The New York Draft




The following "philosophical" discussion points and "future items" came up sporadically during the several days of conversation; we've grouped them here since they have reach beyond the specific discussions that are presented later in this document (Short Form elements; Decoration Elements; Provenance and Secundo Folio Elements).

"Required": much discussion on this, came to the conclusion that we should only have call number as required (here named IDNo). Examples in discussion included proposed inventory projects that wouldnt be able to meet many of the basic requirements initially suggested. Everything that is applicable and available as part of the short list should obviously be used to ensure searching but we should not enforce this at the level of the DTD, since it would affect flexibility (making the DTD unusable by those who only wanted an inventory) and would discourage cataloguing in successive campaigns of completeness.

EAD tag library was on the table and was used as was P3 (of course!).

Peter likes to think about being able to strip out tags and still be able to read the document. Probably a good rule of thumb.

Discussion of headings or summary statements, how to handle these? Level = overview in some ways seem to suggest a need for a actual summary statement at the top, but this is really a long form issue. Later we decided that even though it wasn't on "The List For Short Form," a summary was necessary.

What is the short form good for, anyhow? Searching but also short form display as first step in the discovery process. Defined by Peter Robinson as those fields/tags that should be fully interoperable with MARC format.

Elements that were discussed in TEI work group July meeting are long-form issues, and we are not forgetting about them. Rather, we are building a structure into which everything else can be slotted in.

CWD: Discussion of user perspective and things that people will be looking for: maps, diagrams, etc. Doesnt like attributes. Getting more into more tags. Suggested <diagram>. Things like line filler have not been indexed in a traditional printed book, so should they get their own tag? Perhaps with initials because they are part of the text? PJK: but if you take initials away, you have literally lost text. MGP: does it make sense to divide things into things that are textual or which contain information and those that dont? Not really, because this would go against established practice.

PJK: would it make more sense to have <MSID> be the required element over <IDNo> on the grounds that library and collection information might accidentally go into <IDNo>? MGP: no, because this is our one, really, truly required element. Lets stick to it. Further discussion: it's really an interface problem and a documentation problem.

Philosophy: retrospective cataloging is likely to use less tagging, esp. by those who are not familiar with materials. For those who are undertaking new cataloging, elements necessary for more in-depth description will be available.

MGP quoted Hoyt Duggan: "are tags always more useful than prose?" (sarcastically said). Tags should not be expected to carry all the weight. PJK: in an international setting, tags can help to bridge language and differences in terminology.



Tags that are considered to be A Good Thing: <p>, <head> [at major divisions such as <physdesc> and <binding> etc.]. Even though they are not explicitly shown, one can use paragraphs to enable quick tagging. <supdate>, <dateRange>, <date> needs to be all over the place, such as in decoration (for decoration added to the manuscript at a date well after the rest of its production).

Catchwords are going to need a place in decoration as well as in physical description. Heraldry: can appear anywhere: binding, provenance, decoration, etc. Materials: should also appear anywhere.

Source and EncodingAnalog should be used fairly globally as attributes as in EAD.

Discussion of evidence reveals that there are really two sorts of evidence as we have discussed it: evidence of previous ownership and evidence of manuscript production.



The proposed DTD should be designed to be extremely flexible, so as to cater for legacy data in its multiple forms, and new cataloguing; indeed the only mandatory element in the proposed DTD is the <IDNo>, which exists within <MsID>, which is itself nested within the <MsDesc>. The order of the major elements is not enforced by the proposed DTD. Having said that, the documentation accompanying the DTD -- towards which this message is a first step -- will propose 'best practice' methods of encoding, based on the consensus reached at the Studley Priory meeting in Nov. 1996, the EAMMS meeting at HMML in Dec. 1996, and the EAMMS/DS/SagaNet meeting in Nov. 1997 in NYC, as well as discussion with various other interested parties. The documentation indicates which of the available elements ought to be included (wherever the data is available or easily obtainable) in an 'first level'/'short form' description of a manuscript; but this will not prevent users from omitting some of the recommended elements, nor from using other available elements. It should be noted that the element names used here are not final, except that, where an element name and concept are the same as an element already available in TEI or EAD, that name should be retained here unless there are compelling reasons to the contrary.

