Arms of the State: Administering Control in China and Japan

Discussant: Nicole Kwoh, Columbia University
Friday, 1:00 PM   403 Kent Hall

Lei Duan, Syracuse University

Arming the Chinese: Foreign Guns and Chinese Society (1860s-1920s)
Personal weapon ownership was surprisingly common in late 19th and early 20th century China, when many civilians became owners of foreign guns. Foreign guns or yangqiang, which were vastly superior to the traditional Chinese fowling gun (niaoqiang), constituted one of the greatest threats to public safety. My project examines the gun, as the weapon of the individual, seeking to understand its sociocultural implications during the late Qing and early Republic. It demonstrates that gun ownership both contributed to persistent social unrest, but also changed Chinese culture. Starting in the mid-19th century, the foreign arms firms faced slumping domestic sales, and saw China as a potential new market. Sales representatives from America, British, Germany, and Japan came to China in large numbers to sell their wares. The importation of foreign guns spurred the emergence of Chinese munitions merchants, who served as intermediaries between foreign arms firms and their Chinese clients. A mutually dependent relationship was established among foreign arms firms, munitions merchants, and government officials, who cooperated to facilitate foreign guns’ circulation in Chinese society. The arms trade of this period suggests China was a participant in the global economic and political market and a globalization was already at work. The relative popularity of foreign guns in Chinese society also provoked cultural responses. In the early 20th century, these arms firms started targeting adult men as their market. Some tabloid newspapers, in both their advertisements and texts, promoted owning foreign guns as key to becoming strong and aggressive, a crucial part of male nature. Among some intellectuals, too, the gun became a symbol of power and masculinity. In many martial arts books, the images of traditional kungfu exponents were displaced by those of new heroes with foreign guns.

Ryan Glasnovich, Harvard University

Professionalism and the Edo Police
While the figure of the police officer permeates popular culture, depictions of police prior to the modern era are rarely seen. This is undoubtedly due in part to the long held view that professional police forces did not appear until the advent of the industrial era. However, there has been a historiographical shift in recent years. This has led to a new evaluation of police forces in cities during the early modern period. While the geographical scope of this trend is broad, a notable lacuna in the scholarship appears when examining the case of Japan. During the early modern period Japan was one of the most heavily urbanized regions of the world, with the shogun's de facto capital of Edo exceeding one million people by 1700. Depictions of police from the Edo period (1600-1868) abound, and they have been some of the most enduring figures from that period in Japanese popular culture. Despite this, the topic of policing in Japanese cities during the Edo period has not been well represented in English language scholarship. In this paper I will show that contrary to commonly held assumptions, a professionalized police force did exist in Edo. Furthermore, I will demonstrate that this police force was a professional organization, bureaucratically structured along hierarchical lines, and existing for the purpose of keeping order in the city of Edo. Recognizing that the Edo police were professional allows us to place them into the broader trend of police professionalization during the early modern period.

E. John Gregory, Georgetown University

A Brief Consideration of “Military Law” during the Qing Dynasty
As China scholar Robin D.S. Yates has noted “even though more and more attention is being paid to the rich legal heritage of the Chinese, surprisingly little attention has been paid to military aspects of the law by legal historians of China.” This paper briefly explores the question of whether it is proper to speak at all of “military law” as a meaningful category of law during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)? If “military law” is sufficiently distinct, what was it, and precisely how should this category be delineated? What were its origins and where can it be found? What insights into the many violent episodes during Qing history might an awareness of such law yield? What do the numerous recorded and seemingly lawless spasms of violence during and after battles and sieges – massive executions of prisoners, looting, raping, arson, torture – suggest about the efficacy or influence of military law? As a first step towards addressing these questions, this paper reviews the current Chinese-language historiography of Qing “military law” (no such historiography exists in English) and then proposes a category of military law as a subcategory of Qing law, composed primarily of statutory law but also delineated by certain aspects of military legal practice. The paper will also provide a few case examples across time to demonstrate how military law may have both influenced and reflected the contemporary socio-economic environment.

Alan Babounis, Yale University

Standardizing the Bods
Chinese martial arts are a imbued with dense symbolic meaning and cultural capital. They are used to represent Chinese nationality, vitality, masculinity, martiality, elegance, and even sophistication. From chop-socky kung fu movies to Olympic opening ceremonies, from tourism at Shaolin temple to spotlight events in the Asian Games, wushu is a formative public face of Chinese physical culture. The meanings associated with wushu have been dramatically shifting for the past century. What are they now, and how have they come about? How have people, institutions, and the Chinese state itself been involved in a negotiation of how wushu is practiced, what it means, and what its future should be? The practice and presentation of wushu have been carefully manipulated by the Chinese state. Central bureaus of the CCP have strongly guided the character of its current popular identity; performatively enthralling, but practically dismissable. How has the bureaucratic attempt to centralize, institutionalize, and sportize wushu created a dichotomized sphere of traditionalists and modernists? How are alignments within these polarities charged with political meaning, reflective of thinking about individual-state and culture-state relationships?

Between Art and Text: Culture in Transit

Discussant: Lin Hsin-Yi, Columbia University
Friday, 1:00 PM   522D Kent Hall

Mariachiara Gasparini, Heidelberg University

Digitization and De-codification of the Turfan Textile Collection in Berlin: A Few Case Studies
The unpublished textile collection in the Asian Art Museum of Berlin, gathered in Turfan by the Prussian Royal Turfan expeditions before the First World War, allows us to de-code a ‘textile imagery’ that developed between the 6th and the 14th centuries and spread from Central Asia to Europe.Particularly productive in terms of artistic expression were cultural encounters occurred between the 6th and the 10th centuries in an area conventionally called 'Sogdian-Turfanese'. These constituted an artistic matrix from which eastward and westward similar fabrics were woven, developed and transmitted. In the following centuries some patterns and compositions were reproduced in new luxurious ‘grounds’ that reached Europe. I will base the de-codification of Northern Silk Road textile imagery on modern museological and fashion design-related techniques, such as microscopic photo-shots and digital reconstructions, applying the current international textile colour system in order to reconstruct original colour palettes. I will critically reconsider written and visual sources of material life to understand ritual, social, and trade aspects incorporated by these rare relicts. My study necessitates an interdisciplinary and methodologically broadened scope of art history that incorporates various expertises: from archaeology to (digital) image sciences, from anthropology to Asian languages and questions of cultural economy. Analysing the transcultural production and textile circulation along the Silk Road I will in turn contribute to existing findings in these disciplines and foster a ‘global’ perspective.

Eiren Shea, University of Pennsylvania

Cultural Expressions of Power in the Liao Dynasty (c. 907-1125)
The Khitan people, who ruled northern parts of present-day China from c. 907-1125 under the Liao dynasty, were the first nomadic group to conquer a large portion of China in the post-Tang (618-907) period. The Jurchen (Jin dynasty) and the Mongols (Yuan dynasty) would succeed the Liao, and would adopt a number of cultural and administrative techniques employed by the Liao in their rule over Han Chinese populations. Indeed, one of the most intriguing aspects of the Liao was their integration of seemingly disparate cultural customs; one clear example of this is seen in their burial practices. Often apparently devout Buddhists, the Liao nonetheless assimilated Buddhist ritual with a number of non-Buddhist practices including preservation the body of the deceased in some form, something totally contradictory to Buddhist burial practice and belief. In this paper, I wish to examine the ways that Liao integrated certain Chinese cultural customs with nomadic traditions to assert and consolidate power in northern China. I will study this cultural phenomenon specifically through an investigation of dress and textiles, burial rituals, and the role of women in the Liao dynasty. Through this study, I hope to not only to reach a more profound understanding of the Liao in general, but also to clarify their exemplary role to the Jurchen and Mongols.

Fan Zhang, New York University

From the Hu Yue 胡乐 to the Chinese Tomb: the Biography of the Pilgrim Flask of the Northern Dynasty
Inspired by the conception of “the Social Life of Things” proposed by Appaduari, this paper tries to compose a biography of the pilgrim flask, an exotic ceramic vessel in medieval China. By tracing its origin to the more mobile materiality of metal and feather, I verify that the pilgrim flask has a “western linage” from the very beginning, which is also illustrated by its exotic iconography of Central Asian musicians and dancers on the surface. After examining the popularity of Hu Yue based on both textual and visual materials and the reason for its appearance in tombs, I further discuss about the production of pilgrim flasks incorporating more archaeological findings from the kiln of Xing 邢. Lastly, I compare two groups of pilgrim flasks probably from different regions and argue that the subtle difference demonstrates the local understanding of foreign imageries. Rather than view the pilgrim flask as an inanimate object, I accord agency to this small artifact, arranging users, tomb occupants, artisans and historical phenomenon around it and making itself the means to bridge the temporal and spatial gap between China and Central Asia, between production and consumption, and between this life and that after.

Wenyi Huang, McGill University

Border Crossers and Aristocrats: Sima Family in the Norther Wei Dynasty
While most historians characterize the politics of early medieval China as “the politics of aristocrats” and thus micro-historical approach has been used to analyze each great family of the era, there is still little understanding of how border crossers secured their social position in foreign lands and laid the foundations for the prosperity of their offspring. Drawing on standard histories and epigraphy, my study examines the case of one particular family, Sima family of Henei, with a focus on their marriage circle and family cemetery. This family is notable in that they were descendants of the imperial house of the Jin regime (265-420). However, after the Eastern Jin (317-420) was replaced by the Liu Song regime (420-479), some members of Sima family fled to the Northern Wei court for seeking political asylum, and eventually rose and became one of powerful families. The Sima family, especially the offspring of Sima Chuzi (390-464), married almost exclusively into the imperial family of the Northern Wei. Moreover, after the capital was moved to Loyang, some Sima members chose to be buried in Wen County, Henei Commandary, their hometown before the southward flight of the Jin court. I argue these two decisions reflect the challenges that the Sima family faced in rebuilding their great families. This study not only brings attention to several neglected aspects of border crossers’ lives in early medieval China, but also offers a new perspective from which to understand powerful families during this period.

Crafting and Consuming the Body in Contemporary Japan

Discussant: Yumi Kim, Columbia University
Friday, 1:00 PM   411 Kent Hall

Seong Un Kim, University of Chicago

Untamed Bodies: Vulgarity and Grotesquery in the Early Japanese Television (1953-1973)
Scholars have concluded that the introduction of the television to Japan in 1953 was possible due to a strong support of the U.S. Cold War international policy which emphasized the need to spread television culture to some of the strategic regions in order to disseminate key values of American liberal democracy. Therefore, for the Japanese television pioneers and the Japanese government who had enthusiastically responded to this call, keeping Japanese television as a Cold War medium was a crucial task throughout the post-occupation period. However, this task proved to be a tall order in the face of the rapid growth of Japanese television broadcasting in the late 1950s and 1960s. At first, the progressive journalism found television a powerful medium to express oppositional voices to the government’s alignment with the Cold War regime and repressive domestic policies. At the same time, commercial television stations’ pursuit of high ratings proved problematic when they produced “vulgar” entertainment shows featuring crazily dancing bodies or striptease. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, heated debates on how to “clean up” those “vulgar programs,” and thus to create a “desirable” television broadcasting took place among various groups of people with their own social interests. In this paper, inspired by recent scholarship that has placed postwar Japanese culture in the context of the Cold War world order, I will ask how untamed bodies in the “vulgar” television shows were seen as a serious menace to the postwar social order in the high Cold War, and how the seemingly nonsensical television shows were able to create powerful social discourses in the face of the government’s desire to discipline bodies presented on television screens.

Elizabeth Miles, Yale University

Thinking Pornography: Heterosexual Masculinity and Consumable Sex in Contemporary Japan
What is the current sexual culture in Japan and how are young Japanese men embracing, rejecting, and/or negotiating with contemporary understandings of the place of sex in the postmainstream? As manhood and the ability to express one’s masculinity are increasingly decoupled from the “traditional” spheres of home and company/work, men are seeking new ways of expressing their masculinity that is in turn deeply implicated with their sexual subjectivity. While falling birthrates (shōshika) and the postponement of marriage (bankonka) are representative of “reproduction panics” in contemporary Japan, there is little research on the effects of the long-term recession and socioeconomic reconstruction on men’s sexual subjectivities. From recent ethnographic research it has become clear that pornography plays a profound part in shaping Japan’s sexual landscape, both at the inter- and intrapersonal levels. Pornography is neither simply a passively perused pleasure nor the unchallenged embodiment of an inherently violent androarchal sexuality, but a conduit into heteronormative male society and an actively consumed source of negotiation for the ongoing creation of a sexual self. According to several informants, the result is that sex is now viewed as “dirty” (iyarashiimono) and is believed to contribute to the number of sexless marriages and the rise of “herbivorous men” (sōshoku danshi) who eschew sexual relationships with women. Taking seriously the potential importance of pornography, my aim is to understand how young Japanese men—through their consumption of, and negotiation with, this popular medium—are articulating their masculinity and their sexuality in a period of intense social and economic change.

Emilie Takayama, Northwestern University

Modernizing Japanese Bodies: A History of Aesthetic Surgery in Modern Japan, 1868-1926
The current paper examines the history of aesthetic surgery in Japan from 1868 to 1926 by tracing the origins, diffusion and institutionalization of the practice. The focus is on the interaction between the first generation of Japanese aesthetic surgeons, who actively sought to legitimize their practice among a population that held taboos against invasive surgical procedures, and the new rising middle-class, who sought ways to enhance their status within a rapidly modernizing Japanese society. I show that aesthetic surgeons acted as institutional entrepreneurs who catalyze societal change by designating new social issues, altering state policies, establishing new standards and ultimately reorganizing the everyday lives of ordinary people. By capitalizing on the government’s drive for bunmei kaika (civilization and enlightenment), the surgeons designated certain physical markers, which were considered perfectly normal under traditional standards, to the status of cultural deficiency and intellectual inferiority and legitimized these new standards based on the authority of Western medical science. The new middle-class, in turn, accommodated these new standards and embraced corporeal enhancement through invasive surgery as a way to advance their status in the new social order. In short, under the new rubric of commodity capitalism and bourgeois culture, the two sides interacted in a symbiotic way to institutionalize aesthetic surgery and the accompanying discourse on body ideals.

Healing, Protest, and Death in Choson Korea

Discussant: Sunhui Yi, Columbia University
Friday, 1:00 PM   413 Kent Hall

James Flowers, Johns Hopkins University

Chosun Medical Records: Documenting Institutionalized Medicine in the Korean Palace Medical Bureau
Court Doctors and selected elite healers both inside and outside the Palace Medical Bureau of the Chosun Dynasty (1392-1897), still located in present-day Seoul, left detailed records of the medicine they practiced. The records from 1623 onwards are remarkably largely intact. In this paper I set the context for this detailed documentation, showing that the Palace Medical Bureau, the nerve centre of court medicine for the royal family, also acted as an activist arm of the state. In this way it also functioned beyond medical concerns to project the authority of a benevolent state imbued with moral virtue. Originally located in the Daily Records of the Palace Secretariat (1623-1910) the medical records describe a range of doctors and patients. Prominent among the patients recorded are kings, some of whom took a deep interest in medicine and who made the final decision on their own therapy. The palace doctors were typically cognisant of the medicine of Ming China together with Neo-Confucian precepts. Rather than reading the records literally, I read the case records as a strategy to negotiate the tension between Chosun’s status as a suzerain state and a desire to maintain independent knowledge and practice. Examining the Chosun records requires analysis in the context of Chosun’s place within the North- East Asian region of the late imperial period. The Chosun Palace Medical Bureau, rather than simply being a dimmer peripheral reflection of the Qing Imperial Palace at the centre of power, acted autonomously as an activist institution in its implementation of medical ideas.

Matthew Lauer, University of California, Los Angeles

Grave Disturbance in Namwŏn: Social Mediation in Late Chosŏn Society
If classical political histories of the sort produced by the Chosŏn Royal House (á la the Veritable Records) have failed to provide historians of pre-modern Korea with material well-suited for the development of local histories, the expanding reservoir of Komunsŏ (Chosŏn-era documents detailing concrete social interactions, often on the level of everyday life) have provided a useful antidote. Armed with these new insights into the praxeological environment of Chosŏn society, our ability to approach Korean history from an alltagsgeschichte framework greatly increases. One particularly prevalent form of social contestation from the late Chosŏn period (for which many relevant komunsŏ are extant) is that of court disputes over grave desecration. This paper, focusing on a selection of cases taken from the city of Namwŏn in Chŏlla Province between the late 18th and late 19th centuries, investigates how graves functioned as mediators of structural insecurity and mines the relevant court petitions for insight into how the parties involved perceived of their own positionality in society.

John S. Lee, Harvard University

Farming out the military: The rise and fall of the agricultural garrison system in late Chosŏn Korea, 1637-1894
This paper explores how the Korean military sustained agricultural garrisons known as tunjŏn 屯田, yangjŏn 養田, and kunjajŏn 軍資田 during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and examines why a series of social and institutional changes would later undermine the agricultural garrison system. From 1637, Chosŏn Korea entered two centuries of international peace that would last until the nineteenth century. Accordingly, as a cost-cutting measure, the central government allowed the military to directly collect tribute products and taxes from designated agricultural garrisons. Their subsequent establishment reflected two salient late Chosŏn trends: the increasing commercialization of the economy and the expansion of self-sufficient government institutions. Open pastures were converted into military ranches; communal woodlands were enclosed and cultivated specifically for timber; coastal areas were reclaimed to grow rice or produce salt. Local vagrants and landless peasants were allowed to work on the agricultural garrisons as long as they surrendered a share of their produce to the military. Using Chosŏn-era government records, I argue that the agricultural garrison system prospered in the specific institutional climate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the Chosŏn government sought to farm out and localize its costs of governance. However, such policies were not without a price: by the nineteenth century, agricultural garrisons were beset by corruption, tax resistance, and declining productivity. The ensuing demise of the agricultural garrisons thus marked the end of Korea’s early modern military system, one that was sustained – and rendered vulnerable – by its own financial autonomy.

Nation and Identity in Modern East Asian Literature

Discussant: Gal Gvili, Columbia University
Friday, 1:00 PM   628 Kent Hall

Shu-Wen Tang, National Chengchi University

Literary Testimony, Collective Memory and Cultural Trauma in Taiwanese White Terror Literature
Departing from the theory of trauma and its translatability from one culture to another, this paper inspects the fictional representations of traumatic symptom and collective memory in the works by writers-witnesses during the age of White Terror in Taiwan, and how these texts were, reflexively, involved in the social formation of collective memory/trauma. The investigation of the postwar White Terror has its specificity in terms of one single nation, but is also embedded in the universal twentieth-century traumatic experiences for the humanity. Instead of using Taiwanese literary and cultural contexts as an example to reaffirm or contest post-Auschwitz literary testimony, this paper intends, through an alternative approach, to imagine the possibility of a theory of cultural trauma for the history of White Terror. It focuses on the specific relations between visuality and violence that oscillate between the sublimation of “witness” in the postwar West and the traumatization of the Lu Xun-esque “onlooker” (kanke) in China. Then, it focuses on two common narrative modes in the White Terror writings – i.e. the “doctor-patient narrative” and the “shortage narrative” – to illustrate that the focus of enigmatic narrative, as a subgenre representing collective trauma, is not so much witness as the loss of it. These novels testify not to the content of collective memory, but rather the state of collective amnesia. Finally, through the intervention of cultural trauma theory, I attempt to point out the possible role and effect of literary narrative in terms of the social processes from trauma to cultural trauma.

