and guest speakers.

EEEB G6330. Conservation Psychology. 3 pts. This course introduces students to the human dimensions that influence conservation and how the scientific study of cognitive, affective and behavioral processes informs conservation strategies. Students will be introduced to the basic constructs informing conservation psychology and how to apply the framework to conservation challenges around the world.

EEEB G6400. Amazonia Seminar. 3 pts. M. Pinedo-Vásquez. Prerequisite: Preference given to graduate students in EEB or Anthropology. The assumptions upon which community-based conservation and development projects are based, their successes and shortcomings within the context of history and the environment. Experienced guest lecturers.

EEEB G6440. Special Topics in Animal Social Behavior. 3 pts. M. Cords. Seminar on animal social behavior with emphasis on detailed, critical readings of recent literature. Topics Change year to year.

EEEB G6445. Research Methods in Animal Behavior. 3 pts. M. Cords. How to formulate research hypotheses, choose a design, and collect, analyze and present data. Students undertake individual projects on zoo or park animals.

EEEB G6900y Case Studies In Conservation Genetics 3 pts. Prerequisites: Introductory course in conservation biology. Instructor's approval required for non-EEEB majors. Examines a series of issues in conservation biology where the science of extinction affects our views of the problem, and the choice society makes.

EEEB G6905. Graduate Seminar in Conservation Biology. 3pts. E. Sterling, J. Ginsburg. Prerequisites: Biology, Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution. This course is an introduction to the applied science of maintaining the earth's biological diversity, its landscapes, and wilderness. The course will focus on the biological principles relevant to biodiversity conservation at the genetic, population, and community and landscape levels.  

EEEB G6990. Topics in Conservation Biology. 3pts. J. Ginsberg, E. Sterling. Prerequisite: Introductory course in Conservation Biology. This course examines a series of issues in conservation biology where the science of extinction affects our views of the problem, and the choice society makes.

ANTH G9103. Research in Physical Anthropology. 3 to 9 pts. Faculty. Prerequisite: the instructor's permission. Individual research and tutorial in physical anthropology for advanced graduate students.

EEEB G9501, G9502, G9503. Directed Research. 3-6 pts. Faculty. Prerequisite: One graduate semester completed. Research opportunities for graduate students: experimental design, development of tests for specific hypotheses, acquisition of new techniques, analysis of data, interpretation and discussion of results.

EEEB G9509. Directed Readings. 1-3 pts. Faculty. Prerequisite: for EEB graduate students only. Supervised directed readings and literature review in areas relevant to a student's research program.