In skeletal form, the proposed overall structure looks like this:














These are probably more-or-less self-explanatory. The <IDNo> element should be used for the current call-number/shelfmark. The <Summary> element allows for a concise statement of Author+Title+Place+Date: for example, where there are many texts by many authors listed individually in the <TextDesc> (a repeatable element), this allows for an overview such as "Collection of Patristic Works" or "Augustine, Opera," or where several MSS are bound together, one might summarise here their diversity of origins as "France, thirteenth century, and Germany, twelfth century". It may be worth pointing out that there are many sub-elements beyond the one shown above (<IDNo>).

Manuscripts comprised of more than one part are handled in the following manner: data applicable to the whole of a manuscript are recorded in the elements down to <AdminInfo>, while features applicable to only specific parts of a multi-part manuscript are recorded within repeated <Part> elements, each of which can contain any or all of its sibling elements.

The order in which the various tags are given above (and below) is the one that will be proposed in a "best practices" explanation; any cataloguer/institution may wish to vary the order.

Expanding the above structure to include the sub-elements necessary for a 'first level' description looks like this:














<PersName></PersName> [with the ROLE= attribute set to "editor" / "translator" / "compiler" / "glossator", etc.]



<Title></Title> with the TYPE= attribute set to "supplied"

<Rubric></Rubric> [To be used where no title is available]

<Incipit></Incipit> [To be used where no title is available]







<Dimensions></Dimensions> [leaf dimensions unless otherwise specified]



























<Part></Part> </MsDesc>

EXAMPLE OF SHORT FORM DESCRIPTION (i.e. with short form markup; the description itself is "full form" in terms of its content):



<country>United States</country> <region>California</region> <city>Berkeley</city> <institution>University of California, Berkeley <repository>The Bancroft Library</repository> <idno>UCB 9</idno>



<author> Domenico Cavalca</author>

<title> Vite dei santi padri, trans.</title>


<date>1474</date> </sumDesc>

<textDesc><span>ff. 1-259</span><rubric>Incomincia la vita di santo paulo primo heremito et prima come per paura di certi periculosi tormenti che si facevano a christiani fuggi al diserto, capitolo primo</rubric>, Nel tempo de detio et valeriano imperatori persecutori de fideli christiani quando cornelio a roma .... [f. 99v:] Onde e scripto vidi l'huomo iusto perire della [sic] sua iusticia et questo non e se non per la sua superbia. [f. 100:] <rubric>Incominciasi la siconda parte delle vite de sancti padri la quale si chiama paradiso screpta [sic] da Erachio [sic] el quale gran parte delli infrascripti sancti visito. Capitulo primo</rubic>, Quando prima andai in alexandria cioe el secundo anno di Theodosio principe . . . [f. 142:] et credonsi poi fare pace [sic] con dio con alcune elimosine che danno. <rubric>Incomincia el tercio libro et prima di sancto Frontonio el quale abandono el monasterio della citta et ando a stare all'heremo con pochi monaci. Capitulo primo</rubric>, Era uno antiquo monaco el quale haveva nome frontonio . . . et essendo constrecto per necessita di dormire appogiavomi un poco alla parete. <rubric>Finito el tercio et ultimo libro della vita di sancti padri. Deo gracias Amen</rubric>. [f. 259v, blank] <title type="supplied">Vitaspatrum</title> (PL 73, 74) here in the Tuscan translation of Domenico Cavalca; only complete printed edition is the 1799 reprint with some corrections by A. Cesari of the 1731 edition of <bibl><author>D. M. Manni</author>, <title level="m">Volgarizzamento delle Vite de' Santi Padri secondo l'edizione di Firenze Anno M DCC XXXI</title> (Verona: Dionigi Ramanzini, 1799) 4 vols</bibl>. This manuscript without the prologue, and containing the first 3 of the 4 books; retaining the 2 passages suppressed in the printed edition: book 2, chapter 9 (regarding Macarius' miracles on foretelling death and liberating a man from the demon), and the end of book 3, chapter 10 (regarding the efficacy of prayers of the living to help those condemned to hell). Rubricator shows considerable confusion in numbering the chapters. Correspondence with the edition of Manni as follows: Book 1: Manni's chapters 1-69 present, but manuscript chapters 7, 8 = Manni 8; ms 29, 30 = Manni 28; ms 42 = Manni 40, 41; ms 43 = Manni 42-44; ms 46 bis = Manni 48, 49; Book 2: Manni's chapters 1-33 present, but Manni did not print the manuscript chapter 9; Book 3: of Manni's chapters 1-147, chapters 3, 6, 8, 9 were not copied in the manuscript; Manni's chapters 54 and 55 are reversed; ms chapters 59, 60 = Manni 59; ms 104, 105 = Manni 103. See <bibl><author>C. Delcorno</author>, <title level="a">"Per l'edizione delle <title level="m">Vite dei Santi Padri</title> del Cavalca,"</title> <title level="s">Lettere Italiane</title> 29 (1977) 265-89</bibl>, <bibl>ibid. 30 (1978) 47-87, 480-524</bibl>. <bibl><author>Kaeppeli</author>, <title>SOPMA</title> 835</bibl>. This manuscript not recorded.</textDesc>