Zhao Wei, Cornell University

Ch’iu Hai-t’ang: A Win-Win Narrative Strategy Survived in Semi-Colonial Shanghai
This paper tries to focus on the gender, sexual relationship and political morality present in popular cultural politics of semi-colonial Shanghai during early 1940’s. Through analysis one of the most prevail literary texture, Ch’iu Hai-‘tang(Begonia, Qiu Haitang), I seek to explain what narrative strategy the colonized residents used in popular cultural industry to imaged themselves. On one hand, the producer successfully captured the ‘occupied subjects’ imagination by developed two typical sexual relationships in this texture, which symbolized a certain typical colonized situation that existed in residents’ real life. On the other hand, the readers/viewers also expressed their political position and reconstruct their ideal ‘nation temperament’ in the process of accepting, and ultimately maintain a better resistant to the military occupation and cultural control.

Justin (Jack) Robert Wilson, University of California, Los Angeles

Now I don't Live Anywhere: Death, Subjectivity, and Nation in the Poetry of Tamura Ryūichi
For cultural producers working in the early postwar period, material devastation wrought a crisis of representation, as the traumas of the recent past and present seemed to defy all comprehension. Like many writers and critics working in this moment, poet Tamura Ryūichi saw the period of Japanese colonialism and fascism as mired in aesthetic abstraction, instantiated by the godly body of the emperor, which he described as having “scars like flowers.” Further, Tamura’s early works suggest that any attempt to construct a narrative is already irrevocably shot through with violence, and in the moment of early postwar, necessarily relied upon the occlusion of other less palatable truths that comprised Japan’s recent past. To combat this erasure, Tamura (and the Arechi poetry group of which he was a member) positioned themselves as poetic interlocutors for the dead who, in their view, held the only authentic claim to an experience of the war. This paper examines the poetic subjectivity that emerges in Tamura's forceful works. Building upon existing scholarship, I argue that Tamura’s impossible speaker, what I term the corpse-qua-subject, functioned to reject the efficacy of any national narrative at the same time that it foregrounded the political impotence of prewar Japanese cultural productions’ valorized "I-form" by claiming "the Emperor is me." In so doing, I articulate a preliminary theory of Tamura’s works that positions poetic praxis within the inherent contradiction of narrative rejection and cultural production as a social act.

“A Glorious Place on the Altar”: Perspectives on Literature in Meiji and Taishō Japan

Discussant: Pau Pitarch, Columbia University
Friday, 2:45 PM   511 Kent Hall

Miyabi Goto, Princeton University

Differentiation and Appropriation: Positioning "Bungaku" in Jinsei Sosho Ronso
This paper delves into the literary manifestation of the ideas of “bungaku” (literature) in jinsei sōshō ronsō (the What-Intersects-with-Life Debate), which took place between Kitamura Tōkoku and Yamaji Aizan in 1893. Although these two figures mobilize the same term “bungaku,” they clearly have different registers for that signifier. Tōkoku's “bungaku” resists and severs itself from Aizan's, which gestures that Tōkoku believes that his “bungaku” has to be singled out precisely because there has not been a clear distinction appointed to the differences inherent in their “bungaku.” Representations of the differences have been absent in the discourses around “bungaku” so far. By emphasizing the absence, Tōkoku's writings foreground his urge to differentiate his “bungaku” as “junbungaku” (pure literature, belles-lettres), which is independent of Aizan's understanding of “bungaku” as historiographical texts. The Debate with Aizan, in a sense, is a great opportunity for Tōkoku to focalize the differences and to elevate his own ideas of what “bungaku” entails. As such, Tōkoku's writings are distinct in that they create the very space of “bungaku” by positing and representing it textually. Manipulation of representations for the purpose of securing the boundary of “bungaku” is clearly in motion. Close examination of his words and rhetoric reveals what enables his “bungaku” to emerge. The Debate, occurring in the Meiji 26, marks the shifting dynamics surrounding “bungaku” at that time.

Rachel Staum, Columbia University

Schoolgirls and Housewives in the Domestic Writing of Shimizu Shikin
Jogaku zasshi was a Meiji-era women's magazine with a varied mission and a diverse readership; it featured fiction as well as editorials, and was aimed at schoolgirls, housewives, and intellectuals in general. Shimizu Shikin, best known today as a writer of fiction, was for a time an editor at Jogaku zasshi, and produced a great volume of essays within its pages dedicated to the mundane topics of daily life. I will examine the the connection between the domestic sphere and women's education in her domestic essays, fiction, and politics, and compare Shikin's view of domesticity to the Meiji discourse of home and the family, with a particular focus on the writing of Iwamoto Yoshiharu, Jogaku zasshi's founder and an advocate of women's education. While Iwamoto justifies women's education by arguing that educated women make better wives, underpinning Shikin's domestic writing and exhortations to proper housewifely duty is the sense that education and progress for women merit the sacrifice of becoming the Meiji ideal of the good wife, wise mother.

Tyler Walker, Columbia University

“By the People, of the People, and for the People:” Ōsugi Sakae and the Conceptualization of "People's Art" in Taishō Japan
In late-1912, just over two months after the Taishō emperor’s ascent to the throne, the journal Kindai shisō began publication in Tōkyō. Powered by the restless creativity of Ōsugi Sakae (1885-1923), the new monthly would serve as a forum for radical political theory and literature. At twenty-seven, Ōsugi had already distinguished himself as an activist and essayist, but the rise and fall of Kindai shisō would constitute a decisive passage in his career. As many on the Japanese left began to consider a tactical withdrawal under escalating pressure from the authorities, Ōsugi deepened his commitment to individualist anarchism, and the pages of Kindai shisō became a forum for debate between Ōsugi and the growing number of voices urging caution. By late-1914 and the end of the journal’s first run, he would find himself on the brink of self-imposed exile from the mainstream left. Ōsugi’s isolation from the Japanese intellectual community would nevertheless contribute to perhaps his most significant work: a theory of people’s art (minshū geijutsu ron) that privileged the worker (heimin rōdōsha) at the intellectual’s expense. His post-Kindai shisō ideas, formulated—somewhat paradoxically—in dialogue with the work of prominent Western intellectuals, represent an important facet of Taishō discourse on art’s relationship to the people. This paper traces the increasingly radical trajectory of Ōsugi’s remarkable career from the rise of Kindai Shisō to the combative, anti-intellectual stance that he adopted following its demise.

Aesthetics and Esoterics in Pre-Modern China

Discussant: Noga Ganany, Columbia University
Friday, 2:45 PM   522D Kent Hall

Censhi Dong, Peking University

Outsider of Neo-Confucianism in the Early-Thirteenth Century: Li Bi and his Revised Annotation on the Poems of Wang Anshi
This paper examines several specific commentaries on the poems of Wang Anshi in the early-thirteenth century and the implications of those commentaries for the spread of Neo-Confucianism and the print culture in Southern Song. Li Bi 李壁 (1159-1222) published the first edition of Annotation on the Poems of Wang Anshi in 1214. The two revised editions, which contained Supplementary Annotation and Additional Annotation, were printed in 1220s and in 1230 after his death. During the process of revision, Li Bi quickly responded to some newly available materials, including the earliest edition of Zhuzi Yulu compiled by Li Daochuan in 1215 in Chizhou, in an eye of hunting, while the mechanical way Li Bi wove the Neo-Confucians’ words into Wang Anshi’s poems as well as his literary criticism wasn’t in full accordance with that of the Neo-Confucians. By exploring Li Bi’s life experience and self-identification, this paper argues that Li Bi was still an outsider rather than an insider of Neo-Confucianism, although he kept a close relationship with Zhu Xi. This provides a glimpse of how individual brought the poems of diverged thought into line with the prevailing philosophical ideas, while he himself wasn’t a disciple of the school. It demonstrated that the influence of Neo-Confucianism was complicated, especially in the early-thirteenth century. Finally, the paper moves to the increased book availability and print culture in Southern Song, which on one hand enabled Li Bi’s access to Neo-Confucianism, and on the other hand resulted in his interwoven compilation.

Evan Nicoll Johnson, University of California, Los Angeles

The Strange Library: Anomaly account collection and bibliography in Xiao Yi’s Jinlouzi
The Liang dynasty text, Jinlouzi, by Xiao Yi (508-554, r. 552-554) includes a chapter entitled “Zhiguai” (“Recording the Strange”), representing Xiao Yi’s foray into the tradition of gathering and arranging anomaly accounts. The chapter’s contents are book-ended by two passages of unusually refined, densely allusive parallel prose. This study analyzes the contents of these passages in relation to the chapter’s contents, which are drawn largely from preexisting textual sources. I show that the chapter is an attempt to characterize anomaly account collection as a legitimate form of textual scholarship, with its own lineage of texts and writers, and its own place in the vast knowledge production enterprise of the early medieval period. Other aspects of the Jinlouzi reveal that Xiao Yi was deeply concerned with the acquisition and management of texts, the most notable example being its catalogs of books he collected and composed. Though the Jinlouzi is in some ways similar to much earlier miscellanies like Huainanzi, this reading of the text’s bibliographic aspects suggest that Jinlouzi should be considered alongside other writing produced within Xiao Yi’s own intellectual community—a spectrum of texts that includes other zhiguai collections, ambitious lei shu encyclopedias, and monumental literary anthologies such as Wen xuan. Though less influential in later times, Xiao Yi’s unique scholarly method deserves further attention, as it allows for deeper understanding of medieval approaches to the management and production of knowledge, clarifying the role of the anomaly account collection within the particular historical context in which it flourished.

Shijia Nie, University of Oregon

Appreciation (Qingshang) Culture in the Late Ming China
The Hangzhounese Gao Lian's Eight Discourses on the art of living and the Suzhouness Wen Zhenheng's Treaties on Superfluous Things, both written at the Wanli period and regarded as the representatives of the highest standard of the aesthetics of material life, had a shared value system in the appreciation of material objects concerning various aspects of the elites’ daily life in the late Ming. Based on a substantial study of the scholar-merchants concerning their self-identification, the formation of the concept of “antiquity”, and the family cultural background and life experience of Gao and Wen, how “taste” is defined and evaluated in these two books are closely examined. The term “antiquity” fully developed as the main value of elite appreciation culture. How real antiques and their imitation were evaluated by the contemporary feeling of the ancient time, how traditional monochrome colors of jade and ceramics were valued according to ancient classics while polychrome porcelains were judged as anti literati idiosyncrasy, how this evaluation of color was applied to textiles, and etc. are given detailed interpretations. Gao and Wen’s discourse on the differentiations between the hunter and the appreciator in connoisseurship are based on the value revealed in these judgments. The appreciation (Qingshang) culture in late Ming represented by these two books are a rethinking of the lasting values from tradition, which reflected the elites’ thought on the interaction between literati culture and material culture.

Ding Wang and Zhitian Pei, Peking University

An Analysis of “Fa”(“法”) in the Theory of Chinese Traditional Literati Painting
“Fa”(“法”)is an important concept in traditional Chinese artistic theory, especially in the theory of Chinese traditional literati painting. The Chinese traditional literati painting is famous to people for its abandoning regular “Fa” at first, and then its own “Fa” grows, with which the reflection on “Fa” goes much further. In stead of displaying different views on “Fa” chronologically in this paper, I will first focus on the process that “Fa” in Chinese literati painting theory gradually arise and becomes a very significant concept. Then I will analyze the status of “Fa” in literati painting theory, and what problems the theorists are faced with, which could help us see through the nature of the literati painting and the main difference between the southern and northern sect (南北宗). “Fa” surely is a concept that is difficult to ignore, the literati painting, however, values more the mind and thought of the painter, and that is some standard that most of Chinese art shares. By the analysis of “Fa” in the theory of Chinese traditional literati painting, we may know better about the special features of Chinese traditional literature and art theory.

Buddhist Spaces, Foreign Bodies

Discussant: Elizabeth Tinsley, Columbia University
Friday, 2:45 PM   411 Kent Hall

Huijun Mai, Harvard University

Encounters of Foreign Worlds: the Travel Narratives of Buddhist Monk Faxian, Franciscan Missionary William of Rubruck and Muslim Voyager Ma Huan
Situated in three distinctive temporal, cultural, religious and political contexts, Faxian法顯, William of Rubruck and Ma Huan馬歡undertook journeys to foreign worlds with different frame of reference, and for very different purposes. In the journeys, they encountered alien peoples, animals and cultures. On the one hand, they tried to make sense of such foreign phenomena by referring to their own cultural, religious and knowledge backgrounds; on the other, the foreign experiences in turn became the context of their perceptions of home countries. This essay deals with three travel narratives across time and space: 1) a fifth century Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian’s Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms 佛國記 written during his journey to India in search of complete copy of vinaya-pitaka; 2) a thirteenth century travel narrative in the form of a letter addressed to King Louis IX of France, by Friar William of Rubruck, a Flemish Franciscan missionary who set out from Constantinople on a missionary journey to convert the Mongols to Christianity; 3) a fifteenth century travelogue, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores 瀛涯勝覽by Ma Huan, a Muslim voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He 鄭和 on three of his seven expeditions on treasure fleet to the Western Oceans. Through close reading and comparing their travel narratives in specific details such as exchange of gifts, attitudes towards foreigners and perceptions of their own images in foreign eyes, this essay observes that the foreign world(s), in Rubruck’s eyes was a hostile “other”, in Ma Huan’s perception were friendly, submissive parts of the “self” (the Central Country); whereas in Fa Xian's account, the relative position of homeland as the central and foreign lands as the peripheral has been completely turned around. This essay explores through textual evidence the underlying tension between contextualized and periodized individuals and their foreign encounters.

Martha Schulz, University of Bonn

Beyond Borders: the Concept of Re-use on Buddhist Caves
The cultural exchange in Asia and along the Silk Road with the many entwined cultures along its path, are prominent for the transmission of goods. Yet, especially it is well-known for bringing silk from the East to the West during the second century CE. In this regard, the context of transcultural exchange within Asia itself and the encounters among its regions, such as India, Central Asia and China are interconnected within history. Against this background, my paper focuses on Buddhist caves that are 'indigenous' in India and have become a product of transmission like Buddhism itself to the Eastern world. While the Buddhist cave represents a structure from one culture, it is now found within a different framework of society, movement and region. How has the transmission of these structures taken place? Do they in anyway change in function and form? At the present day these caves structures represent world heritage, but have we ever reconsidered their legacy? My paper intends to analyze cave structures that originate in India, yet can be found in Central Asia and East Asia, as they intertwine with form and functions of local cultures and regions. One issue of discussion concentrates on the similarities between the Bamiyan Buddhas and the monumental sculptures in China. Moreover, it examines the existence of Buddhist caves in Korea and Japan.

Tommy Tran, University of California, Los Angeles

Locating the "Pure Land": Articulating Buddhist Space and Heritage on Cheju Island
The reconfiguring of Cheju as a sacred space in local interpretations of Buddhist cosmology is concurrent with islanders' responses to their increased integration, voluntary or otherwise, with the Korean peninsula Amidst the rise of tourism development and the rapid integration of the formerly marginal Cheju society into the larger modern South Korean nation, there has been a countercurrent among islanders in defining Cheju identity. While Cheju islanders may publicly declare their attachment to the South Korean nation, local expressions of identity and a surge of interest in local histories have de-centered the Korean Peninsula and repositioned Cheju’s ancient kingdom of T’amna. In his 2004 Cheju yŏksa kihaeng, a commentary on Cheju’s historical sites, local historian Yi Yŏnggwŏn interpreted a legend of the islanders’ failure to satisfy a goddess’s terms for the completion of a stone bridge to the Korean Peninsula as representative of the contradictory nature of islanders’ perceptions of their place in the Korean sphere, desirous of a connection with the mainland but aware that they can never have true unity. Based on preliminary fieldwork conducted in summer 2012, I explore this contradictory desire as a reaction to increasing integration with the peninsula. Focusing on Buddhism, resurgent on the island over the past one hundred years, I explore the Buddhist history of Cheju that monks and lay temple keepers recounted during interviews. In these accounts, there is an ongoing negotiation of the conceptions of T’amna and a concomitant relocation of the sacred cosmic geographies within Cheju.

Individual Papers on Modern and Contemporary Southeast Asia

Discussant: Clay Eaton, Columbia University
Friday, 2:45 PM   628 Kent Hall

Lan Ngo, Georgetown University

On the Relationship between the Nguyễn Dynasty and the Vietnamese Catholic Church: An Official Perspective from Reading of Đại Nam Thực Lục--The Veritable Records of the Great South, (1802-1888)
From the Veritable Records--Đại Nam Thực Lục, I propose a new periodization in studying the relationship between the Nguyễn dynasty and the Vietnamese Catholic Church. In this often stormy one hundred and fifty year relationship, the four major stages corresponded to the four different evolving official perspectives of the growing visibility of this religious minority group in the empire. This peculiar history began with a political and diplomatic necessity between a fugitive prince, Nguyễn Phúc-Ánh, and a French bishop, Pierre Pigneau de Béhaine. Second, the Dương Sơn Village incidence and the Phiên-An Revolt marked the turning point from personal imperial aversion towards Christianity to an institutionalized state policy against the alleged domestic insurgents. Third, starting with the kidnap of a mandarin in Khánh Hoà Province up to the escalating French military pressure in 1847, Christianity was considered as a threat to the national sovereignty from outside as well as from within. Finally, the 1862 Nhâm Tuất Peace Treaty ushered in a period of reluctant tolerance towards Christianity that directly related to the French occupation of Vietnam. This proposed periodization scheme aims to correct both the nationalistic historiography and the apologetic historiography that portrays the Vietnamese Church history as an impact-response history between the western grand plan élan vital and a local resistance.

Carolyn Pang, Columbia University

Buddhist Modernism in a Multicultural Society
With the aim of examining the role of religion in a globalized environment, I will present an ethnographic study of changing practices of Buddhism through an analysis of fieldwork undertaken at a Mahayana Buddhist temple in Singapore, the Poh Ming Tse Temple (PMT). Since the rebuilding of the temple compounds in 2009 into a modern minimalist style that removed any vestiges of the ornate designs of conventional temple structures, PMT undertook a new direction in its outreach activities to demonstrate its relevance in an urban cosmopolitan society. Led by lay practitioners who sought to provide a non-sectarian platform for the discussion of Buddhism, PMT makes active use of new media like Facebook and promotes activities that target youth groups and are open to participants from other religious faiths. The frequent invitation of foreign scholars to give talks on Buddhist doctrines reflects a changing interaction with Buddhism where the practice of religion becomes an intellectual pursuit that attempts to disengage from traditional ways of ritualistic worship. While the promotion of outreach activities that encourages an intellectual engagement with Buddhism succeeds in attracting English-educated professionals, it presents the problem of accommodating Mandarin-speakers and other dialect groups. Even as PMT sought to attract new social groups, its modern ways of practicing Buddhism distanced its older generation of supporters. The experiences of PMT highlight the dilemma of the incorporation of old practices with the introduction of new ideas, and question the ways in which religion can maintain its significance in a modern society.

