Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation
A4125 - Building Systems I
Instructors: Tony Webster, Jay Hibbs
TA: Heather Waters Tuesdays, 2-6pm, 113 Avery Hall
Building Systems I begins by completing the discussion of basic structural systems begun in Structures II. Next, structural systems designed to ensure satisfactory performance of an entire building in the face of gravity and horizontal (wind and earthquake) loads are presented. Both framed or walled systems and non-framed systems are covered. The term ends with a building analysis project, in which groups of students document the materials, construction methods and performance of a post WWII American project.
Qualitative understanding and basic quantitative skills are stressed throughout the course. Structural systems studied are compared in wood, steel, concrete and masonry construction.
Structural Systems in Framed and Walled Buildings
Skeleton Framing Systems
History, principles and materials.
Gravity Systems: Plates and Grids
3-dimensional generalization of beams and one-way beam and slab systems.
Examples: Maillart's factory buildings, Hirshorn Museum, Beinecke Library
Bending and shear stresses, deformations
Resisting the Wind: Diaphragms, Shear Walls, Wind Trusses and Moment Frames
Examples: Grace building, John Hancock, Le Messurier, Water tanks.
Reinforced Concrete drops out; Wood and Steel.
Overturning and uplift.
Location and architectural program.
Examples: Monadnok, Seagram, Inland Steel.
Steel drops out; wood, masonry, and RC.
Gravity and wind resistance.
Buckling, uplift, design examples.
Examples: Chicago School buildings; portal frames, stacked portal frames: Itakura house: open K trusses.
Materials: steel and reinforced concrete, Wood(?)
Deflections: cladding problems, secondary forces (P-Delta effect)
Non-Framed or Walled Structural Systems
Cable Supported Structural Systems
Examples: PAT Center, Manhattan Bridge, Alamillo Bridge
How Cables Work: Cable stayed and suspension systems.
Examples: Roman aqueducts, Gaudi, Menn, Ingalls Rink
Arch theory, arch cable analogy
Funicular action, live load moments (beam-column action), abutments.
Gothic Compressive Structures
Examples: Chartres, Beauvais
Thrust lines, assumed block strength in tension and compression
Code requirements and design examples
Examples: Manhattan Bridge, La Devesa Bridge
Examples of torsional loading, structural response.
Supports and connections
Codes requirements and design examples
Shells I - Deep Beams
Examples: Kimbal; Gaudi; Maillart's viaducts, factory roofs, Fressinet's and Torroja's Roofs.
Structural beam action, enclosure, materials and construction techniques.
Shells II - Vaults, Domes and Etc
3-dimensional generalizations of arches
Examples: Pantheon, Duomo, TWA
The synergistic effect of the third dimension
Supports and connections, design examples
Space Trusses and Frames
3-dimensional generalizations of trusses and 2-dimensional trusses and frames.
Examples: Crystal Palace, Javits Center
Plate - Space Truss analogy
Examples: 1972 Osaka Pavilion, Tennis Halls
History, principles and design.
Examples: Fuller, Snelson, Geiger, Levy
History, principles and design.
Part III - Building Analysis Project (6 weeks)
Four-student groups will work with visiting critics. The emphasis is on the relationships between perceived space, servicing and supporting systems, and tectonic resolution. Relationships are documented by building plans, sections, detailed drawings of connections, and detail models.
Project Final Review
A passing grade is obtained by earning an average of 70% or better on the course assignments (listed below), with an overall average as follows: LP 70-75%, P 76-95%, HP 96-100%.
Parts I and II: Quizes and Homeworks (50%). All homeworks are averaged together to be equivalent to a quiz grade (check plus = 100, check = 85, check minus = 50).
Part III: Building Analysis Problem (50%).
TEXTBOOKS AND ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
Required Text: A4125 Readers and Reference
At cost, cash or checks to Columbia University.
Please pay at the 4th floor Architecture Office.
Recommended: Elementary Structures for Architects
On reserve -- Avery Shaeffer.
Structural Design in Architecture
Salvadori and Levy
Frampton, Webster and Tischhouser
Basic Steel Design, Johnston
Design of Concrete Structures, Nilson
Structural Design in Wood, Stalnaker
Manual of Steel Construction, AISC
Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, ACI
Building Code Requirements for Concrete-Masonry
Timber Construction Manual, ATC.
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and