<physdesc><support>Parchment, ff. ii (modern parchment) + 259 + ii (modern parchment);</support> <extent>316 x 218 (194 x 117) mm.</extent> Quires 1-25 of 10 leaves, quire 26 of 10 leaves (lacking the last). Central bifolium of quire 4 bound in reversed order and should be read: ff. 34, 36, 35, 37; second bifolium of quire 15 bound in reversed position with early modern tie marks directing reader: ff. 151, 159, 153-158, 152, 160. Catchwords vertically along inner bounding line from top to bottom. 34 long lines ruled in ink. <script>Written in a round Italian gothic book hand by <scribe>Andreuccio della Monaca</scribe> (see below). Rubric on f. 1 in gold square capitals. </script></physDesc>

<bindingDesc>Bound, s. XIX, in blind tooled blue morocco, with gilt fillet; gilt edges.</bindingDesc>

<decoration>Thirty historiated initials by <artist>Cola Rapicano</artist>, usually 11-line, in deep blue, maroon and green acanthus or beads on burnished gold ground: f. 1 (13 line), Paul the hermit weaving a basket in front of a cave; f. 6 (12 line), Anthony as a young man at his parents' door giving his money to the poor; f. 33v, Hilarion, having rejected his wordly clothing, kneels in penitence before Anthony abbot; f. 49v (12 line), John the hermit seated in front of his cave reading; f. 58v, Apollonius seated in front of his cave reading; f. 65v (initial itself incompleted, although historiation is), Ammon facing the dragon as his terrified companions turn to flee; f. 74 (12 line), Elias seated in front of his cave holding a rosary; f. 86 (12 line), Anthony abbot, while seated reading, seeing an angel carrying the soul of Ammon to heaven; f. 92v, Macarius seated in front of his cave, carving the reeds to serve as markers for the route of his trip; f. 97 (12 line), Moses seated reading in the desert; f. 98v (10 line, somewhat damaged), Macarius counseling humility to Valens; f. 100, Isidore reading in the desert; f. 109 (somewhat damaged), Nathanael reading in the desert; f. 110, Macarius reading in the desert; f. 117, Pachomius, kneeling in front of his cave as the angel of God commands him to establish a rule for monks; f. 122, Serapion reading in the desert; f. 124v, Evagrius as a young gentleman reading in the desert; f. 127 (with putti, one asleep, on the initial), Pior seated in the desert with a rosary on his knee; f. 130, Melania in black robes, kneeling to pray before a small copse; f. 131v, Cronius (throughout this text called Oronius) praying in front of his cave; f. 142, Frontinus, open book on his lap, praying in the desert; f. 147v, Macarius leaning on a tau-cross instructing 2 other monks, who hold a girdle book and a rosary; f. 152 (misbound; for chapter 10), Pastor between 2 other monks (the central figure sketched only); f. 153v (misbound; for chapter 8), Anthony abbot tempted by devils; f. 156 (misbound; for chapter 9), Arsenius praying in the wilderness; f. 161v, Bessarion being buried in front of his cave by 2 monks; f. 162v, Poemen speaking to a younger monk who holds a book; f. 181, Sincletica, standing, holding a book, in front of a wood; f. 219v, Arsenius seated in prayer in a meadow before a walled city; f. 234v, death of Agathon, with 2 young monks kneeling in surprise before the reclining figure of the dead monk, whose eyes remain open. 4-line initials in gold on white patterned cusped blue, red, green or particolored grounds and infilling (unfinished on f. 42); rubrics in red. The original full decorated border of f. 1 has been excised and is no longer with the book; the written area of f. 1 has been carefully mounted in a window created from the front flyleaf: this former flyleaf, now constituting the margins of f. 1, bears on its verso the offset image (from the original f. 1 recto) of a full decorated border in a style not incompatible with the work of Cola Rapicano: double gold bars that twist into interlace