Elizabeth Shim, New York University

Pearls of the Far East: Viet Kieu Cinema Meets Doi Moi
Vietnam is a rapidly developing country with a growing population. The current population of Vietnam is approximately 90 million, its overseas communities counting less than 4 million. The median age of Vietnamese is 28. Many do not harbor memories of the Vietnam War, a civil conflict that was protracted for the better part of three decades. Using themes of memory, including its inaccuracy, arbitrariness, and symbolic value, I contend that emerging Vietnamese-Canadian filmmaker Cuong Ngo’s latest oeuvre Pearls of the Far East (2011), based on stories by award-winning Vietnamese author Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc, is a series of fictional histories of contemporary Vietnam that reinvents the visual culture of a country commonly associated with war in the United States. Pearls of the Far East is constructed for both a Western and Vietnamese audience by a primarily Canadian film crew and explores the themes of forbidden desire and true love through the eyes of women protagonists. Over the course of seven vignettes the film also presents a narrative that engages the audience in a powerfully discursive de-familiarization of the ‘Third World’ woman. The stories are set in timeless Edens. The backdrop of each short film is a significant departure from contemporary, urban Vietnam. The busy streets of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are remarkably absent. The apolitical and diffuse aesthetic of ‘Indo-chic’ in the film is also indicative of a newly emerging postmodern sensibility among the Vietnamese diaspora. In my paper I argue Ngo’s ‘nouveau’ Vietnam shows unambiguous signs of how Vietnam’s post-1989 Doi Moi (reforms) is lending to the reconstruction of memory and national symbols beyond Vietnam’s geopolitical borders, settling into the Vietnamese diaspora, the cinema of the population, and contributing to a myth-making process integral to redefining the invisible borders of the nation-state.

Land, Rural Education and Revolutionary Politics

Discussant: Andy Liu, Columbia University
Friday, 2:45 PM   522B Kent Hall

Robert W. Cole, New York University

The Institute of Pacific Relations and Rural Research in China, 1925-37
When the global economic depression of the early 1930s devastated Chinese rural lives and livelihoods, researchers, reformers, and revolutionaries within China and around the world sought to grasp the nature of China’s unfolding agrarian crisis. This global convergence of attention on the social and economic problems of the Chinese peasant was both the result of and the impetus for the creation of several transnational institutional and intellectual networks that made China’s 1930s rural question a truly global question. Among the most influential nodes in this network was the Institute of Pacific Relations, a non-governmental international organization founded in 1925 that brought together scholars from East Asia, North America, and Europe for discussions of the political and economic problems of the nations of the Pacific Rim. After securing several significant grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment, the IPR also became a major source of funding for social scientific studies of China’s rural economy, devoting more of its resources to this problem than to all other research priorities combined. This paper studies the development of this institutional preference for supporting rural research in China. Why did China’s rural crisis come to occupy so much of the Institute’s attention, and how did its members conceive of the significance of agrarian crisis in China both for the IPR’s broad international research mandate and for the ongoing global economic crisis of the 1930s?

Yu Liu, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The Underground Organization of the Chinese Communist Party in National South-west Associated University, 1937-1946
The emergence of National South-west Associated University (hereafter abbreviated as NSAU) coincided roughly with the war of the Chinese resistance to Japanese aggression. The University is known as an exemplar of wartime education in modern China history. It is also an important arena of the Chinese Communist Party (hereafter abbreviated as CCP)’s united front activities during the war. Little research has been done in the area of the Chinese Communist underground party in NSAU. Because of the secretive nature of written materials, oral histories become significant first-hand sources. This paper explores the Chinese Communist Party’s underground organization in NSAU between 1937-1946. In reviewing the core and front of NSAU’s underground party, examining the organization’s guidelines and operations, and probing the complex struggle on campus between the Guomindang’s Three People’s Principles Youth Corps and the CCP’s Group Society, and between the Nationalists and Communists, I try to discuss the NSAU’s underground party’s organization and its functions in CCP’s united front strategies and activities by using oral history materials to supplement other sources. Based on the open and closed original sources,I have found that the core and front of the CCP’s underground party formed an organism that could deploy its members efficiently and lay stress on its sustainable development. It is hoped that this study on the organization of the CCP’s underground party in NSAU builds the groundwork on which we can analyze in depth the effects of CCP’s united front activities.

Larissa Pitts, University of California, Berkeley

The Right to Land: Xiao Zheng and the Land Reform Movement of the GMD Right
One of the prevailing questions of the history of Republican China (1912 – 1949) has been why the Guomindang (GMD) lost the Mainland to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Traditional scholarship has pointed to the CCP’s appeal to the peasantry through programs such as land reform, as opposed to the GMD’s focus on heavy industrialization and appealing to the elite. My paper uses a study of the GMD Right during the height of their rule – the Nanjing Decade (1927 – 1937) – to offer a corrective to this literature. Through the biography of Xiao Zheng, an advisor to Chiang Kai-shek as well as a self-proclaimed “land reform philosopher,” I show that the GMD Right participated in the widespread debates on the “land problem” in the 1930’s. But Chiang and his followers went beyond mere discussions of restructuring China’s system of private property. They manipulated land prices to fund their development projects as well as created a department at their own cadre training institution – the Central Political School – dedicated to training “land reform cadres.” Though the Sino-Japanese War thwarted plans to conduct a nationwide cadastral survey in preparation for a land reform campaign, many of these cadres trained during the 1930’s would go on to play critical roles in the land reform movement led by the GMD on Taiwan in the early 1950’s. As such, I argue that the GMD and the CCP held a common belief in the guarantee of private property as a fundamental human right and duty of any effective government.

Portable Identities: Self and Nationhood across Frontiers

Discussant: Ulug Kuzuoglu, Columbia University
Friday, 2:45 PM   403 Kent Hall

Ting Hui Lau, Cornell University

Between East and Southeast Asia: Minority Politics in Yunnan
This paper discusses minority policies and politics in Yunnan since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, recognizing the special configuration of the region as being both, home to ethnic minorities with ethno-linguistic roots in Southeast Asia and being administratively part of East Asia. In seeing ethnicity in Yunnan in the context of its geopolitical and historical relationships with Southeast Asia, this paper aims to uncover the history, meaning and consequence of the intersection of local and state ways of being ethnic beyond the context of the modern nation state. This paper will first discuss the genealogy of ethnic minority politics in Yunnan. This is followed by an elaboration on how, at the same time as providing a platform on which rights can be claimed, State classification of ethnicity also serves to discipline and maintain control in this border region. The third part of the paper in turn highlights local ways of interacting with State administrative orders, showing the creative strategies minorities use to manoeuvre within State ordering mechanisms. In closing, I argue for the need to go beyond understanding differences between local and state ethnic minority identifications into investigating the complex interactions between the two in the context of Yunnan’s unique history and geography. The study will draw from fieldwork in Nujiang prefecture in Yunnan between 2009 and 2012 among the Lisu and Nu, two minority groups that live in close proximity to each other and that span the frontier zones of China and Burma.

Sheng Mao, University of Pennsylvania

Straddling Two Boats: Soviet Aliens as Transnational People, Xinjiang (1949-1963)
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, more than 101,839 “Soviet aliens” lived on the Chinese side of the Sino-Soviet border in Xinjiang. Most of them left Russia right after the Soviet revolution of 1917 or fled to China after the campaign of agricultural collectivization in the 1930s. Viewing the case of the “Soviet aliens” in the context of nation-building and the rise and demise of the Sino-Soviet relations, I examine the social and cultural lives of this population living in the borderland between two major socialist countries, Communist China and the Soviet Union. Read from the nationalist perspective, the border population is often depicted as backward people who lack national consciousness and the necessary loyalty to the host state and the process of border control as a victory of modern civilization over backwardness. Such analysis, however, simply scratches the surface of the issue. Using a variety of published and unpublished archival sources, I argue that the “Soviet aliens” had transnational nature in terms of location, citizenship, social network, daily activity, as well as cultural identity. In other words, they were not confined to one nation-state physically or socially. Furthermore, my discussion about the “Soviet aliens” also illustrates how the porous borders, dual citizenship, and social networks helped these people avoid the grabbing hand of the states and how this community was uprooted by the Chinese government in the early 1960s.

Sansar Tsakhirmaa, Johns Hopkins University

Looking less/more Sinicized out of consensus: Comparing ethnic-boundary-making among Uyghurs and (Southern) Mongolians
Given a common PRC ethnicity regime, empirical observations tend to inform a high co-extensiveness of officially recognized ethnic categories with practically perceived ethnic boundaries in the case of Uyghurs in East Turkestan (Xinjiang) in relation to a low level of such co-extensiveness in the case of ethnic Mongolians in Southern (Inner) Mongolia. Delving into boundary-making strategies at the individual level, engaging Wimmer’s multilevel process theory while questioning the endogeneity inherent in such alternative explanations for Sinicization as policy, culturalist, or historical ones, the paper accounts for the differing ethnic category-boundary co-extensiveness by examining three macro-level variables, i.e. institutional order that determines the types of boundary as ethnic in both cases, inter-ethnic distribution of power that shapes higher level of Uyghur-Chinese inequality and differentiation than Mongolian-Chinese ones, and networks of alliances that locate ethnic boundaries in such a way that may, in the Uyghur case, or may not, in the Mongolian case, be co-extensive with ethnic categories. Further comparison will be focused upon interaction between micro-level individuals opting for different boundary-making strategies and upon the degree of consensus reached among them.

Jeffrey Chih-yu Twu, Columbia University

Mapping those “Overseas Britons” in Hong Kong: Towards a Concentric (Re)Imagination of Nationalism and State Sovereignty
This paper deals with the ambiguous nationality status prescribed to permanent residents of Hong Kong. Probing into the subnational grading of citizenship claims, this paper underscores a negative flexibility of partial inclusion that is both contained and domesticated within the taxonomy of state memberships. Born before July, 1997, the majority of Hong Kong residents can claim at least two nationality statuses after the handover: one that identifies them as “British National (Overseas),” and the other as Chinese citizens of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Both statuses, however, carry pronounced differences/disadvantages in consular privileges, residence rights, and welfare entitlements, which distinguish Hong Kong residents from either full British citizens or Chinese nationals in the mainland. Considered in both their ideological architecture and administrative praxis, these classes of extraterritorial citizenship reveal an administrative logic of interior exceptionalism, the calibrating and zoning narratives of which disrupt the monolithic imagination of communal fraternity, nation(alism), or traditional scholarship on the structural clarity of state system and international borders. Moving beyond the geopolitical discourse that dwells on a rigid, cartographical contradistinction between inside and outside, or between pure citizens and absolute aliens, this paper offers the concept of “jetlagged simultaneity”—an intended oxymoron—as an analytical intervention to rethink the categorical uniformity implied within border-defined political identities, which are constantly invoked in metaphors of spatial and temporal synchronicity. It argues that the theoretical framework of border studies—pioneered by such scholars as Peter Sahlins and Benedict Anderson—risks obliterating the ambivalent shades of intra-communal segregationthat find no expression in the “national order of things” (Liisa Malkki), while the binary demarcation of national borders and discrete partitioning of state units fail to describe the internal scaling of citizenry in hierarchical terms (cf. Étienne Balibar). It further contends that, capitalizing on partial nationalities as an instrument of flexibility, border regimes are capable of removing their undesired subjects without rendering them completely stateless, hence averting potential charges of human rights violation at the UNHRC.What happens behind the frontier zones of checkpoints and passport controls? And what does it suggest to designate zones of jurisdictional enclaves that are almost British/Chinese, but not quite? What is at stake, moreover, when the ordering logic of“family of nations” fails to register subnational delays and disjunctions, the interior alienation of which cannot be measured by the unifying “meanwhile” of national imagination? These are instances of categorical ambiguity and intra-communal displacement this paper seeks to address.

Culture of the Edo Period

Discussant: Joshua Batts, Columbia University
Friday, 5:00 PM   522C Kent Hall

Jens Bartel, Columbia University

Two Pairs of Folding Screens by the Painter Maruyama Ōkyo (1733-1795): Problems of Iconography and Patronage
In my paper I will discuss two pairs of folding screens, "Bamboo in the Wind, Bamboo in the Rain", and "Wisteria", both painted in close succession in the year 1776, by the mid-to-late Edo period painter Maruyama Ōkyo (1733-1795). Both works are designated Important Cultural Properties, and were executed in a time when the artist was at the height of his formal inventiveness and creative vigor. Although they have been exhibited numerous times over the past decades, scholarly discussion so far has remained in a cursory state, and mostly focused on an analysis of certain stylistic features such as tsuketate (a brush technique), or the stress on truthfulness to nature (shasei). However, a careful re-examination of those works might result in an interpretation of a distinctively different quality. The "Bamboo" screens were painted for the Enkōji, a Zen temple in the Northern outskirts of Kyoto, and the "Wisteria" screens were commissioned by the Nishi Honganji, the head temple of the Honganji branch of the Jōdo Shinshū School of Buddhism. In my paper, I will analyze how in both cases the iconography of the plants shown in Ōkyo’s paintings might have been predeterminated by the visual culture and religious profile of the respective temples. Without doubt the careful, “naturalistic” representation of the plants and the masterly brushwork by the artist constitute valid points of interest; however, I as will argue both pairs of folding screens received their full significance only via the context of the locations they were originally created for.

Lindsey E. Dewitt, University of California, Los Angeles

Lifting the Barrier: Women's Access to Sacred Mountains in Early Modern Japan
Sacred mountains are paradigmatic examples of Japan’s rich religious history and culture. For most of recorded history, however, women have been denied access to them. This practice is part of a phenomenon called "women's restrictions" (nyonin kekkai 女人結界; nyonin kinzei 女人禁制). In 1872, the Meiji government issued an edict opening mountain trails and temple doors to women. Still, religious groups at many mountains enforced the male-only tradition well into the twentieth-century. My paper considers women's restrictions at two of these sites, Mt. Ōmine 大峰山 (which still actively tries to ban women) and Mt. Kōya 高野山. These two locations hold the longest histories of religious groups establishing gender-based access policies. I closely observe and analyze the particular social and religious histories of Mt. Ōmine and Mt. Kōya in order to understand how women both contributed to and were controlled by the restrictions of the day. My paper discusses origin theories briefly, but my primary focus lies in the the nineteenth-century onward, when legal codes and other historical documents addressing women’s access proliferate. Exploring this uniquely Japanese phenomenon brings to light oft-ignored complexities in gender discourse throughout history and raises important issues concerning religious practice, religious economies, and the divide between religious institutions and state policies.

Melinda Landeck, University of Kansas

Exemplary Warrior: Hosokawa Sansai and Chanoyu
From Japan’s warring states era (1467-1573) until the period of political unification and Tokugawa rule (1600-1868), the Hosokawa clan produced a series of warrior leaders known for their high levels of cultural erudition. One of the Hosokawa who achieved particular renown as a so-called “warlord tea man” (daimyo chajin) was Hosokawa Sansai (also called Tadaoki, 1563-1645). Examining a variety of textual accounts and material artifacts from the world of early modern chanoyu tea practice, this paper explores how Sansai manipulated his engagement with the tea world to his own advantage, both in terms of political acumen and artistic prestige. Sansai’s adept alignment of his own practice with that of his teacher and mentor, the influential tea master Sen no Rikyū (1522-1591). Hosokawa’s deliberate association of himself with the legitimizing figure of Rikyū through the naming of tea objects and tea rooms, the cultivation of chanoyu culture among his retainers and associates, and as textually expressed in the corpus of records detailing his tea practice including the Hosokawa Book of Tea (Hosokawa cha no sho) all support this connection. Sansai was thus able to establish himself as a voice of aesthetic authority, reinforce key socio-political connections, and as the founder of the tea school which bore his name.

Floating Populations: Contradiction and Urban Change

Discussant: JM Chris Chang, Columbia University
Friday, 5:00 PM   628 Kent Hall

Yao Li, Johns Hopkins University

Informal Norms and Regime-engaging Protests in Authoritarian China
There is wide agreement among scholars that authoritarian regimes rely more on repression than negotiation to deal with citizen protests. The situation in China today, however, shows a different picture. A number of social protests are largely tolerated rather than repressed, which suggests the existence of a “legitimate” space for protest. This paper intends to investigate this protest space. First, I distinguish between “regime-engaging” protests and “regime-threatening” protests. I focus on the former type and conduct two case studies on it. The two cases include a struggle against privatizing a hospital that formerly belonged to a state-owned enterprise (SOE) and a protest by laid off workers from a second SOE, demanding higher compensation fees. Both cases took place in the same city in North China. The first case stayed within the “legitimate” protest space throughout, while the second one transgressed the boundaries of this space. These case studies elaborate on informal norms of political contention in China and examine the extent to which and how these norms shape the actions of both protesters and officials. Much of the scholarship on contentious politics in China has focused on formal institutions and rights consciousness of officials and protesters, while informal norms are understudied. Data is derived from over 30 interviews with protesters, officials, interested third parties, and other informed observers. I also collect documents issued by the government, materials written by protest leaders, and related news reports.

Minhua Ling, Yale University

Learning to Serve in Stigma: Second-generation Migrant Youth and Vocational Training in Urban China
Over 220 million rural-to-urban migrants have sustained post-reform China’s phenomenal economic growth. An increasing number of second-generation migrants are coming of age in their parents’ adopted cities and becoming a key source of urban China’s labor pool. This paper hence looks beyond the well-studied first-generation migrant workers to focus on the coming-of-age circumstances and experiences of their children. The second-generation migrants still face widespread discrimination and are denied proper residential status and public provisions in cities. In particular, the systematic closure of academic senior high school to migrant students in their adopted cities results in the semi-forced enrollment of these students in vocational schools. Based on data collected from 24-month multi-sited dissertation field research, this paper examines in detail the experiences of vocational education among second-generation migrant youth in Shanghai. It highlights the persistent stigma of vocational education in post-reform China despite the state’s aggressive promotion and illustrates how the stigma affects migrant students’ classroom performance, social relations, self-identification, and personal aspirations. This paper argues that the stratified inclusion of migrant students into limited vocational schools and majors continues to deny them upward mobility. Nevertheless, it also creates a certain time and space for migrant youth to form new social relations and status that may help them navigate in China’s transitional urban economy

Shuang Lu, Columbia University

“Ant People” in Shanghai: Resistance of the Disempowered Youth
My project looks at college-educated migrant youngworkers in Shanghai – a group of long neglected disadvantaged people - with a popular name “Ant People” indicating that they live in the cracks of the cities. By following life trajectories of over twenty college graduates migrating from rural to urban, this project tells the story “college migration” and reveals that this is also a generation of youth who falls into the crack of urban-rural disparity and the growing disjuncture between college education system and the capitalist market in China. In the particular case of Shanghai, I want to explore another form of urban poverty – “immersive urban-poor living spaces”, which is different from most of the previous studies on urban poverty that are focusing on slums, migrant worker villages – places that are relatively segregated from the surrounding urban scenario. Based on my in-depth fieldwork in three different living places occupied by Ants People– a job-hunting hostel, an adjusted apartment and a rooftop community on an office building in downtown area, I propose questions that what “immersive urban poverty” means to the development of the city, and how this living style influences the way Shanghai - the “daimonic city” - is imagined, experienced and reproduced in daily life. More importantly, Ants People are just a representative of the youth generation in China who is experiencing “Ant-ization” – a disastrous corruption of confidence in self-realization, up-mobility and social justice. This phenomenon can be best illustrated by the popular Internet culture. I will take two cases - the construction of the diaosi-gaofushuai(Unprivileged losers V.S. Princelings) discourse and the online carnival of prosecuting Yao Jiaxin – to address how the youth generation shapes their self-identity and resist the social stratification through engagement in online activities.