and widen into roundels in a strictly symmetrical pattern; in the center lower margin, almost certainly the Caracciolo coat of arms: or a lion rampant azure with tail turned in toward body (the gold showing as offset; the blue as void). Note in red ink in the hand of the scribe on the last text line of f. 239v, "Ovidius, Ocia si tollas perire cupidinis artes [sic]," from the <title>Remedia Amoris</title> v. 139, "Take away leisure and Cupid's bow is broken" (below Book 3, chapter 124, on how to liberate a young monk from carnal temptations). Note in a sixteenth century hand in the lower margin of f. 49, "INRI Re iudeorum." Lower margin of f. 88 and lower half of f. 259 skillfully remargined.</decoration>

<listProv> <origins level="specific">Written in <place><city>Naples</city></place> between <dateRange value="">5 November 1473 and 1 April 1474</dateRange> by <scribe>Andreuccio della Monaca of Cava dei Tirreni</scribe> and illuminated by <artist>Cola Rapicano</artist>, as a gift from the Aragonese court in Naples for <persName role="owner">Giovannella Caracciolo, Duchess of Termoli</persName>. See <bibl><author>T. De Marinis</author>, <title level=m>La biblioteca napoletana dei re d'Aragona</title> (Milan 1947-52) </bibl> 1:69 regarding the scribe, 2:261 (documents 488, 503) and 2:263 (documents 521, 522) regarding payments for this book, and 1:145-49 regarding Cola Rapicano. Giovannella Caracciolo was daughter of Giacomo Caracciolo, chancellor of the realm; she was a mistress of King Ferrante I, and bore him an illegitimate son, Ferrante, Conte di Arena, who took the rebel side in the "Congiura dei baroni" of 1485-86. This manuscript was copied from <MsID><City>Paris</City>, <Institution>B.N.</Insitution>, <IDNo>ital. 1712</IDNo></MsID>, a Milanese book that had come to Naples as part of the dowry of Ippolita Maria Sforza when she married the heir to the throne, Alfonso, Duca di Calabria in 1465.</orgins>I am very grateful to Francois Avril of the Bibliothoque Nationale, to Nina Hubbs of the Berkeley Art Museum, and to Anthony Bliss of the Bancroft Library who allowed me the extraordinary opportunity of examining ital. 1712 and UCB 9, once more side by side on the table together, when ital. 1712 was on loan exhibition at the Berkeley Art Museum, 18 January-12 March 1989 (The Sforza Court: Milan in the Renaissance 1450-1535, exhibition organized by the Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, Austin, Texas). For a description of ital. 1712, see <bibl><author>F. Avril</author>, <title level=m>Dix siecles d'enluminure italienne (VIe-XVIe siecles)</title> (Paris 1984)</bibl>n. 136, with reproduction of f. 1; Avril has identified another manuscript copied from ital. 1712, the Cavalca in Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale, XIII.C.76 (for which see also, albeit with some confusion as to origin of artist, De Marinis, 2:177).</origins><provenance>On the second back flyleaf, a pressmark enclosed in a cartouche, "A.VI.5." Armorial bookplate, gules a bend argent, of <persName role="owner">George Folliott</persName> on front pastedown;</provenance><provenace>his sale, <persName role="owner">Sotheby's</persName>, 12 May 1930, lot 85 with plate of ff. 124v, 130 to <persName role="owner">Quaritch</persName>.</provenance><provenance><persName role="owner">Quaritch</persName> sale catalogue, <title level="m">A Catalogue of Illuminated and other Manuscripts together with some Works on Palaeography</title>, 1931, n. 33 (this slip glued to pastedown). </provenance><provenance> Bookplate of <persName role="owner">James K. Moffitt<persName> also on front pastedown; </provenance><provenance>Moffitt gave this and many other printed books and manuscripts to the Bancroft Library in 1956 as a memorial to his late wife, Pauline Fore Moffitt. Former call number: <idno type="former">f2MS BR1705 A2H6</idno>.</provenance>