Aisi Zhang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

The Impact of Labor Migration in China
During the last two decades, China has experienced the largest migration of people from the countryside to cities in human history. A recent research shows that up to 2012, estimated 250 million Chinese have left their native countryside and migrated to large cities in search of work. Furthermore, about 13 million more people join the legion every year, and the number is expected to reach 400 million by 2025. It cannot be denied that migrant workers have made remarkable contributions to industrialization, urbanization, and modernization of urban China. In 2000, for example, migrant workers contributed 30.07%, 31.48%, 16.81%, 10.56%, 32.13% and 17.45% respectively of the local total GDP in six provinces of China – Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Beijing, and Fujian. Comparing to the great contributions that migrants have made, however, they actually live a marginalized life in urban China, which is the state of relative or absolute material deprivation characterized by poor housing and working conditions, lack of equal opportunity for education, ineligibility for social benefits, discrimination by urban residents and others. In this paper, I will not focus on rapid economic and social developments due to the vast pool of cheap labor in contemporary China. Instead, I will study the impacts of labor migration not only on rural developments, but also on building “a harmonious society” advocated by the Chinese Central Government, which should feature democracy, rule of law, equity, justice, sincerity, amity and vitality.

The Moving Stage: Theater and Text in China

Discussant: Allison Bernard, Columbia University
Friday, 5:00 PM   522B Kent Hall

Amy Gordanier, University of California, Los Angeles

On the Road, On the Stage: Patterns of Theatrical Migration in and Around Eighteenth-Century Yangzhou
In the mid and late eighteenth century, fueled by merchant wealth and imperial patronage, the glittering lower Yangtze city of Yangzhou became a cultural as well as a mercantile hub. In the annals of China's now-iconic Peking Opera, eighteenth-century Yangzhou plays a critical role--second only to Beijing--as a city whose theatrical tastes directly influenced and were influenced by Beijing's and which sent many fine actors to the stages of the capital. Yet, as this paper argues, Yangzhou's theatrical scene was more than just a staging point; it was itself a melting pot where performers from across the empire shared the stage with each other and with locals, where stars made their fortunes, and where previously obscure regional styles gained prominence, adapted, and were alloyed together to suit new tastes. To that end, this paper uses biji, guild stelae, and other contemporary writings on theater to map Yangzhou's position on the travel circuits of opera performers from different classes, styles, and home regions, focusing on major links to the Jiangnan heartland, Anhui, and Beijing as well as local networks within Yangzhou prefecture. The geographic dynamics at play in Yangzhou's theater scene illuminate not only the forces that moved entertainers and other members of itinerant trades from place to place throughout the Qing empire, but also this city's unique place in the cultural world of the eighteenth century.

Thomas Kelly, University of Chicago

“Judgments in Jest” : Comedy and the Courtroom in Classical Chinese Drama
This paper explores the dynamic interplay between representations of the law and theatricality in classical Chinese drama. Through a close reading of the “Underworld Judgment” scene in Tang Xianzu’s The Peony Pavilion (1598) and a series of related works in different media – Xu Wei’s Mad Drummer and Yuan dynasty plays, woodblock illustrations of theatrical courtroom scenes, and popular printed parodies of legal rhetorical forms (the comic “nonsensical case,” and the satirical “joke judgment” (huapan)) – I look at how the reflexivity of the theatre served to interrogate the boundaries and constraints to the cultural imagination of the law. By playfully stretching how the principle of “jurisdiction” (the power to make judgments) might be imagined – first, in the characterization of the judge; then, in spatial terms, through the representation of the courtroom as an unstable and improvisatory venue; and finally rhetorically, or as the “speaking of the law” – I track how playwrights and other artists strongly influenced by the idiom of the theatre, call into question what constitutes juridical authority and what grounds an act of adjudication. In doing so, I argue that writers use the law as a type of scaffolding around which to experiment with the possibilities of the theatrical art-form itself.

Lindsey Waldrop, University of Oregon

The Gaze and the ‘Other’ in “Journey to Annam”
The medium-length story in the Zhao Shi Bei (照世盃) collection “Journey To Annam to Trade a Jade Horse for Ape Blood Velvet (走安南玉马换猩绒) is an intriguing text because it juxtaposes the issues of gender norms and societal order not only in traditional form of man and wife, but also from Han and “foreigner”, as well as human and animal through the lens of “Annam.” The story was published by an author using a pen-name, who was well-acquainted with Li Yu and Ding Yaokang and published in 1661, during or after the last throws of the southern Ming rebellion. In this sense, the questions the text contains about cultural identity become even more important. This paper uses the idea of “gaze” and the “other” to examine this text in terms of the historical setting in which it was written. It seeks to understand how the text deals with individual and Han definitions of the self in light of the other (the “Annamese”), by examining key scenes of “gaze” in the text through different relative lenses, including traditional cosmology and karmic retribution (baoying). The crux of the text, and of the analysis is when the feminizing and exoticizing gaze is reversed, and the main character sees himself for the first time as the strange “other.”

Trauma, Memory, and Post-War Identity Construction in Japan

Discussant: Chelsea Scheider, Columbia University
Friday, 5:00 PM   403 Kent Hall

Brenton Buchanan, University of Washington

Touring the Atomic Memory: Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Post-War Identity
Using memorials and tourism as a focus, this paper looks comparatively at the reconstruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and tries to understand how the two have come to serve very different roles in Japan’s atomic memory. Though both cities have served as memorial locations for Japan’s memory of the atomic bomb, driving national narratives of peace, victimhood, and nuclear disarmament, Nagasaki has been largely subordinated under the name and story of Hiroshima. At the same time however, Nagasaki is widely referred to as “different” within Japan, having developed its tourism around this “carefully cultivated ‘foreignness.’” How Nagasaki has come to be incorporated into Hiroshima’s atomic memory while still being marked as an “other” is a question that has not been sufficiently addressed. Some have attempted to explain this difference in representation, usually referring to the timing of the bomb, the extent of destruction, or even the city’s relative lack of professional writers. The way that both cities approached reconstruction and memorializing their experiences with atomic weapons has been overlooked, and it creates very different relationships to marginalized populations within Japan. This project attempts a comprehensive understanding of the particular histories, demographics, and post-war realities of the two cities, and how the particularities of Nagasaki’s experience have been “out represented” by those of Hiroshima.

Mi Jeong Jo, University of Pennsylvania

Comfort Woman in Okinawa: Bae Bong Gi’s Double Victimization as a Critical Source for Reinterpreting History
This paper examines the impact of changing international relations during the Pacific War and the Cold War on individuals, such as Bae Bong Gi. She was the first former Comfort Woman who was forced to reveal her wartime experience in Okinawa when the U.S. government returned it to Japan in 1972. After the end of the Pacific War in 1945, Bae chose to stay in Okinawa, rather than going back to her home country, the Republic of Korea. Struggling with making a living as a daily laborer and sometimes as a prostitute, she remained in Okinawa until she died of heart failure in 1991. Using her testimonies in 1978 as main sources, I will analyze the significance of her wartime experience in reconstructing her perspective of Japan and the U.S., initially serving the Japanese soldiers as a sexual slave but later being detained with them as a prisoner of war held by Americans. I will also investigate the possible influence of the long governance of the U.S. in Okinawa on her understanding of the U.S. in the context of the relationship between the U.S. local government and the Okinawan people. Finally, I will analyze mass media’s reports and periodic attention to Bae, which will shed light on how media’s representation of women can be rife with exploitation and influenced Bae’s refusal to interviews in the 1980s. Bae’s life as a victim of war will serve as an alternate analytic tool to reinterpret the international history in Okinawa.

Sherzod Muminov, University of Cambridge

The Siberian Internment, the Soviet Other and (Re)Writing the Japanese Nation after World War II
On August 23, 1945, Joseph Stalin ordered transportation and internment of close to 600 thousand former Japanese servicemen to labour camps in the USSR. After enduring years of hardship in the extreme cold and subsisting on poor food, majority of internees were repatriated by 1952. They created another chapter in the postwar Japanese victim narratives. Stories of the Internment became an important addition to war stories that mushroomed in the postwar Japanese public sphere, shaping opinion about the new but old Soviet enemy. Yet the contributions of the internees were important not only in making sense of the old enemy in the new surroundings, but also in shaping what Yoshikuni Igarashi calls “the foundational narrative” of Japan’s modern history. This narrative sought to construct a new Japan by foregoing the militarist past for democratic future. Within this narrative, the Soviet Union was assigned the role of the villain, and the Siberian Internment became a rich source of images, stereotypes and perceptions about the enemy. The internees’ role in Japan’s postwar national identity has been largely overlooked, if not dismissed as irrelevant, in the English-language literature. Addressing this gap, I argue that recollections of the Internment have been crucial in the Soviet Union’s becoming the most hated enemy for the Japanese during the Cold War. Using original sources – memories of internees about camp life – this work gauges the role of the Soviet other in constructing the postwar Japanese self from an angle different from the well-studied interactions with the US.

Rolf I. Siverson, University of Washington

Hiding the Scars of War: Hiroshima’s Atomic Slum and the Peace Memorial City Reconstruction Law
As the first city to be attacked with an atomic weapon, Hiroshima’s post-war reconstruction presents a unique case study. From the very beginning, city planners seemed to understand this historic significance and devised a plan for revolutionary reconstruction as a symbol of peace. At the same time, the developing plan seemed to ignore of the practical need for housing. By the time the Peace Memorial City Reconstruction Law was passed in 1949, thousands of residents had moved into make-shift housing on public land which came to be known as locally as the Atomic Slum. Populated mostly by victims of the war, the slum sat in the heart of the city’s new urban plan. Though the slum was eventually erased, the process took over three decades. At nearly every stage, city planners pursued solutions that favored their symbolic vision over the needs of slum residents. By driving them out, or hiding them in poorly designed housing projects, these war victims were re-victimized in the name peace and rebirth as the city sought to manage memory of wartime through the construction of physical space. In the context of the growing body of work on Japan’s post-war discourse on peace and wartime victimization, the case of the Atomic slum both expands our understanding of the origins of this discourse, and demonstrates how the developing narrative of national victimhood delegitimized the voices of those most directly affected by the war.

Uneven Modernity and Rural Nostalgia in East Asia

Discussant: Katherine Grube, New York University
Friday, 5:00 PM   511 Kent Hall

Qingyan Ma, Temple University

Thriving Medical Consumerism in the Margin of the State: A Case Study of Medical Pluralism in Southwest China
In line with the economic reform and the development of market economy in post-socialist China is the availability of more and more kinds of commodities on the market. Medical service, although being a special kind of commodity, has been no exception to this general trend since 1979. In this paper, I examine the medical pluralism, as constituted by biomedicine, local herbal medicine, tradition Chinese Medicine and witchcraft, in Weixi Lisu Autonomous County in Yunnan Province, the southwest corner of China. By locating my research of medical consumerism in the southwest borderland, the so-called “margin of the state” (Das and Poole 2004), I am particularly interested in exploring the penetration of market, capitalism, neoliberalism, and globalization as is manifested in local people’s choice of medical care, which is simultaneously and inescapably intertwined with the state’s agenda of development and modernizing of health care and the ethnic minority area at large. In addition, I argue in this paper that the top-down market reform and development from the state has caused the unintended consequences among the individual at the local level. By focusing on medical consumerism, the empowerment of the individual agency in choosing medical service, I present how the individual, through their predominant choice of biomedicine vis-à-vis other medical practices in Weixi, actively engage in the market reform and health care reform by taking on, reconfiguring or resisting the state policies, the process I term as “the biological negotiation of ethnic identity” in post-socialist China.

Chrissie Reilly, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Hungering for Authenticity: Oral History of Volunteer Farming in Japan
Volunteering on organic farms goes beyond theory and puts into practice responsible tourism, environmental awareness, and promotion of local and sustainable foodways. This research seeks to examine the recent history of volunteer farming in Japan through Worldwide Workers on Organic Farms, or WWOOF. WWOOF is a loose collection of independent organic (or organically-minded) farms, temple schools, restaurants, small shops, woodland reserves, and others that promote local and sustainable lifestyles. WWOOF Volunteers exchange labor for room and board and the hosts gain willing help with their livelihood, in a scenario designed to foster cultural awareness. The WWOOF Japan website reports this program allows volunteers to “get below the veneer of tourism and… have genuine and meaningful experiences.” However, I hypothesize that while WWOOF volunteers may not fit the traditional mold, the majority of them are tourists nonetheless. These volunteers typically stay longer, spend money differently, and contribute to communities in ways that traditional visitors typically do not. Their WWOOF experiences in Japan are often part of a larger in-country sojourn and typically are not prospective farmers. The overall project utilizes oral history interviews with volunteers and hosts, as well as GIS-mapping to explain this phenomenon. The WWOOF organic farm movement in Japan is largely unstudied. This research aims to learn more about how people view their volunteer experience, their motivations for volunteering, and what it means to use vacation to perform work.

Xiao Yu, National University of Singapore

The mentality of inevitable pollution and pollution-related contention in rural China
In recent years China has witnessed an alarming rise in rural social unrest over concerns of industrial pollution. Local villagers’ responses to industrial pollution vary greatly in form and strength, from silence, peaceful petitions, to violent protests. This paper will focus on the perception that lead local villagers to take (no) actions against pollution. Drawing from Michel Foucault’s concept of governmentality, this paper proposes a “mentality of inevitable pollution”, which concerns how industrial pollution has been naturalized and internalized as inevitable by villagers in contemporary rural China. I wish to argue that villagers’ attitudes towards industrial pollution are not already fully-formed, but are developing through a learning process accompanying the rural industrialization. Elements from cultural customs, local political economy, and the experience of contention coalesce to produce a strong sense of inevitability of pollution among villagers, albeit with similar yet distinct reasons in different political and economic settings. By showing how such a mentality is produced and sustained in four types of local political economy, this paper aims to provide a foundation for explaining various villager responses to industrial pollution.

Shanni Zhao, Duke University

Late-emerged Modernity and the fragmentary self-identification of the Youth in Jia Zhangke's Hometown Trilogy
Platform, Xiao Wu, and Unknown Pleasures were regarded collectively as Director Jia Zhangke’s hometown trilogy, where Chinese social transition and Chinese rural youth’s living condition are profoundly revealed. The three films depict the life experiences of three young generations born and raised in Shanxi Province during a time span of thirty years from the 1980s to the 2000s. This is the period when Chinese underdeveloped rural and urban areas witness the most rapid shifs in the process of modernity and industrialization. This paper first analyzes the characteristics of Chinese modernity, which focuses on its later-emerged and passive features when compared to the modernization process of the West. Second, I will explain how the characters’ experiences in the film texts demonstrate the abruptness and the regional disparity of modernization lead to sever social problems and individuals’ psychic problems in underdeveloped rural and urban areas. Robert Merton’s theory about social anomie is employed here to explore the dilemmas in the film characters’ life experiences between their desire to pursue unrestraint lives and the reality of the closed social structure. Furthermore, the fragmentation of the young characters’ self-identification as a reflection of the rapidly shifting social structure and the cause of the behavioral dilemmas is examined, which involves Anthony Giddens’s theories about self-identification and modernity.

Rethinking the Role of the State in Economic, Ideological, and Cultural Movements of Colonial/Post-colonial Korea

Discussant: Jae Won Chung, Columbia University
Friday, 5:00 PM   411 Kent Hall

Seongpil Jeong, Sungkyunkwan University

The State between Fascism and Socialism : Korean socialists who collaborated with the Wartime Japanese Empire
This paper explores reasons that why some Korean socialists became enthusiastic supporters of the Wartime Japanese Empire. The collaboration in colonial Korea has usually been described as a conversion of thought affected by pressure and conciliation of the Japanese Empire. In this context, majority of Korean historians have pointed out the fact that Japanese colonialist controlled the thought of the Korean socialists opposed to the Japanese Empire. However, the case of Daedongminuhoe(大東民友會) shows that collaboration of some Korean socialists were affected by discourse of the State from Japanese Fascism. Daedongminuhoe was a group of collaboration with Wartime Japanese Empire mainly constituted by former Korean socialists. They started to collaborate with the Japanese Empire asserting that build an anti-capitalistic and multinational state with Fascist regime. In the 1930s, it was the great transformation period due to the Great Depression; the discourses that State should control the market were pervasive. The State popped up because of the collapse of the laissez faire attitude in the economy. These discourses of the State gave an illusion to this group that a Wartime State could give a solution to class and other national problems in colonial Korea. In this paper, I argue that the Korean collaborators which had been socialists actively worked with the Fascist regime of Japanese Empire in the second Sino-Japanese War, and became a supporter of the East Asian Cooperativism(東亞協同體) of the Wartime Japanese Empire due to discourses of the State from Wartime Japanese Fascism which build ‘anti-capitalistic’ and ‘multinational’ State.

Minna So-min Lee, University of Toronto

In Search of Lost Time: Redefining Socialist Realism in 1950s DPRK
This paper examines the development in the field of visual art in the post-Korean War period of national reconstruction in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1953-1960). In particular, I focus on the debates that arise within the field that address the question of North Korean mode of socialist realism in this critical period of nation building. Based on editorial articles and round table discussions published in one of the earliest journals devoted to the visual arts in the DPRK, Chosôn misul, my paper traces the dynamic positions held by artists, art critics and historians on the discourse of socialist realism and its criticality within the development of a new mode of North Korean art in the socialist context. What transpires is a dynamic discourse on what constitutes or should constitute North Korean art in the contemporary era of socialism, and the debates range from redefining socialist realism in the broadest sense to a reconsideration of the traditional media such as ink paintings and ceramics. In historicizing these debates of socialist visual culture and visuality in a broader context of postwar and post-colonial national building, I argue that North Korean artistic discourse was invested in espousing a new mode of visual culture that was not merely nationalist but also decidedly modern in its attempt to redefine and expand the visual category of socialist realism.

Holly Stephens, University of Pennsylvania

Human capital in financial networks: Establishing financial associations in colonial Korea, 1907-1932
Financial associations (K. kŭmyung chohap; J. kin’yū kumiai) were some of the earliest formal institutions introduced by the Japanese under the protectorate government, and promoted by the colonial government throughout its rule in Korea. These associations occupied an important position within the structure of colonial government, playing a key role in implementing many of the government’s policies. By the end of the colonial period, over ninety percent of farming households were members of either the financial associations or their related organisations. While existing literature has stressed their role as tools of the colonial state, however, this emphasis cannot explain the full social and economic significance of the associations. This paper argues that the financial associations played an important role in constructing a colonial economic order that was not merely imposed from above but necessarily incorporated existing economic and social institutions. By examining the early history of the financial associations in North Chŏlla province, this paper will demonstrate that the associations were a site of interaction between the colonial state’s agenda and local society; the process of establishing the associations was gradual and contested, and their success relied on building connections with the local economy. Viewed from the below in this way, the significance of the associations lies equally in their position as local institutions, indivisible from village politics, the rural economy and local society, which in turn raises broader questions about how we view the history of the colonial state itself.

Embedded Tensions: Pre-modern Chinese Poetry and Narratives

Discussant: Gregory Patterson, Columbia University
Saturday, 9:30 AM   628 Kent Hall

Timothy R. Clifford, University of Pennsylvania

Articulations of Literary Expression in Late Ming Poetry, Drama, and Popular Xiaoshuo
This paper is interested in tensions that emerge in the attempts made by several late Ming literati to apply orthodox theories of poetic expression to genres traditionally disdained by the literati (drama and fictional narrative). In the paper, I first try to identify some basic themes of late Ming “expressionism” with readings from prefaces to poetry collections written by Xu Wei and Yuan Hongdao. In this section, I also address the fascination among late Ming literati with folk songs. In the second part, I look at how this understanding of poetic expression becomes problematic when applied to drama: Xu Wei in particular struggles to condone the manufacturing of false emotion by actors and actresses. I also read Tang Xianzu’s preface to Peony Pavilion as an effort to resolve this problem. In the final section of the paper, I turn to literati discussions of fictional narrative. Here, I find that, surprisingly, the orthodox aesthetic of poetic expression accommodates fictional narratives quite comfortably – much more comfortably than drama. It would seem that, at least to unorthodox writers like Li Zhi and Feng Menglong, the reality or unreality of a narrative is unimportant; what matters is that the narrative, like a shi poem, or like Sima Qian’s Records of the Grand Historian, express something of the genuine internal state of the author, and possess the power to morally rectify its audience.

Lei Yang, University of Pennsylvania

Misunderstanding Liu Bang’s Dafeng ge
This paper investigates the Da fengge attributed to Liu Bang. Commentaries of Li Shan, Li Zhouhan, Lu Shanjing, and arguments of Yoshigawa Kōziro are examined. Reexamining the images and themes of this poem shows that this poem has been misread for a long time. An alternative way of interpreting this poem is offered by reconstructing the historical context with the help of the “Basic Annals of Liu Bang”. First, the relationship between the great winds and clouds indicates Liu Bang’s passive rise instead of intentional efforts. His predestined success in the narrative should be noted when analyzing this poem. Second, the significance of the word gui歸 has seldom been paid attention to. Liu Bang’s sense of longing to his hometown suggests his sorrow due to his missing old days in Pei and his suffering from the continuous rebellions. Therefore, this poem actually expresses the helplessness and sorrow of an emperor who was seeking a temporary break and comfort in his hometown. Indeed, without the narrative of Liu Bang’s life in this chapter, it is impossible to understand the circumstances of the poem’s composition. This alternative reading of this poem sheds light on reinterpreting the image of Liu Bang as the founder of Han dynasty.

Wu Yue, University of Pennsylvania

The Sifu (思婦) in Nineteen Old Poems
The theme of women who are missing their husbands could be tracked back to the time of Book of Odes, and was included in many works of later poets’. Among this kind of poems, the ones in Nineteen Old Poems have a great impact on later poems. This article analyzed the 8 Sifu 思婦 poems in the Nineteen Old Poems. These poems could be categorized into two groups: one is composed in the view of the mourning women themselves; the other is from the view of the onlookers who happened to see the mourning women. In the first category, the heroines are women who lived a common life in common families, while those in the second category are either a goddess or geishas who are special or out of reach for common people. By analyzing these poems, the author showed that these poems reflected the lives of women in that period in different aspects. No matter who they were, no matter they were married or not, lives were hard for them in those turbulent days. Although the poets wrote from different aspects, with different scenes, the feelings conceived within the poems are universal, which is one of the reasons that make Nineteen Old Poems the best five-syllable verses.

Ying Wang, University of California, Los Angeles

Biji xiaoshuo Tradition and News Expression:The Dianahizhai Pictorial’s Adaption from Yuewei caotang bji
The Dianshizhai Pictorial点石斋画报 was firstly published on May 8th 1884. During the next 15 years, 528 issues of it were published, which totally contained over 4600 pictures with captions. Its mixed modes of expression indicate that the burgeoning style of news was trying to exploit the treasure of Chinese literary tradition. Based on the similarities in concept and function with biji xiaoshuo笔记小说, the editors of the Dianshizhai Pictorial always selected materials present in previous biji texts, which can be seen more clearly in adapting Yuewei caotang biji阅微草堂笔记. Interestingly, although Liaozhai zhiyi聊斋志异 was very popular in the late Qing and exerted a direct influence on literary works of the literati in Shenbao guan申报馆, the Dianshizhai Pictorial inclined instead to imitate the writing style of Ji Yun纪昀 due to the consideration of its orientation, particularity and function. If we can grasp the requirements of news expression, including novelty, authenticity, the preference for social morality and good visual effects, then analyze the relationship between the news expression and fiction tradition, especially the tradition of biji xiaoshuo, it would be possible for us to obtain a clear understanding of the forming process of the news genre on this pioneering stage of popular newspaper publishing.

Roundtable Discussion: Unique Institutional Features and Recruitment in the Japanese Self Defense Forces--A Multinational Comparison

Discussant: Clay Eaton, Columbia University
Saturday, 9:30 AM   522C Kent Hall

Erin Gwenith Chandler, Ritsumeikan University

Ryuta Oikawa, Ritsumeikan University

Adolfo Juan Rodriguez-Garcia, Ritsumeikan University

Hsin-min Wang, Ritsumeikan University

Unique Institutional Features and Recruitment in the Japanese Self Defense Forces: A Multinational Comparison

Perhaps the most important theme in contemporary Japanese security studies concerns the normalization of the Japanese security state vis-à-vis its place in the East Asian security environment amid a myriad of approaches to defense and engagement strategies. Unlike traditional military forces, the Japanese Self Defense Forces (JSDF), operating in line with Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, lack force projection capabilities, and participate primarily in UN Peacekeeping Operations and humanitarian missions. Fierce debate now ensues as to the future shape of the JSDF and its role in the international system. Our research explores the unique configuration of the JSDF and its effect, if any, on military recruitment. Using a mixed methods approach, evaluating a range of multi-lingual resources, we compare other East Asian and Western nations to Japan, exploring how the Japanese security dialogue and atypical posture of the JSDF affects the framing of military recruitment campaigns and instrumental, vocational and ideological motives behind military enlistment. Based on differing institutional values, we examine the similarities and differences between military recruitment features of diverse countries. Our work includes constructivist and feminist approaches, and critically evaluates the realist understanding of security in a context of military participation across cultures. Our presentation will state our assumptions and hypotheses, illustrate our methods, and provide anecdotal and small-n observational study examples, such as military recruitment marketing techniques from several countries, and interviews with soldiers, including Japanese Self Defense Force members.

Performing and Transforming: Contemporary Korean and Japanese Media

Discussant: Jenny Wang Medina, Columbia University
Saturday, 9:30 AM   413 Kent Hall

Cody Black, University of Toronto

"Oppa Oppa I'll Be Down, Down, Down, Down": Schematic Transference of Gender Inequality in K-Pop's Usage of Oppa
Oppa, the Korean honorific used to signify an older male, has fallen out of strict common vernacular largely due South Korea’s modernization and oppa’s increasingly sexual connotation. However, the term has inversely flourished in prominence in K-Pop, its lyrical presence increasing prominently since 2010. While I tend to agree with prior K-Pop literature on the link of the sexualization of oppa with the trope of powerless, older males desiring pleasure from younger women, I argue that other forces need to be considered in understanding the juxtaposition of its newfound sexualized connotations and prominence in K-Pop. Through analyzing major releases by male and female K-pop artists, this paper recognizes the following forces in this discussion. The increasing self-referencing of oppa by male artists asserts a simulacra of male power beyond the demonstration this power solely through producers' portrayal of servitude women. Due to oppa's superficial adherence to traditional Confucian values, this objectified power relation remains unquestioned by the state and its former stance on music censorship. Additionally, the proliferation of oppa aligns simultaneously with attempts to make K-Pop more "Western friendly": oppa reflects similar internalized thematic gendered elements of Western pop music. Ultimately, these forces engineer within K-Pop a hyperreality of gendered power relations that is not only reflective of the sharp gender inequality of contemporary South Korea, but delineates a subaltern schema of halting progression towards this gender equality by reinforcing and normalizing the traditional status quo within this mass-mediated reality.

Ji Soo Hyun, Columbia University

Korean Adaptations of Japanese Drama "Oshin"
“Oshin,” a mega-hit Japanese TV drama that aired in 1983-1984, was introduced to Korea in 1984 as an adapted novel and movie form, owing to a ban on the broadcasting of Japanese TV programs on Korean TV, put in place after the liberation of Korea in 1945. In the Korean cinematic and novelized adaptations, an innovative, liberal social message ―anti-militarism and pacifism― that the original Japanese “Oshin” carries was reshaped into another social message appropriate for a Korean audience, and in the case of the novel, it was discarded altogether. In the Korean film, the character of Shunsaku, a Japanese imperial army deserter, who most vividly manifests the original Oshin’s anti-war stance, is replaced by Jinho, a Korean independence movement activist; and the anti-militarism of the original “Oshin” is changed to anti-Japanese sentiment. These alterations or omissions can be ascribed to the different social and cultural backgrounds of Korea and Japan, and further, their particular collective memories. This paper deals with the Korean adaptations of “Oshin,” and the social, historical and cultural factors at play in such adaptations. I hope to illustrate how a post-war Japanese cultural product was repackaged for a post-colonial Korean audience. To do so, I will compare the content of the original “Oshin” and that of the Korean film and literary adaptations, focusing on the treatment of the episode with Shunsaku in the respective works.

James White, Sheffield University

The Case of Lager, the Rōnin and the Vanished Geisha: Evolving Models of Gender in Japanese Beer Commercials (TV)
Despite an absence of work in the intersection of gender, alcohol, and advertising in Japan, many studies continue to only concern themselves either with the effects on health of alcohol or with discovering that “traditional” gender stereotypes exist within advertising . This paper will seek to rectify this lacuna to some degree. Integral to socialisation in Japan, the importance of beer within Japanese society cannot be understated: it is not only a cultural object, but also a cultural performance, indicator, and tool with its consumption especially a highly gendered activity. This activity is presented to a wide audience through television advertising, which disseminates not only methods of how to drink, but also particular models of masculinity and femininity. Four very different models of gender - The Loner Male, The Vanished Geisha, the Couple, and The Androgyne -became prominent in beer advertising during the latter half of the twentieth century and could, with varying degrees of accuracy, be said to be particularly Japanese models of masculinity and femininity. These models are not static, however, and this paper will show how they evolved during the post-war period. Further locating these evolutions within wider socioeconomic events also provides an opportunity to utilise advertisements as a historical source in order to question and contextualise idealised representations of masculinity and femininity.

The Politics of Space

Discussant: Yijun Wang, Columbia University
Saturday, 9:30 AM   424 Kent Hall

Non Arkaraprasertkul, Harvard University

Locating Shanghai: Globalization, Heritage Industry, and the Political Economy of Urban Space
Thanks to its rich history and recent booming economy, Shanghai is often understood as a “skyscrapers-metropolis” just like New York, Tokyo, and London. Despite the growing number of modern high-rise buildings, a large number of residents of Shanghai are still living in traditional alleyway houses in Shanghai called lilong (li meaning neighborhood and long meaning lane). As a legacy of the city’s Treaty Port era (1842-1946), the lilong is a replica of the British row house and was the only form of housing in Shanghai until the early 1980s. Today, the lilong neighborhoods are facing many socio-political issues. The houses are physically old and dilapidated; hence, there is a constant and ever-intensifying tension between the developers who want to re-claim the land to build more profitable high-rise apartments, and the residents who have no place to go. Moreover, gentrification has become a standard process of urban renewal through the use of historic preservation – but one that almost always involves the displacement of local residents. Attempting to reach behind the façade of a metropolis, my research contributes to our understanding of new forms of interaction between the heritage rhetoric of a post-colonial city, the dominance of an emerging market created for higher-income residents, and alternative forms of urban spatial change. On a broader conceptual level, I am asking questions about expertise and epistemology – how do different camps mobilize specific knowledge of history, architecture, and capitalist development processes in order to argue their positions?

Wei Zhao, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

Home Beyond the House: The Perceptions of Home for People Living in Vernacular Built Environments in Rural China
This paper is the outcome of a pilot study for my dissertation, which examines the ways in which heritage affects perceptions of home among residents in historic and vernacular built environments in rural China. This paper focus on Yanxia, Zhejiang province, which is a kinship village attached to a regional religious practice. Heritage and its effects on perceptions of home are significant at Yanxia because the residents are facing a government-planned relocation to new settlements. Combining archival research and ethnographic fieldwork, this paper tries to understand the embedded conceptions of heritage that have shaped and continually influence the built environment and the cultural tradition of Yanxia. In particular, I asked the residents to take photographs of their homestead that they wished to keep as memories; then I collected the narratives behind the photographs through interviews. Situated between the scholarship of meaning of home, place attachment, and heritage studies, my study offers a unique understanding of the role of heritage in the physical and psychological construction of home within the context of historic and vernacular built environment in rural China. More importantly, this body of knowledge will provide a new perspective for professionals in their vision and design of a “New Socialist Countryside,” a political movement launched by the Chinese state government in 2006.

Ma Ziyao, Columbia University

The Post-Taiping Reconstruction of Changzhou (1864 – 1888)
During and after the period of so-called “Tongzhi zhongxing同治中興”, the Qing struggled to recover from the wounds of Taiping Rebellion and defend against threats from both inside and outside. This paper will examine this process from a local perspective: how the reconstruction of a typical Jiangnan city took place during Tongzhi and early Guangxu reign. As a prominent prefecture in Jiangnan area, Changzhou provided innumerable scholars, poets, artists and high officials throughout late imperial China. Devastated in the war, Changzhou needed to rebuild nearly all its schools, temples, charitable institutions, and most importantly to the gentries, to reproduce its success in civil-service examinations. I would argue that although local gentry families were the biggest victims during Taiping, it was them rather than the government who functioned as major contributors of the reconstruction. Their efforts can be examined in different ways. The post-war economy recovered slowly, and increased tuition and fees made the education more exclusive to poorer families. On the other hand, various institutions were established to settle the refugees and restore local orders; activities such as compiling gazetteers and genealogies reflect persistent endeavor to prevent cultural degeneration.

Bodies and Spirits

Discussant: Kevin Buckelew, Columbia University
Saturday, 1:00 PM   522C Kent Hall

Lin Lin, Columbia University

An Experience of Filial Piety of a Buddhist Master Ouyi Zhixu
Ouyi Zhixu (藕益智旭, 1599-1655) was an renowned Buddhist master in late Ming China for his syncretic Buddhist philosophies, but also an acknowledged model of filial son: he gave up official career and secular enjoyment to repay his parents, sliced his thigh to prolong his mother’s life, performed rituals including blood writing and burning incense on his body to deliver his parents, and wrote great many literatures expressing his enormous pain and guilt upon his parents’ death. Although he shifted his focus between different Buddhist practices, his usually strong anxiety for actualizing filiality never faded. The rich records in Lingfeng ouyidashi zonglun靈峰蕅益大師宗論, Jueyubian絕餘編 and a newly found original version Jingxintang chuji 淨信堂初集 provide a rare opportunity to observe how a Buddhist master in an idiosyncratic and dynamic way, presented his private concern within the predetermined language and analytical framework in Chinese Buddhist tradition. By examining how his religious interpretations and performances created a discourse power, which in turn reshaped the existed Buddhist doctrinal categories, we can see that Zhixu’s Buddhist cultivation went far beyond grand syncretism. Such religious experience can be very specific and significant on the level of individual; as in the case of Zhixu, he had both the immediate need and the analytical means to control and benefit from such experience.

Lu Lianghao, University of Pittsburgh

Taking Care of the Dead --- Chinese Buddhist Monk’s Involvement with the War of Ming-Qing Transition
During the war of Ming-Qing transition, many massacres happened in south China, where the Ming loyalists fought steadily with the Qing. Thousands of people were killed during battles, but what happened to them after death? Who were there to take care of their bodies and provide proper burials? In this study, I focus on Chinese Buddhist monks. By seven cases, I illustrate the role and way of those monks’ involvement with the war that they assumed the responsibility of conveying the dead to the other world in many occasions. Furthermore, by the situation of their engagement, scholars could further perceive the Qing’s attitude toward Han Buddhism, from their leniency with those monks. It could be deduced that although Manchus were primarily in contact with Tibetan Buddhism before entering Shanhai Pass, they already had the notion of Han Buddhism and what social roles could be reserve for those Buddhists. Meanwhile, for the accusation of Buddhism escaping the secular world, those case studies clearly show that Chinese Buddhist monks still have deeply social concern, and during crises, they would step out and actively engage with the secular world. The least they can do is to provide the minimum death service for those unfortunately deceased. In addition, in those seven cases, three of them record three different prominent monk’s involvement. Therefore it provides a different perspective to assess their biographies in terms of their social engagement.