<listBibl> <bibl>Bibliography: <title level="m">Bond and Faye</title>, 5</bibl> </listBibl>

Secundo folio: (ando-)ssene in una villa

<source>Consuelo W. Dutschke</source>



[Description of individual elements will be inserted here; here follow some notes on our discussions.]

<listTextDesc> which contains. <textDesc> (repeated as needed), OR we can use just <textDesc> by itself if there is only one text.

<span> rejected internal to the <PhysDesc> level where we propose using <extent> instead.

<persName> has a role attribute discussion on best practice options. Should probably use role attribute even if text between tags.

<title> We suggest that supplied title be handled thus: <title type=supplied title>

<language> Discussion about how this would best map into MARC, i.e. each language tagged separately, rather than a combined entry such as "English and French."

<extent> Should we have more attributes or subsidiary tags for this? Much discussion as to whether it should be required or not. Also much discussion on requireability in general.

<dimensions> as with EAD potentially. Assume leaf dimensions unless specified otherwise

<listProv> <origins><place loc?> can be as vague as Europe<country><cardinal> <region> <city > <supDate> use MARC-RBMS list for value attribute? <dated> with value attribute both these <date>like elements rely on value attribute in order to really work

<source> needs a good definition; it is intended to be used for a variety of sources, such as the person who did the research, de Ricci, Sothebys. The person who keyed info belongs in header. We should have more information here like date revised.

<AdminInfo> is an element taken from EAD <AltFormAvail> for microfilm, etc. This is the place where, for example, HMML could record its Project Number.

<part n=x> which can contain all of its siblings except for <IDNo>. Everything above this is common to the ms in its entirety. *************************************************************


Having worked out this overall structure, we then thought about the more detailed level of description that we are aiming towards. Our thinking on Decoration can be represented by the diagram below:

<Decoration> <Minatures></Minatures> <Initials></Initials> <Borders></Borders> <SecondaryDec></SecondaryDec> <Diagrams></Diagrams> </Decoration>

Each of the five sub-elements of <Decoration> have four optional attributes, namely TYPE=, SIZE=, TECHNIQUE=, and QUALITY= (to be discussed below).

After much discussion, we decided that the various kinds of decoration can most usefully and most unambiguously be subdivided into those that are figurative, and those that are not. (After lengthy and spirited discussion, a tri-partite division into <figurative>, <representational>, and <decorative>, was rejected as being too problematic). Thus, within each of the five main sub-elements listed above are two further sub-elements: <Figurative> and <NonFigurative>, and these in turn have the same four attributes as above (TYPE=, SIZE=, TECHNIQUE=, and QUALITY=).

Some possible TYPE= attributes might include:

Miniatures Figurative TYPE= Biblical/Allegorical/Calendar/Trompe-l'oeil etc. NonFigurative TYPE= Landscape/Heraldic/Carpet-page etc.