Andrew Macomber, Columbia University

Cauterizing corpse-vector infections: Buddhist medicine in late Heian Japan
What is the relationship between disease and treatment? On the surface, a simple question, and yet much of medical culture and history takes place within the unspoken gap between these two. My paper traces the links between 'corpse-vector disease' (denshibyō) and moxibustion (kyūji) in the Denshibyō-kuden (1173)—a late Heian period Buddhist text that coordinates this disease and its therapeutic cauterization in ways neither natural nor familiar. Drawing inspiration from the medical anthropology of Annemarie Mol, I argue that Keihan, the author of the Denshibyō-kuden, does not merely discover or inherit a relationship between disease and treatment. He ‘enacts’ this relationship through intertextual and citational strategies that incorporate, translate, and distribute etiological and therapeutic modes from a number of diverse sources. Countering the positivist search for an objective referent to be retroactively diagnosed—a tendency that has plagued medical history in Japan, this approach shifts our attention to how disease and treatment are held together through manipulation and what kinds of knowledge render that manipulation intelligible for Buddhist physicians. Most importantly, this framework allows me to reconstruct the relationship between corpse-vector disease and moxibustion at the porous and blistering boundaries of “medicine” and “religion:” the Denshibyō-kuden implies a phenomenology of aroma linking moxa with Parthian incense of esoteric rites, evokes mythic memories of past-life demon subjugation (kijin kōfuku), and resonates with and inspires belief in bodies born with ‘corpses’/’worms’ (sanshi/gushōjin). The text also lures us beyond its immediate margins to body diagrams, diaries, and rituals, all of which suggest discernible historical moments of these particular enactments of disease and treatment, medicine and religion in practice.

Ye Yuan, Columbia University

Buddhist Vegetarianism and the Rhetoric of Qing: A Case Study of Literati’s Buddhist Practice in Seventeenth-century Chin
In late imperial China, a new intellectual trend created a comparatively liberal atmosphere for the literati and provided them with the theoretical rationale for new interpretations and presentations of classics. It contributed to the syncretism of the three teachings--namely Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism--and encouraged the intellectuals to re-explain the sages’ ideals by incorporating the reality and practical needs of each individual. Resulting from this trend, early Qing (1644-1912) literati Song Zuqian chose to break his Buddhist vegetarianism to show his affection to his family, and he justified his misconduct using the rhetoric of qing (love). Song’s case raises some questions regarding the literati’s Buddhist practice in seventeenth century China. The present study examines both the Buddhist vegetarianism and the cult of qing and how they related to literati’s Buddhist practice at that time, in an attempt to contemplate their Buddhist practice in the context of the synthesis of the three teachings and the popularization of lay religious practices in the society at large. This study points out, the literati’s Buddhist practice not only demonstrates the syncretism; but also signifies that they were consciously reflecting on their own Buddhist practice and actively forming their own interpretations. This paper begins with brief accounts of Song, and then investigates the development of the vow of Buddhist vegetarianism in China. It also explores cult of qing, as well as Song’s life experience and textual persona, in order to answer the questions of why and how qing could be utilized as Song’s self-legitimization of breaking Buddhist precepts.

Coping with Disaster and Loss in Modern Japan

Discussant: Maggie Mustard, Columbia University
Saturday, 1:00 PM   411 Kent Hall

Kelly McCormick, University of California, Los Angeles

Photographing Trauma in Postwar Japan: Domon Ken and Tōmatsu Shōmei
I would like to add nuance to the discussion of the trajectory of Japanese photography by questioning the dominant narrative of postwar photography that holds Domon Ken (1905–1990) and Tōmatsu Shōmei (1930 ¬¬– ) in resistance to each other. By naming Domon Ken the “father” of documentary photography, and Tōmatsu the unruly child who played a leading role in “New Photography,” Tōmatsu and Domon are relegated to incompatible sides of photographic practice. However, I argue for picture of postwar photography as a battleground on which perceived differences in representational strategies may have often lead to unexpected alliances and a sharing of visual strategy. To do so, I address the photographic series by Domon and Tōmatsu in the book Hiroshima Nagasaki Document 1961. Published by the Japan Council Against A & H Bombs, this book of photographs, paintings, and poems about the experiences of survivors of the atomic bomb, complicates the relationship that each photographer has to the work of the other and to the difficulty of representing trauma. By reading the work of Domon and Tōmatsu in collusion with each other I believe that I can reveal an alternate visual world in which they both make photographs in similar ways and for similar goals.

Diana Scott, Columbia University

Real Progress? Japanese NPOs and the Tohoku disaster disaster
On March 11, 2011 Japan experienced what is often referred to as a ‘triple disaster’: a 9.0 earthquake in Tohoku, a massive tsunami in its wake, and the Fukushima nuclear accident. While there are numerous lessons to be learned by studying the aftermath of “3/11”, I will focus on two particular aspects of the disaster response in an effort to discuss what kinds of political reforms might benefit Japan in the anticipation of future catastrophes. The first concerns a government structure that fosters regional dependency on the national government, made obvious by the manner in which local governments were restricted in their efforts to respond to the destruction caused by the earthquake and tsunami. The second failing can be characterized as the lack of communication between Japan’s political leadership, the media, and the general public during and after the disaster, which can be linked to a shortage of strong political leaders. In analyzing both aspects I will employ cross-cultural comparison of the U.S. and Japan with regards to federalism and its role in disaster management and recovery.

Kenneth M. Shima, University of California, Los Angeles

Critical Histories: Disaster, Archive, and Censorship
With the Great Kantō Earthquake of 1923, Tokyo as a textual space and storehouse of material history vanished. This traumatic absence in the material world foregrounded new problems of writing history under censorship; not only with regard to the disaster and subsequent massacres, but for the writing of history itself; what was at stake in representing the past? From the 1880s onward, historiography as an academic method structuring knowledge, time, and memory in a new epistemological frame rose via global exchange and the University as a site of knowledge production. This modern archive serves a dual role of defining the point of departure for history and the sequence in which narratives—personal, local, national—occurred. Political power deployed through jurisdiction over the here and there, the inside and outside of this narrative is also systematically ‘forgotten’ during the historical violence of archivization. Following the earthquake, archival projects such as zenshi (全史) or simply shi (史) were flooding the market. This trend raises key questions of the definition of a cultural asset: what historical authority can make the past into cultural property? Two figures, Miyatake Gaikotsu and Umehara Hokumei, whose work overlaps during the 1920s, emphasized historicism and journalism as they launched archiving projects—writing histories of a fundamentally heterogeneous society uncontainable to a national frame. Incorporating ideas from Benjamin, Derrida, and de Certeau amongst others, this paper targets previously unaddressed works to explicate shifting contexts and the implications of how history was conceived and produced.

From Cold War to Soft Power: Chinese Foreign Policy

Discussant: John Chen, Columbia University
Saturday, 1:00 PM   511 Kent Hall

Benjamin Creutzfeldt, Externado University of Colombia

China's Rise and its foreign policy towards Latin America: a new paradigm in International Relations
The re-emergence of China as a global player has generated much debate and theorizing both inside China and abroad, and there is both concern and hope with respect to the future role this country and its policies. Chinese officials and scholars have begun to think beyond an US-dominated world order, and are attempting to formulate and legitimise alternative global norms. This study explores the case of Latin America to analyse Chinese foreign policy in terms of its coherence and the reality it meets with. Just as China is a new and unfamiliar actor in Latin America, China’s policymakers have much to learn about this region. Studies and documents from China include the Caribbean in their broad brush approach and diplomatic representatives are rotated through the region at a swift rate, suggesting a good overview but little country-specific differentiation, an approach at odds with Latin American self-perception. By disaggregating contemporary Chinese policy documents and speeches through critical discourse analysis and setting the results within the growing body of literature in Chinese International Relations studies, elements emerge of an ideology that spells out new paradigms within IR. Extensive interviews both in China and in selected countries in Latin America flesh out this study, with the aim of evaluating and corroborating the theoretical elements underlying China’s foreign policy.

Yin Qingfei, The George Washington University

The Origins of China’s Decision to Neutralize Laos and Cambodia at the Geneva Conference of 1954
The Geneva Conference of 1954 witnessed the formulation of China’s neutralization policy toward Laos and Cambodia. This was the first time that Red China formally promoted neutrality of other countries. Previous historiography maintains that China facilitated the neutralization of Laos and Cambodia (1) as the prerequisite for endorsing the withdrawal of Viet-Minh troops from Laos and Cambodia, (2) to hinder the integration of Laos and Cambodia into the Southeastern Asia collective defense system led by the US, and (3) to implement the Moscow’s compromising foreign policy. These explanations, however, are neither sufficient nor accurate. Using archival sources from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and translated Russian documents, this paper argues that the main reason for China’s decision to neutralize Laos and Cambodia was Beijing’s relations with its Asian neighbors. China’s initial stubborn stance on Laos and Cambodia issue provoked considerable concerns among new independent countries such as Burma, India, and Indonesia that China would tenaciously export revolution and spread communism to Southeast Asia. Fears over alienating Asian countries and pushing them to the embrace of the US forced China to promote neutralism rather than communism in Laos and Cambodia. This research sheds light on the strong bargaining power of Asian countries against Beijing in the incipient stage of the communist regime as well as the reasons for China’s moderate foreign policy in the mid-1950s. Following this logic, the radicalization of China’s foreign policy in 1960s was characterized by the declining influence of neighboring countries on Beijing’s foreign behaviors.

Li Siyuan, University of Leeds

China's Smart Application of National Power: An Example of China's Confucius Institute in Africa
As China's national power has seen rapid growth, China’s influence in the African continent, which used to be the backyard of Europe, has also increased dramatically. As a tool of its new diplomatic initiative, the non-profit Confucius Institute was established by the Government of China in 2004 and specifically designed to promote Chinese language and culture in foreign countries. In less than eight years since its inception Africa has 36 of the Confucius Institute (established in 26 African countries), teaching Chinese language and promoting Chinese culture to the local people. The promotion of the expansion of the Confucius Institutes in Africa seems central to the ambitions of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), which is an official forum between China and African countries proposed by the Chinese government in 2000 as a smart application of its national power (the term “soft power” will not be used in here due to the paradox of the theory itself). The main purposes of FOCAC are to further strengthen friendly cooperation, jointly meet the challenge of economic globalization and promote common development.

Locating the Periphery in East Asia

Discussant: Tristan Brown, Columbia University
Saturday, 1:00 PM   424 Kent Hall

Roslynn Ang, New York University

State's non-presence via politics of the periphery in Ainu lands
This paper examines the fluid boundaries between the Tokugawa government, the Matsumae clan and the various Ainu communities, in order to explore how a decentered politics of power works at the periphery. During the Tokugawa period, the politics in Ainu lands was marked by an alterity in shifting identities and politics, and a policy of non-interference in Ainu internal sovereignty. Thereafter, the supposed deterioration of Ainu population and ability for self-subsistence provided one of the basis for official state intervention in early Meiji. However, I argue that it was precisely the convenient absence of direct intervention in Ainu politics that creates the condition for colonization. This was accomplished through Matsumae’s increased trade monopoly and simultaneous obstruction of trade with non-Matsumae merchants. A peripheral space through the rhetoric of ‘not allowing’ other regional interactions shifts the boundaries of the Ainu into a sole dialectical relationship with the Matsumae, and the flow of material resources and cultural objects coagulated into a structure of dependency and unequal trade relations. Consequently, the unscrupulous trade conducted by private Japanese individuals absolves the metropole and emphasized the inevitability of Ainu’s societal degradation. This laid the ground for buiku or benevolent rule of the central government, justifying the amalgamation into settler society. A critical focus on the space in boundaries shows a structure of both elimination and amalgamation that coagulates the internal contents within these boundaries, leading to a dichotomy of the colonist and colonized, and contributes to a complication in the language of reparation.

Jinju Wu, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Humans, Ghosts, Gods and Wizards: Research on the Religion of Rebellious Miao in Imperial China, 1700-1900
In this paper, I examine the Miao rebellions that occurred in southwestern China between 1700 and 1900 and try to develop insight into the spiritual world of these rebels. Historians of China and other countries had done a lot of jobs on the study of Miao rebellions. However, the religion of rebellious Miao was ignored in previous studies. I attempt to answer these questions: What did the insurrectionists believe in? What roles did their religious beliefs play in the Miao rebellions which had great influence on the domination of Qing government? What were Qing authority’s attitudes towards rebels’ religion and how did officials react? The most important sources used in this paper are official documents, including memorials, reports and depositions of these rebels, which offered details of Miao rebellions. Equally useful are local gazetteers and literates’ descriptions. Besides, folklores about the uprisings, handed down from one generation to another, can also be utilized after comparing with other historical sources. Over past millennia, Miao was deemed as an uncivilized and barbaric group. By and large, their daily lives, urges and beliefs in ancient China remain mysterious to us. Nevertheless, by doing research on the Miao rebels, we can know more about Miao people and their real lives.

Runxiao Zhu, Columbia University

A King’s Ambition: Makzor Gönpo and Sino-Tibetan Relations in the Eighteenth Century
Choné (Tib: co ne, Ch: Zhuoni 卓尼) was once a powerful kingdom in the Sino-Tibetan borderland of Amdo, in present-day southern Gansu, China. It wielded power over lands as far as the north-west region of China and politically became important during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). This paper examines two military campaigns of the eleventh Choné king Makzor Gönpo (1686-1725) to explain that Choné′s rise on the frontiers of Amdo displays how local rulers elevated their prestige and justified their control over the region by building a close connection with the imperial court. Documentary evidence suggests the prominence of the kingdom of Choné within regional politics begins only during the early eighteenth century, specifically during the reign of the eleventh king Makzor Gönpo. In order to reach a clearer understanding of how the local king legitimized his rulership over the territory and stabilized his political power by establishing a close relation with the imperial court, I propose that one must take the local rulers′ outlook into consideration.

Knowledge in/and Context in Medieval Japan

Discussant: Nan Ma Hartmann, Columbia University
Saturday, 1:00 PM   628 Kent Hall

Jungeun Lee, University of Pittsburgh

The Power of Owning Exclusive Knowledge: The Socio-political Significance of Secrecy in Ashikaga Shogunal Art Manuals
Japanese illustrated art manuals, which provide information on how to properly arrange the shogunal collections, have not only enjoyed significant status as curatorial icons of Japanese taste but have also received great scholarly attention. Most studies, however, deal with the contents as a primary source for examining shogunal art objects and their connections to China. In contrast to these previous studies, this paper examines the issue of secrecy, which is mainly discussed in religious circles in medieval Japan, in conjunction with secular art arrangements. By focusing on the fact that the shoguanl art manuals were compiled as secret texts (hisho), this paper explores the meaning of restrictive access in the manuals. To investigate this issue, my analysis concentrates on one particular art manual Okazarisho, which was made in 1573 by Sōami, a cultural advisor (dōbōshu) working for both Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436-1490) and Ashikaga Yoshitane (1466-1523). The text (postscript) of Okazarisho features a clear statement stating that it may be accessed only by the shogun. By analyzing both the visual and textual information in Okazarisho as well as the socio-political circumstances of the time period, this paper suggests how owning exclusive knowledge relates to Ashikaga Yoshitane and his socio-political authority and adds to the recent discussion of secrecy in medieval Japan.

Jeffrey Knott, Stanford University

While Rome Burned? Reading Genji after the Ōnin War (1467-1477)
In traditional accounts of Japan’s Warring States Period (1467-1568), medieval Kyoto features most prominently as a field of battle. Armed clashes in the streets of the ancient capital itself have provided a powerful symbol of the era’s lawlessness, when not even the imperial palace seemed safe in a world of gekokujō upheaval. Due emphasis may be given to the potentially creative stimulus on social life of such unprecedented disorder, but overall it is a picture that disposes us to see the court and its culture as fugitive, threatened, escapist. This paper argues that such a view must be revised. The copious literary remains of the period, while full enough of fear and lament, challenge our narrative of decline and obsolescence with their abundant evidence of flourishing poetic and artistic activity. In particular I focus on the well-documented literary practice of Sanjōnishi Sanetaka (1455-1537). Not only the preeminent waka poet of his generation, as scholar and dedicated reader of the Tale of Genji he has influenced our understanding of the work to date. Through an examination of his efforts on both fronts, I seek to suggest that post-Ōnin Kyoto—and beyond—in fact saw an unexampled expansion in the literary sphere during this period, one that calls for a thorough reappraisal.

Kendra Strand, University of Michigan

Sôkyû’s “Souvenirs for the Capitol”: Constructions of Space in Medieval Japanese Travel Writing
My dissertation, "Aesthetics of Space: Representations of Travel in Medieval Japanese Text, Image and Performance," examines acts of traveling through, and making representations of, the landscape of Japan in the 14th-15th centuries. The present paper treats "Souvenirs for the Capitol" (Sôkyû, ca. 1350), a travel diary which combines prose and poetry to record one lay monk’s journey from Kyoto into northern Japan. The prose sections describe Sôkyû’s movement through geographic space, and are punctuated by poems composed at important places in the literary canon. Each poem utilizes the history of these places—envisioning a landscape saturated with meaning and positing a direct link to Sôkyû’s perceived predecessors—and demonstrates Sôkyû’s aesthetic ideal for a literary form with significant political application. Drawing on the concept of ma (間 space or gap), we can further examine how "Souvenirs" constructs a complex notion of space in interrelated ways: as a geographic and temporal construction of authority; as the index of an interpretive gap; as an “otherworldly” arena in which the traveler can freely construct his own lineage. In short, by combining geography (landscape and realm) with poetry (canon and political performance), "Souvenirs" aspires to participate in canon construction, and reflects the broader project of describing space, and travel through it, in medieval Japan. It also helps elucidate the act of writing about travel in general, whether within or beyond the borders of what is considered Japan at different points in history.

Gender in Contemporary East Asia

Discussant: Rachel Staum, Columbia University
Saturday, 2:45 PM   411 Kent Hall

Claire M. Kaup, Princeton University

Sex in the Courtroom: Law No. 111 and Legal Control of the Japanese Trans Community
Highly visible vis a vis performance and sexualized environments, but relegated to outer social strata in “normal” life, Japanese transsexual individuals occupy a socio-cultural space limited by restrictive legislation and the population’s general silence towards LGBT issues. In this project, I will provide an analysis of current legal realities for Japanese transsexuals (as opposed to individuals who cross-dress for performative purposes), and how they are received within the larger social and legal structure. Specifically, I will focus on Japan’s Law No. 111 (the Law Concerning Special Cases in Handling Gender for People with Gender Identity Disorder), utilizing sources such as Diet minutes, legal cases, scholarly articles, and newspaper articles to assess the current social and legal climate surrounding trans issues in Japan. Advocated for by Kamikawa Aya, the first openly transsexual politician in Japan’s history, Law No. 111’s primary function is to allow transsexuals (that is, transsexuals that fall under a strict set of requirements determined by the government) to change their legal sex in the koseki (the Japanese family registry system), and is largely recognized as a big step forward for the Japanese trans community. However, because Law No. 111 ultimately serves to enforce a binary gender hierarchy, violate reproductive freedom, and engender harmful discrimination, the law fails to help the community it purports to serve. Acknowledging that I will not be able to make any large, sweeping statements about trans life in Japan; this project will contribute to future research on Japanese sexual minorities and the law.

Rachel Leng, Duke University

Comrade Literature from Mainland China: (Re)Producing Homoerotic Genders and Sexualities to Subvert the Chinese Heterosexual Hegemony
This paper analyzes “Comrade Literature” (tongzhi wenxue), a body of online fiction linked to the experiences of an underground Chinese homosexual community that emerged in the mid-1990s. Although there is significant scholarship on China’s history of same-sex relations, modern Chinese queer literature has not yet received critical attention. A close analysis of “The Illusive Mind” (2003) reveals how these texts portray fluid gender relations and identities of male homosexual characters to destabilize hegemonic gender norms in Chinese society. The Comrade story depicts the emotional experiences of a male first-person narrator as he navigates his social and sexual identity through both homo- and heteroerotic relations. Published after China’s decriminalization of homosexuality in 1997, the story homologizes same-sex and opposite-sex behaviors by inscribing homosexual male relations within the heterosexual paradigm. Concurrently, however, the text subverts hegemonic ideologies of gender and sexuality by accentuating homosexual relations as distinct from and perhaps more ideal than dominant heterosexual practices. I contend that “The Illusive Mind” exemplifies how Comrade fictions blur boundaries between homo/heterosexual behavior and identities to challenge hegemonic norms that pervade contemporary Chinese society. This paper borrows from Judith Butler’s theory of gender performance to examine the conceptual tension in both stories where same-sex and opposite-sex practices are simultaneously homologized yet differentiated. My conclusion argues that these contrary tendencies coexist in the literary (re)productions of performative masculinity and femininity reinscribedwithin male tongzhi relations, thereby forging a space for non-normative genders and sexualities to emerge.

Wei-Tso Liu, National Chengchi University

Traces of Traditional Ethics in Crystal Boys
The aim of this paper is to uncover the influences of traditional Confucian ethics in Taiwanese gay texts. This paper argues that while Crystal Boys challenges mainstream ideas, the ideology conveyed—and rejected by the mainstream—in this gay novel adheres to the mainstream heterosexual framework, perhaps due to the author’s subjection to traditional Confucian ideology and the mainstream heterosexual mindset. Gay literature in Taiwan has started to expand, with much credit attributed to Pai Hsien-yung’s Crystal Boys (1983). Its compassionate tones and themes of familial love and family ethics, on some levels Pai Hsien-yung successfully communicates the idea that “sons of sin are not sinful, they are the same as normal people (heterosexuals),” awarding Crystal Boys an unprecedented popularity—and even a television drama adaptation—becoming both a “popular” and “classic” gay novel, a combination rarely seen in the history of Taiwanese literature. Crystal Boys barely confronts the physical desires or relationships of gay men. Most gay characters long for their fathers and constantly seek out replacement father figures and the novel continually highlights their feelings toward and basic desire for family. Crystal Boys does not attempt to overturn mainstream values, but instead reinforce them and reveal attachments to the established order. The novel’s conservativeness and compliance to the established system—which is beneficial to heterosexuals—displays how deeply and thoroughly traditional Confucian ideology has penetrated the author, literature, and the entire Chinese society.

Individual Papers on Modern Korea

Discussant: Sujung Kim, Columbia University
Saturday, 2:45 PM   522C Kent Hall

Nuri Kim, Harvard University

Sushi, Guns and Messiahs: The Global Division of Labor of the Unification Church
The recent death of its founder and self-proclaimed messiah, Moon Sun Myung, has temporarily catapulted the Unification Church back into the global media spotlight. While in the ‘70s and ‘80s, the Church was one of the most notorious “cults” in America, for some time now, it has been invested in rendering itself more socially acceptable. My paper seeks to explore how it was possible for the Unification Church – established in Korea as a product of the colonial experience and the Korean War – to align itself with important segments of American society, often through conservative anti-communist politics. This sheds light on the larger global trends of the Church, which had utilized Cold War alliances for its expansion. Thus, I will also investigate the different paths the Church took in Korea and Japan, since especially in Japan, conflict with society remains severe. My hypothesis is that the key to understanding these divergent paths is the Church’s Korea-centered worldview that reverses the colonial relationship between Korea and Japan, as well as the structure of the Church’s global business empire which relies much on Japanese labor to maintain its position as leading sushi supplier in America. Ultimately, I seek to draw a picture that makes sense of the Church’s global division of labor, historical development, theology, and practice of arranged international marriages that enables many of the Church’s global operations. More broadly, this study will also contribute to the understanding of new religious movements in transformation, cold war globalization “from below” and religious-political alliances.

June Hee Kwon, Duke University

The Economy of Kinship: Two Koreas and Korean Chinese on the Border of Yanbian, China
Reflecting the post-Cold War circumstance of China and the two Koreas and the rampant marketization of post-socialist China, this essay explores the unstable currency attached to Korean Chinese kinship ties with the two Koreas. Korean Chinese, an ethnic minority group that originally moved from the Korean peninsula to the borderland of China a century ago, have altered, attenuated, or expanded their kinship relations with the two Koreas in conjunction with changing political and economic circumstances. Exploring the economy of kinship as a means to transfer either goods (to North Korea) or invitation rights (to South Korea), I highlight the currency of kinship in formulating the contemporary flow of Korean Chinese migration. This essay has two parts. In the first part, I explore the geography and historiography of Yanbian, as an ethnic border zone, demonstrating the way that Korean Chinese have been constituted as border subjects, not only in terms of geographical location, but also ethnic and ideological borders. In the second section, I examine the ramifications of the resumed kinship ties that were broken by political interruptions while looking into the contrasting cases of those who have ties to North Korea and to South Korea. Drawing on ethnographic accounts of the unstable and contingent nature of kinship, I argue that the links and ruptures facilitated by the economy of kinship have continuously rewired the connectivity of this borderland to the global economy, affecting new flows of migration from China to Korea, and from Korea to China.

Brigit Stadler, University of Washington

Leave Mine to Me: Power, National-Cultural Identity, and Independence Movements in Korea and Ireland
Both Korea and Ireland were formally and forcibly brought under the political control of their colonizing neighbour through acts of annexation. While the circumstances of the annexations were different, the policies put in place to assert political, social, and cultural dominance were surprisingly similar. Both nations, in rising against their conquerors, made appeals to the rules of law and to their sovereignty apart from the colonizing regime. This paper aims to analyze the means by which each state asserted itself vis-a-vis the other: policies of assimilation; appeals of the colonized to previous rules of law; and of early modern struggles for independence. To better understand the independence movements in Ireland and Korea, it makes heavy use of Foucauldian notions of sovereign and disciplinary power, of law, raison d’être and raison d’état, attempted coups d’état, and the nature of each colonial military government’s immediate reaction to and suppression of the Easter Rising and March First Movement.

Material Culture and Narrative in Meiji and Taishō Japan

Discussant: Joshua Schlachet, Columbia University
Saturday, 2:45 PM   424 Kent Hall

Tanya Barnett, University of California, Los Angeles

Landscape and the Body: The Paintings and Poetry of Murayama Kaita
As the symbolist movement became prominent in the Taisho period, representations in literature and art shifted from naturalism and sensibility to decadent expressions of emotion. Jeffrey Angles points out the concern of Taisho artists regarding Japan's location in the sphere of modernity as something that had left a schism between the inner-world of the self and the external world of capital and industrialization. The poet, Murayama Kaita was at the forefront of this movement. Kaita's work seeks to bridge this gap through his usage of landscape as a metaphor for emotion. Karatani Kojin writes that it is only after the alienation from landscape that we discover it as an object to be viewed. Kaita's work reflects a discovery of two forms of landscape in two difference spaces. In this paper, I seek to explore the ways in which Kaita's discovery of landscape occurs simultaneously with the discovery of inner-expression through the experience of the decadent. Furthermore I seek to explore how his discovery of the body as landscape coincides with his move from Kyoto to Tokyo and his descent into consumption and excess through migration to his cosmopolitan utopia.

Alexis Agliano Sanborn, Harvard University

The Girl in the Red Shoes: Themes of Longing Through a Keychain
In the summer of 2011 Tokyu Hands, a department store branch of the Tokyu Group focusing on hobby, home improvement and lifestyle began to sell “Made in Yokohama” products nationwide. “MIY” products were purposefully designed by precedence; everything from form, font and general design alluding and attempting to recreate and recapture industries, culture, movements and emotions of times past. “The Girl in the Red Shoes” product line was inspired by the 1920s children’s song set in the Yokohama which relates the story of a girl “taken away” by a foreigner across the seas. The song remains relatively well known and has accordingly become a symbol to the city of Yokohama itself. While MIY may have simply drawn upon historical precedence for product development, The Girl in the Red Shoes product line alludes to continuing tensions within post-modern Japan society, in particular to the unresolved emancipation of women and anti-globalization movements in Japan. This paper focuses on the social, cultural and historic legacy connected to this simple object, discussing the influence of fairy tales, popular culture, technology, new lifestyle patterns, localism, nostalgia, Japanese women’s emancipation and their unique relations to the West (and Western men), cosmopolitanism amongst others. Covering periods from the 1880s to the present, it is an interdisciplinary paper reflecting the conflicting tension of globalism and localism present within a simple object.

Seung Yeon Sang, Boston University

When “Invented Tradition” Met Science: Mapping Chanoyu Tea Bowls in Japanese Art History
Beginning in the 1880s and 1890s, the changing perception of the tea utensils in chanoyu (tea ceremony) was closely tied to the issues of constructing Japanese art history and defining “fine arts” (bijutsu) on the ground of the imported Western disciplines. The Japanese ceramics (once, tea bowls in chanoyu) suffered to fit into art history canons and were relegated to the lower rank of decorative arts in Japanese art history during the early Meiji period (1868-1912). Shortly after, in attempts to reinvent tea culture for the new age, the groups of Japanese intellectuals, equipped with new scientific and archaeological knowledge, established the Japanese ceramic “tradition” by using proper historical sources and empirical data. As opposed to the esoteric chanoyu connoisseurship on tea bowls, the scholarly groups (for example, the Saikōkai) paved the way for Japanese ceramic scholarship in the early 20th century with discoveries of “scientific evidence” such as studying traditional ceramic techniques, surveying kiln sites, and collecting shards for further study. My paper will investigate how modern studies of Japanese ceramics attempted to correct the existing canon of certain Japanese tea bowls, produced by tea mythology and lore, by applying Western-style scientific and critical methods of research, but serving finally to create a modern myth of chanoyu tradition in Japan’s national identity formation. Therefore, it will address dichotomies of tradition versus modernity, fine arts versus crafts, and East versus West by critically accessing and locating chanoyu tea bowls in Japanese art history.

Roundtable Discussion: Methods in Early China

Saturday, 2:45 PM   511 Kent Hall

Junpeng Bai and William French, Harvard University and Jiling University

Numbers and Lines: Archaeological Evidence and the Origins of the Yijing
Abstract: The ancient divination manual Yijing (commonly known as the Book of Changes in English) is one of the oldest Confucian classics, and has had a profound impact on Chinese intellectual and philosophical history. The core of the Yijing is the set of 64 combinations of broken and unbroken lines called hexagrams. Linked to such fundamental concepts as "Heaven" and "Earth", the hexagrams and their origins remain shrouded in mystery. In the 1970s, renowned Chinese paleographer Zhang Zhenglang was the first to employ evidence from recently excavated oracle bones and bronze inscriptions to argue that the hexagrams derived from sequences of numerals. These sequences had long been mistaken as so-called "clan insignia" symbols. Zhang called these sequences “numerical hexagrams”, and postulated that even and odd numbers eventually turned into broken and unbroken lines, respectively. This paper examines developments in research since Zhang's discovery more than 40 years ago, and offers new insight into the origins and development of the hexagrams. In particular it utilizes newly excavated inscriptions from tombs at Suizhou, Hubei Province. Dated to the Western Zhou, these tombs contain bronze inscriptions that shed new light on the development of the numerical hexagrams. By reevaluating recent arguments in light of this new evidence, this paper demonstrates how paleographic materials can be utilized to explore the origins of the Yijing.

Christopher Foster, Harvard University

The Materiality of Divination: An Analysis of Crack Notations in the Huayuanang Oracle-Bone Inscriptions
Ever since the discovery of Shang oracle-bone inscriptions at the turn of the twentieth century, scholars have been frustrated by the presence of crack notations. Although these markings promise to shed light on how the Shang performed plastromancy, previous attempts to interpret crack notations via palaeographic research have failed to produce significant results. The fragmentary nature of the initial corpora of oracle bones has also impeded progress. My paper proposes to revisit the question of crack notations, both by turning to a new corpus of material, and by adopting a methodology sensitive to the material conditions of the divination records. In 1991 a new cache of turtle plastrons was discovered at a site east of Huayuanzhuang (花園莊). The Huayuanzhuang collection bears over 500 inscribed turtle plastrons, many intact or nearly intact. This cache is also unique because divination records were inscribed around specific cracks on the plastrons, allowing us to relate crack notations unambiguously with a physical location on the plastron and a particular divination record. My paper proposes to use the Huayuanzhuang corpus as a case study for the quantitative analysis of crack notations. It seeks to uncover patterns about the physical placement of positive and negative charges, as a hint at how crack notations were determined. Moreover, it asks if there are correlations in the placement of divination record themes, which might suggest that the texts were manipulated by diviners to best fit the material condition of the plastrons.

Yitzchak Jaffe, Harvard University

Understanding ancient settlement patterns and economic strategies through grave location – A case study from Northeastern China
Most mortuary analysis research focuses on the various attributes of the graves, the artifacts unearthed and the place of the deceased in a given society. In this paper I will address preferences for graves location within the spatial distribution of both the dead and the living. The graves comprising the test case for analysis belong to Upper Xiajiadian culture (ca. 1100-600 BCE): an important Bronze Age culture of Northeast China. Pastoralism, as a full-fledged economic strategy, emerged in this region for the first time during this period, even as agriculture remained an important source of food production. The way this new pastoral activity was employed is still disputed, and two possible reconstructions have been suggested: 1. A single society practicing both agriculture and pastoralism, or 2. Two distinct societies that shared many aspects of their material cultures, but were divided by their specialized economic strategies. My GIS analysis finds an UXJD society in which agriculture and pastoralism were practiced in tandem and that these economic strategies and did not constitute a group divide. A model is proposed viewing the burials as a cultural-expansion negative where elements of society would embark on pastoral campaigns, either as opportunistic ventures or in times of crisis, to remote areas of the region where the initial stages of these campaigns would be marked by individual graves. In time, these newly forged areas burgeoned into settlements and communities demarcated by proportionally larger graveyards, and eventually the process would start anew.

Andrew Womack, Yale University

Satellite Remote Sensing and Archaeology: Detecting Degradation at Sites on the Chengdu Plain, Sichuan, China
Over the last twenty years archaeologists have begun to utilize satellite remote sensing capabilities for identifying and mapping archaeological sites from space; few however have explored the possibilities of using this technology to monitor change in archaeological sites over time. Here very high resolution (CORONA; Google Earth) and medium resolution (ASTER) satellite imagery is used to attempt to detect change over time at eight Neolithic sites on the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan, China. In the first case CORONA images from 1971 are compared with modern Google Earth images to determine if above ground site features have degraded over time. In the second section ASTER imagery from 2001 and 2011 is classified and compared to determine changes in land use patterns around sites. Conclusions are then drawn about both the usefulness of these methods for archaeology and about the state of preservation of archaeological sites on the Chengdu Plain.

Technology and Warfare

Discussant: Chien-Wen Kung, Columbia University
Saturday, 2:45 PM   403 Kent Hall

Nele Glang, University of Sheffield

Republican China's secret wartime diplomacy with Germany
Western and Chinese studies of Sino-German relations in the Republican period have tended to list China’s end of diplomatic ties with Germany in July 1941 as a watershed in bilateral ties. Little attempt has been made to examine the relationship further, and the current narrative of a relationship, which ended with both sides becoming firmly entrenched on their respective ‘sides’ until 1945 remains unchallenged. I intend to challenge such assumptions. Based on archival research carried out in Asia and Europe, I will present findings which represent part of my current doctoral project. I will also show how the uncovering of an on-going relationship between Chongqing and Germany contributes substantially to our understanding of concepts such as back channel diplomacy in the case of Republican China. Central to my argument is that hitherto unknown channels of communication between Germany and China continued well on after 1941. Before summer 1941, these channels ran through Chinese military attaché, Gui Yongqing, as scholars such as Hsi-Huey Liang have already noted. Less known is the role of Gui in continuing to act as a liaison between Chongqing and Germany via his office in Switzerland. Similarly, a second channel of communication linking Chiang Kai-shek and the German resistance movement of July 20 1944 was maintained by another Nationalist, Qi Jun throughout the early 1940s. It is the story of the relationship that each of these individual maintained which form the foundation of this paper.

Juergen P. Melzer, Princeton University

Building a Flying Fortress to Bomb the Philippines: Japanese Airpower and International Diplomacy in the Early 1930s
In the early hours of October 26, 1930, a giant aircraft made its first takeoff from Japanese soil. With substantial help from Germany, Mitsubishi had built the Ki-20, Japan's first long-range bomber that was designed to fly non-stop to the U.S. bases in the Philippines where it would drop its bomb load of 11,000 pounds. Praised by the Japanese press as the "world’s largest super heavy bomber" the aircraft epitomized a radical shift in Japan’s international relations and national defense policy. Drawing on government documents and company archives, this presentation deciphers the complex messages of a technological artifact. Reaching beyond the narrow focus on military technology I argue that the new bomber embodied the final stage in the collapse of the Versailles-Washington treaty system. Germany and Japan successfully evaded the Versailles Treaty restrictions in order to export German military technology to Japan. At the same time, the Japanese strategists challenged the arms limitation of the Washington Naval Treaty through a massive expansion of air power. The Ki-20 project launched Japan's aerial armament into a new stage that allowed surprise attacks on the United States, the country that Japan's revised Imperial Defense Policy now defined as "hypothetical enemy number one." At the same time, by tightening economic and diplomatic relations between Japan and Germany, the joint aviation venture paved the way for the formation of the Axis Alliance and its grand scheme to reshape the Asian continent.

Ying Jia Tan, Yale University

Electrons and Technocracy: Managing Wartime Electrical Business in Wartime China, 1937-1945
Electrons were the unsung heroes in the War of Resistance. Signal equipment, flashlights and power generators were vital tools that allowed the Guomindang regime to maintain the war effort against the Japanese. This paper explores how the Central Electrical Manufacturing Works became the most important state-owned industry during the War of Resistance. It highlights three aspects of electrical engineering in wartime China. Firstly, China's first generation of engineers benefited from broad-based engineering education, which allowed them to create a global logistical network for China's wartime industries by making use of their connections with leading electrical industries in Europe and America. Secondly, it explores the role of engineers as business managers by looking at how engineers managed this capital-intensive and high-risk enterprise. Finally, it argues that wartime industries gave rise to the pre-conditions of the rise of technocracy in modern China.

Flows of Empire: Colonial Japan in Taiwan and Manchuria

Discussant: Sayaka Chatani, Columbia University
Saturday, 5:00 PM   403 Kent Hall

James Gerien-Chen, Columbia University

Ideology and Rhetoric in Taiwan Seinen
This paper, by James Gerien-Chen of Columbia University, examines the publication "Taiwan Seinen," written between the years of 1921 and 1923 by prominent Japanese thinkers and Taiwanese students studying in Tokyo. By contextualizing these discourses within a broader global framework, I argue that these students were working to reformulate aspects of Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan by utilizing globally-exchanged rhetoric from both philosophy and colonial policy theory. My analysis focuses specifically on articles written about reforming political representation and education--the former through a petition for a local parliament and home rule and the latter by calling for universal elementary education. I argue that discursive exchanges at the time enabled these students to conceive of new political subjectivities, and allowed them to propose reform of Japanese rule by inserting Taiwan into global currents of thought. 