Initials Figurative TYPE= Historiated/Inhabited/Anthropomorhic/Zoomorphic etc. NonFigurative TYPE= Dentelle/Foliate/Flourished/Champie/Parted etc

Borders Figurative TYPE= Historiated/Inhabited etc NonFigurative TYPE= Foliate/Pen-flourished/Ghent-Bruges/Ivy-leaf /Ferrarese etc.

SecondaryDec Figurative TYPE= Line-filler/Cartouche/Manicule/Doodle etc. NonFigurative TYPE= Line-filler/Cartouche/Paraph/Doodle etc.

Diagrams Figurative TYPE= Astronomical/Medical/Anatomical etc. NonFigurative TYPE= Astronomical/Map/Plan/Architectural etc.

Some possible SIZE= attribute values might be: Full-page/Half-page/Column-width/10-line/5-line/large/small/40 x 30 mm etc.

Some possible TECHNIQUE= attribute values might be: Full-colour/Grisaille/Drawing/Tinted drawing/Sketch etc.

We propose to allow a QUALITY= attribute, since we are aware that some cataloguers will wish to record such judgements. Possible values might include: Excellent/Poor/Rough/Mediocre/Good/Variable


<decoration> <miniatures> <figurative size="large">Fourteen large miniatures with arched tops, above five lines of text: fol. 14r. Pericopes. St. John writing on Patmos, with the Eagle holding his ink-pot and pen-case; some flaking of pigment, especially in the sky; fol. 26r. Hours of the Virgin, Matins. Annunciation; Gabriel and the Dove to the right; fol. 60r. Prime. Nativity; the Virgin and Joseph adoring the Child; fol. 66r. Terce. Annunciation to the Shepherds, one with bagpipes; fol. 71r. Sext. Adoration of the Magi; fol. 75v. None. Presentation in the Temple; fol. 80r. Vespers. Flight into Egypt, from right to left fol. 86v. Compline. Coronation of the Virgin; fol. 92r. Penitential Psalms. King David in Penitence; some striations of pigment; fol. 111r. Hours of the Cross. Crucifixion, with the Virgin and John to the left, the centurian Longinus and other soldiers to the right fol. 118r. Hours of the Spirit. Pentecost; fol. 123v. Office of the Dead. Job on the Dungheap, with his three friends; fol. 166v. Fifteen Joys. Virgin and Child enthroned, adored by angels; fol. 171v. Seven Requests. Trinity: the Son holding the Cross, the Father wearing a papal tiara and holding an orb, seated together, both holding an open book between them, the Dove above.</figurative>

<figurative size="small">Ten small miniatures to the suffrages, mostly seven lines high: fol. 175r. St. Michael (eight-line); fol. 175v. St. John the Baptist; fol. 176r. St. James the Greater; fol. 176v. St. Christopher; the hermit in the background; fol. 178r. St. Anthony Abbot; fol. 179r. St. Sebastian ; fol. 180r. St. Nicholas blessing the three boys in the tub; fol. 180v. St. Catherine; fol. 181r. St. Genevive, with an angel preventing a devil from extinguishing her taper; fol. 181v. St. Barbara</figurative>

<figurative type="engraving">Fol. 1 is an inserted leaf of parchment printed on the recto with a 16th-cent. German (?) engraving of the Crucifixion, signed `G.N.'; gilded and hand-coloured.</figurative> </miniatures>

<initials> <figurative type="historiated" size="six-line">One six-line historiated initial: fol. 49r. Hours of the Virgin, Lauds. Visitation.</figurative>

<figurative type="historiated" size="five-line">Two five-line historiated initials: fol. 19v. Obsecro te. Virgin and Child enthroned; fol. 23r. O intemerata. Pieta.</figurative>

<non-figurative type="decorated">Four- or three-line initials in blue and red, enclosing foliage, on a gold ground, at the start of each text with a large miniature; two-line initals in gold, on a blue and red ground with white tracery, to psalms, capitula, lessons, etc. and the KL monograms in the Calendar; similar one-line initials to verses and other minor divisions; similar line-fillers throughout.</non-figurative> </initials>

<borders> <non-figurative>The large miniatures and the Lauds initial surrounded by four-sided framed borders of stylised foliage on a plain parchment ground, and variously-shaped panels of naturalistic plants on a painted gold ground; the small miniatures and five-line historiated initials surrounded by similar three-sided borders (in the outer margins); similar one-sided border panels on all pages with a two-line initial</non-figurative> </borders> </decoration>


Decoration: what is the conceptual way to break this down? Figurative vs. non-figurative? Decorative vs. non-decorative? Do we allow for both kinds (we dont think this is what people really want). Example of historiated initials: one person defined this to Peter as identifiable persons or scenes, which seems problematic (identifiable by whom?). Miniature, initial, borders, marginalia: we all know what these are. The problem comes where these morph into one another. These gray areas become tag library issues. Decoration is not necessarily described in a hierarchical fashion.

We need some way to account for instructions to artist at the appropriate level but dont have an idea of how to do this. Unfinished as an element because it is evidence of the production process? Is it really unfinished that we are interested in or marks of production? <evidence of production> as a free-floating element?

Figurative and decorative: what is a tree. CWD=figurative. PJK=decorative (if its not a figure, of a person of an animal its decorative). Here the argument seems to be as follows: is it from life (CWD) or animate (PJK)? CWD: vegetation is included in a scene of the shepherds. PJK: do you consider a strawberry in the border figurative? CWD: no, decorative. Do we combine figurative and representational or representational and decorative? PJK: human heads used decoratively? CWD: using "use" or "intent" as criteria, they are decorative. PJK: so you are lumping them with the strawberries? It was decided not to add representational as a separate element because it overlaps too much in both directions, and it will have to be left to judgement. Further discussion on figurative led to the term "non-figurative" in place of "decorative" because, since we are inside of <decoration> already, everything is obviously decorative. Then, pragmatically, we werent able to come up with a good definition of decoration aside from non-figurative. Thirdly, we could think of diagrams of surgical instruments, which are neitherdecorative nor figurative, thus "non-figurative" is at least closer to what we want.

We felt it was good within <decoration> to have the same sub-elements and attributes for consistencys sake. At all five levels, decoration can have been inserted at any point in the history of the manuscript.

<artist> is free floating within the element <Decoration>.

<miniatures> independent of text. Size is frequently a defining characteristic, so size should be an attribute: full-page, half page, spans one column, etc. Technique: fully painted, colored drawings, sketch, color wash, unfinished?, grisaille, printed, engraved. Accuracy? This is something that really should be expressed in prose terms. Quality: for those who want to use it. Type attributes. Problematic to have figurative/decorative (or for that matter figurative in opposition to almost anything else in a miniature) because its such a stretch to find examples of this.

<figurative> attributes: type, size, technique, quality

<nonfigurative> attributes: type, size, technique, quality

<initials> form part of the text. Attributes: type, size, technique, quality as attributes. <figurative> Attributes: type with a (perhaps fixed) set of values + other (historiated, inhabited, zoomorphic, anthropomorphic, etc.), size, technique, quality as attributes

<nonfigurative> Attributes: type (flourished, foliate, dentell, etc.), size, technique, quality as attributes

<borders> frame the text. Attributes: type, size (U-shared, C-shaped, three-sided, four-margin, full border, etc., see Farquhar p. 73-74), technique, quality as attributes

<figurative> attributes: type (bas-de-page), size, technique, quality

< nonfigurative > attributes: type (white vine stem, ivy leaf, pen spray), size, technique, quality

<secdec> type (doodles, catchwords, cartouche, marginalia), size, technique, quality as attributes <figurative> attributes: type (manicules), size, technique, quality

< nonfigurative > attributes: type (line fillers, paragraph marks), size, technique, quality

<diagrams> Type (charts, maps, tables, formulas, architectural drawings, plan, sphere, geometrical, astronomical, herbals), size, technique, quality as attributes

<figurative> attributes: type (anatomical, etc.), size, technique, quality

<nonfigurative> attributes: type, size, technique, quality