Toulouse-Antonin Roy, McGill University

Between "Unassimilable Savages" and "Imperial Citizens": Japanese anthropology and the colonial "other" in Taiwan and Manchukuo
This paper deals with my ongoing graduate research on the history of anthropology in the prewar and wartime Japanese empire. While the linkages between anthropology and empire-building in Japan are well-known, their broader institutional and discursive histories remain relatively obscure. From Japan’s acquisition of its first formal colony (Taiwan) to the creation of the puppet regime of Manchukuo, the study of indigenous groups and their societies across the empire was instrumental in helping colonial managers create numerous mechanisms of social and institutional control. Using the different taxonomies and categories derived from anthropological field surveys, colonial administrators could successfully identify (and therefore control) local indigenous populations. These anthropological systems of knowledge also reverberated across metropolitan imaginaries, as descriptions and images of “primitive” indigenous peoples appeared in everything from academic journals to popular exhibitions. The circulation of anthropological knowledge in turn created a platform from which ideas of "Japaneseness", cultural assimilation, and notions of pan-Asian solidarity could be discussed. This paper examines the relationship between anthropology and empire in Japan by focusing on two areas where anthropologists were most active: Taiwan and Manchuria. Using everything from anthropological journals to accounts of colonial exhibitions across the metropole, this paper will examine the different ways in which systems of classifying the indigenous “other” shaped a wide range of administrative and social techniques of colonial governance. In addition, this paper will also demonstrate how these systems of anthropological knowledge were then integrated into wider discourses of Japanese multi-ethnic empire and imperial citizenship.

Seiji Shirane, Princeton University

Education Channels Between Colonial Taiwan and Fujian, 1895-1931
This presentation examines Japanese schools in Fujian province (southeast China) that were established for teaching Chinese and Taiwanese children as a case study in Sino-Japanese cultural relations. In contrast to previous Sino-Japanese studies that have concentrated on Chinese who studied in Tokyo during the late-Qing period, my presentation re-orients our geographic focus to Taiwan as a separate channel for the Japanese education of Chinese youth. Drawing on archival materials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Tokyo) and Government-General of Taiwan (Taipei), I argue that Taipei, rather than Tokyo, took the lead in Sino-Japanese educational exchange for Fujian officials and students. In collaboration with overseas Taiwanese gentry in Fujian, the Government-General of Taiwan administered one school in Fuzhou, Tōei Gakudō (est. 1908), and one school in Xiamen, Kyokuei Shoin (est. 1910). These schools hired Japanese instructors and imported the curriculum of colonial Taiwan. The goals of Japanese cross-straits education were two-fold. First, it aimed to teach overseas Taiwanese children, many of whom had never been to the island, to become "good Japanese subjects." Second, it sought to mollify rising anti-Japanese sentiment in Fujian by cultivating Chinese youth with skills and interests closely tied to Japan. The two schools were thus a critical means by which Japan competed for economic and cultural hegemony in the province.

Ledgers, Accounts and Statecraft from Qin to Song

Discussant: Arunabh Ghosh
Saturday, 5:00 PM   522C Kent Hall

Moonsil Lee Kim, University of California, Santa Barbara

Salary and Rationing System during China’s Qin and Han Periods: Accordance and discordance among ideologies, policies, and implementation
In this paper, I will examine regular and irregular food redistribution from the court to officials, soldiers and convicts focusing on salary, ration and gift-giving system in order to show when ideologies, regulations and implementation were in agreement and when they were not during the Han period. According to the salary list from Han historical literature, amount of grain given to mid-low level officials was not enough for one family to live on. Why did the Han government keep this salary system even though it could not supply the fundamental needs of middle to low ranking officials? And, how did they maintain the bureaucratic system, without encountering any significant trouble from these officials? In order to answer to these questions, the salary and gift-giving system will be examined based on historical literature, and then it will be compared to the wooden documents on salary payments discovered at Juyan 居延 and Dunhuang 敦煌 and the law codes on imperial bestowal unearthed from Zhangjiashan 张家山. Also, the food rations to officials, soldiers and convict laborers will be analyzed based on the Qin and Han statutes from Shuihudi 睡虎地 and Zhangjiashan, and they will be compared to the account of food records discovered at Xuanquan 悬泉, Dunhuang. This examination will show the nature of Qin and Han law codes on food distribution demonstrating the differences among ideology, legal codes and implementation.

Meng Zhang, University of California, Los Angeles

Accounting, Pricing and Profit Distribution: Evidence from the Account Books and Regulations of a State-owned Wine Enterprise in Southern Song China
Songren Yijian contains precious primary materials for Song liquor policies. The object of this study is the accounting record of the state-owned Shuzhou Brewery and Yaxi wine shop from early 1162, which was the only set of firm-level account record that is extant for the Song dynasty. There are several tentative findings: First, the state demanded keli qian as the theoretical revenue from selling the wine produced from the rice and other raw materials provided by the prefecture government. “Theoretical revenue” means that the revenue was calculated by multiplying the quantity of wine by the officially set selling price. Secondly, Keli qian, the theoretical return to the prefecture government’s investment, was actually distributed proportionally among the central government, several circuit-level agencies, and the prefecture. Thirdly, the official price, rather than determining the real prices undertaken by the consumers, only served as a uniform accounting standard. This means that the “theoretical revenues” extracted by the state was in fact much higher that the actual revenue from selling the quantity of wine produced from the materials contributed by the prefecture government. The way in which the state adjusted the share of the revenues from state-owned enterprises was through changing the official price, instead of directly announcing a change of the share of revenue that it claimed.

Literary Emotions, Illicit Desires

Discussant: Ye Yuan, Columbia University
Saturday, 5:00 PM   411 Kent Hall

Jessica Moyer, Yale University

Internal Conflict: Shi Chengjin's competing genres and viewpoints on women
Shi Chengjin (1649?-1739?), moralist and amateur literatus extraordinaire, was a prolific author whose output ranged from medical texts to collections of jokes to moral exhortations and short stories featuring Yangzhou local color. This paper will use his writings on women as a starting point from which to examine his multifaceted oeuvre and the dual role of genre within it. Different genres – morality text and biography – provide distinct voices through which to express differentiated and occasionally contradictory views on women’s role in the family; on the other hand, Shi also welds disparate and competing genres – morality text and short fiction – into a single chorus to express his own idiosyncratic vision of the world. Shi’s corpus of work thus reveals the inherent tension within literary genres as ideologemes in their own right and as malleable frameworks to be shaped by authors’ particular views.

Liu Peng, Columbia University

Crossing Boundaries: Re/Locating Desires in Ming-Qing Narratives
Focusing on the theme of crossing boundaries, the study attempts to argue that representations of desires are greatly diversified in Ming-Qing fiction and drama in the exploration of how characters overcome physical and spatial limits in order to fulfill their desires. In these cases, boundaries are set up by different media such as a painting, a wall, or a mirror. The acts of crossing boundaries contain different meanings. In late Ming narratives, human desires are celebrated and the concept of desire is intertwined with that of love; the crossing of boundaries reflects the intensity of human desires, capable of penetrating life and death, the real and unreal. The act of crossing a boundary is the victory of human desires, and the fulfillment of human desires is equivalent to that of human love, so to speak. Nevertheless, the theme seems to be an issue at stake in some Qing narratives, where the acts of crossing boundaries receive negative connotations and thus are regarded as inauspicious. They can result in nothing but death or the loss of the self.

Rebecca Shuang Fu, University of Pennsylvania

Writing as an Agency to Transcend the Mundane World: A Study on the Buddhist Women in Late Medieval China (600-1000)
This purpose of this paper is to examine how women in late medieval China participated in the making of Buddhist texts, as well as elaborating how a female’s literacy, often associated with her religious life, has been represented in extant documents. This study focuses on the inner world and religious quest of Tang women, which often came into materialization via the agency of texts. Daoism and Buddhism both played significant roles the life of women in late medieval China (especially Tang Dynasty), but the latter, in some cases, placed more demand for their disciples to involve in writing. This paper concludes that due to the popularization of Buddhism among the people in late medieval China, it became a cultural tradition for women to participate in the making of texts (like copying Buddhist sutras). They used writing as a practical agency for the purpose of achieving their aims with the certainty that the intended results would ensue. Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts relevant to female Buddhists serve as the main body of primary sources in this study. These precious medieval Chinese manuscripts from Dunhuang and Turfan were mainly made in seventh to tenth century and found by accident. They were not composed by official authorities or male elite and therefore facilitate my study to set foot in the world neglected by those who wrote the history that we read today.

Rethinking Japanese Architecture: Representation, Rehabilitation, and Repurposing

Discussant: Norihiko Tsuneishi, Columbia University
Saturday, 5:00 PM   511 Kent Hall

Jung Hui Kim, University of Pittsburgh

Rakugai Meisho Yūrakuzu by Kanō Eitoku: Lineal Authority and Political Alliance
Byōdōin, an eleventh-century Buddhist temple, has received much scholarly attention. Most of the studies deal with the temple itself as the cultural and religious heritage of the late Heian period. As distinct from the previous studies, my presentation takes the issues of reception and attempts to reveal the patrons’ political statements invested into the visual versions of the temple. My paper examines two earliest works – the late fifteenth-century Uji River fan and the sixteenth-century Pleasures in Famous Places around Kyōto screen. In the Uji River, I inquire the temple’s sudden emergence as pictorial images after a long period of neglect and propose the possibility of the Konoe family’s patronage. The Konoe family was the direct descendant of the Fujiwara clan, the former owner of Byōdōin. Under the historical circumstances of the time, it is highly possible that the unusual reappearance of Byōdōin in the Uji River can be read as the Konoe’s political intention to appropriate the authority of the Fujiwara family. Pleasures in Famous Places around Kyōto displays the Konoe’s ownership over Byōdōin more strongly. In this folding screen, I focus on the juxtaposition of Byōdōin and Tenryūji. While the image of Byōdōin is associated with the Konoe, Tenryūji shows a strong connection with the Ashikaga family in that it was commissioned by Ashikaga Takauji, the first Muromachi shogun. Considering these two families’ relationship, I interpret this interesting parallel as the Konoe’s another political gesture to display their connection with the shogunate.

Elizabeth Morrissey, University of Pittsburgh

Architecture and Ritual: The Nehan-e of Ishiyama-dera
The completed temple complex of Ishiyama-dera is first illustrated in the handscroll The Illustrated Legends of Ishiyama-dera in a scene showing the performance of the nehan-e (Nirvana Service) inside the main hall and in the adjacent courtyard. In this scene, the first nehan-e of Ishiyama-dera held in 804 was recorded from the perspective of the 14th century compilers of the scroll, however despite the numerous changes that the nehan-e has undergone over the centuries it is the Heian-period format featuring court dance and music (bugaku) that is illustrated in the handscroll. The nehan-e was well documented at other temples, particularly Kōfuku-ji, a temple site with a very different layout but which also performed this ritual in the same basic format, including bugaku court dances performed on an outdoor stage in front of the temple’s main hall. In the Ishiyama-dera engi-e illustration, the scene is depicted in such a way that Ishiyama-dera’s layout appears much closer to that of temples like Kōfuku-ji which featured a large enclosed courtyard directly in front of the main hall. In actuality, Ishiyama-dera is built on the steep side of a mountain and the central courtyard lies parallel to the main hall, rather than in front of it. Using the example of Ishiyama-dera’s first nehan-e this paper will investigate the relationship between temple architecture and the requirements of the rituals performed therein, considering what influence architecture had on the type of rituals performed at a temple and how rituals were adapted to different sites.

Elizabeth Self, University of Pittsburgh

From Mausoleum to Buddha Hall: Form and Function at Kenchōji’s Buddha Hall
In 1647, Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604-1651) decided to rebuild his mother’s magnificent mausoleum, located at the Tokugawa clan temple of Zōjōji in Edo. However, rather than simply tearing down the original mausoleum, built in 1626, he decided to bestow the building on the Zen temple of Kenchōji, in Kamakura. Kenchōji, one of the most important and earliest Zen temples in Japan, was a strange choice: the mausoleum, covered in elaborate polychrome decoration, seemed a poor match for traditional Zen architectural styles. Furthermore, Kenchōji was nearly thirty miles from Zōjōji; transporting an entire building that far would have been an arduous task in the 17th century. Nonetheless, the gift was eagerly accepted, and the former mausoleum of Sūgenin became Kenchōji’s Buddha Hall (butsuden), where it has remained until the present day. How did this change in function and location change the form of the former Sūgenin Mausoleum? Despite the complex history of this structure, art and architectural historians have historically focused on the buildings of Kenchōji as examples of pure Chinese-style Zen architecture. However, more recently, scholars of Japanese architecture have begun to look at the lifespan of buildings, studying the entire “biography” of a building, rather than just one moment in its history. This is important in Japan, where it was not uncommon for pre-modern architects to re-use entire buildings for dramatically different purposes. Following the example of scholars like Andrew Watsky, who studied the entire life of the temple-shrine at Chikubushima, I will present a framework for understanding how a Pure Land mausoleum became a Zen Buddha Hall.

Sara L. Sumpter, University of Pittsburgh

Sites of Encounter: The Representation of Liminal Spaces in Medieval Japanese Handscrolls
In tales from twelfth-and-thirteenth-century Japanese story collections, such as Konjaku monogatari and Uji shûi monogatari, encounters with dangerous supernatural phenomena are regularly depicted as occurring in spaces that mark boundaries, such as gates, bridges, and crossroads. As scholars have noted, supernatural entities often function as metaphors for “the other,” the unclean, or the hazardous. It therefore stands to reason that they would be associated with places perceived to be liminal—places where spirits remained potently active—and that such places would come to be seen as requiring great caution when being traversed. The perception of gates and bridges as ambiguous spaces where potentially dangerous encounters could occur was so strong that incidents involving such places could even lead to the commissioning of specific handscrolls, as in the case of the Ban Dainagon ekotoba, which narrates the well-known story of how Grand Counselor Tomo no Yoshio (811-868) set fire to the Ôtenmon Palace Gate in 866 in an attempt to frame a political rival. The scroll is thought to have been commissioned by the retired sovereign Go-Shirakawa (1127-92; r.1155-58) to placate the spirit of Tomo no Yoshio sometime after the same gate was destroyed by fire in 1177. Through a comprehensive analysis of handscrolls and textual sources from the medieval period, this paper will explore how liminal spaces like gates and bridges were conceptualized in medieval Japanese art and culture, thereby illuminating how and why they were used in illustrated handscrolls to emphasize encounters of an uncanny or wondrous nature.

Thinking Through Genres in Qing Historiography

Discussant: Zhang Jing, Columbia University
Saturday, 5:00 PM   424 Kent Hall

Daniel Burton-Rose, Princeton University

The Genealogy as a Source on Devotional Practice
The proposed paper evaluates the utility of genealogies of elite families in the Yangzi delta for studying religious practices during the Ming and Qing dynasties through examination of four extant editions of the Pengshi zongpu (1829, 1867, 1883, and 1922). The Peng lineage of Changzhou county in Suzhou was a quintessential Three Teachings family proclaiming the unity of Classicism, Daoism, and Buddhism as they materially supported the respective institutions of these creeds. From their rise to local prominence in the late sixteenth through the rupture of the Taiping Civil War in the mid-nineteenth century, the Peng lineage consistently produced high degree holders in the civil service examination while explaining their success as “harmonious response” (ganying) to their good works in such charitable activities as propagating morality books leading societies for vegetarianism and against killing animals, and for “cherishing the written word.” The question I plan to explore in this paper is: To what extent can the Pengs’ devotional activities be perceived in the Pengs’ own genealogies? My tentative conclusion is that the Pengshi zongpu provides surprising windows into the elite strata of common Chinese religious practices such as spirit-writing, yet for information on the institutional support Peng patriarchs provided local temples and shrines sources external to the genealogy, such as institutional gazetteers, are necessary.

Mårten Söderblom Saarela, Princeton University

Alphabetic Principles and Chinese Characters in Qing Dictionaries
Only rarely have dictionaries been written based solely on direct observation of linguistic usage, spoken or written. Exceedingly often have they been responses to other dictionaries. This paper examines a series of such responses from the tradition of Chinese lexicography, all dating from the Qing (1644–1911) period. Tracing the transformations of the dictionary Zihui 字彙 (The characters collected) by Mei Yingzuo 梅膺祚 (fl. 1615), the paper discusses several lexicographic efforts from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. In often independent efforts, Qing and Western lexicographers alike came up with strikingly similar ways of making dictionaries in the style of Zihui easier to use. These similarities, the paper argues, suggest that Chinese lexicography in the Qing period merits study as a translingual enterprise.Famous for establishing the graphic system of word-retrieval using 214 radicals, in the Qing period Mei's dictionary would be repeatedly reworked in the direction of phonic organization. Unsurprisingly, this happened in European dictionaries of Chinese, where vocabulary partly drawn from Zihui was put in alphabetical order. However, phonic organization was also introduced by Qing lexicographers in Chinese-language publications. Qing writers further adapted techniques from Manchu dictionaries, thereby developing a new form of alphabetico-syllabic organization. The paper argues that these efforts towards phonic organization reflected comparable needs of writers and readers, be they users of Chinese, Manchu, or European languages, and proposes a global perspective on the history of language-studies in the Qing period.

Mark Baker, Yale University

Unity on the Map: the National Geological Survey and the Shenbao Atlas
The first half of the twentieth century witnessed an important shift from a Qing imperial realm to the national territory of the Chinese nation-state, but more precise details and processes of this conceptual shift remain surprisingly unexplored. This paper begins to address the spatial and cartographical mechanisms bounding and deepening modern nationhood in China. I begin with the early topographical work of the National Geological Survey of China under the famous geologist Ding Wenjiang, seeing how even the weak warlord governments could support nation-alizing survey projects conducted in tandem with resource exploration. Next, I show how these topographical maps were later popularized for a mass audience, exploring the internal nature and external context of the 1933 “Shenbao Atlas”, edited by Ding himself and backed by the newspaper magnate Shi Liangcai. China’s first cheap and widely available “modern-style” mapbook, the “Shenbao Atlas” became an important school atlas and ran through four editions in the six years to 1939. Using contemporary reviews of the atlas and Ding’s own writings as well as a close reading of the maps themselves, I tentatively offer a taxonomy of the different forms of cartographic violence performed by this nation-building text. In its suppressions, omissions, homogenizations and subtle cartographic fantasies, the “Shenbao Atlas” – though both much less and much more than a crude tool for the regime – played a key role in solidifying and deepening imaginings of the modern Chinese nation-state.