Smith, William, A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography mythology and geography

(New York :  Harper & Brothers,  1884.)



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              QJtSAA,  JULIU&

 Tn'Sti • the  greatest  moderation. ■• Unlike other

 nonanerors in civil wars, he freely  forgave  all

 vim had borne arms against- him; and declared

 inac he would make no difference between Pom-

 peians  and  Caesarians.   His clemency.was one

 of the' brightest features of his character.   At

 Rome all parties seemed to vie in'paying him.

 bonor:  the  dictatorship was  bestowed on him

 for ten years, and the  censorship, under the new

 title of Prasfedus Morum, for :three  years.  He

 celebrated his victories in Gaul, Egypt, Pontus,

 and Africa by four magnificent triumphs.   Caesar

 sow proceeded to correct the various evils which

 had crept into the state, and to obtain the en¬

 actment of  several laws suitable to the altered

 condition of the  commonwealth.  The most im¬

 portant of his measures this .year (46) was the

 reformation of the calendar.- As  the  Roman

 year was now three months in advance  of the

 realtime, Caesar added ninety days to this year,

 and  thus made  the whole  year consist  of four

 hundred and  forty-five days;  and  he guarded

 against  a repetition of similar errors for the

 future by adapting the year to the sun's course.

 Vid. Bid.  of Ant, art Oalendarium.   Mean¬

 time the two sons of Pompey, Sextus and Cneius,

 had collected  a new army in Spain.   Caesar  set

 out for Spain  toward the end of the  year, and

 brought the war to a close  by  the  battle  of

 Munda, on. the 17th of March, 45, in which the

 enemy were only defeated  after a  most obsti¬

 nate resistance.  Cn. Pompey was killed shortly

 afterward, hut Sextus made good  his  escape.

 Caasar  reached  Rome in September, and  entered

 the city in triumph. Fresh  honors awaited him.

 His  portrait  was  to  be struck on coins; the

 month of Quintilis was to receive the name of

 Julius in his honor;  he received the title of im-

 perator for life;' and the whole senate took an

 cath to watch over his  safety.  To. reward  his

 followers, Caasar  increased  the number  of sen¬

 ators and of the public magistrates, so  that there

 were to be sixteen praetors, forty quaestors, and

. six aadiles.  He began to revolve vast schemes

 for the benefit of the Roman world.  Among

 his plans of internal improvement, he proposed

 to frame a digest of all the Roman laws, to es¬

 tablish  public libraries, to  drain the  Pomptine

 marshes, to enlarge the  harbor of Ostia, and to

 dig a canal through the isthmus of Corinth   To

 protect the boundaries of the  Roman empire, he

 meditated expeditions, against  the Parthians and

 the barbarous- tribes  on the Danube, and had

 already begun to make  preparations for  his de¬

 parture to the  East  Possessing royal power,

 he now wished to obtain the  title of king, and

Antony accordingly offered him the diadem in

 public on the festival of the Lupercalia (the 15th

 of February);  but, seeing,that the proposition

 was  not  favorably  received by  the people, he

 Jeclined it  for the present  Rut Caesar's power

 was  not witnessed without envy.   The, Roman

 aristocracy, who had been, so long accustomed

 to rale the Roman world  and to pillage it at

 tiwdr pleasure, could ill brook a master, and re¬

 solved to remove him  by assassination.  The

 eonspiraey  against  Caesar's life  had. been  set

 afoot by Cassius, a personal-enemy of Caesar's,

 and  there were more than sixty persons privy

 to it. .  Many  of these, persons, had  been raised

 iy Cssaai to  wealth  and honor;  and some of


           CESAR. 0. AUD  I*

them, such  as M.  Brutus, lived vrfth  him-oa

terms of the most  intimate friendship^   It  has

been,the practice of rhetoricians to speak of th«

murder of Caesar as a glorious deed, and to rep.

resent  Brutus and  Cassius as patriots ;  but tha

mask ought to be  stripped off  these false  pa¬

triots ; they cared not for the republic, hut only

for themselves; and- then.- object in murdering

Caesar  was to  gain power for themselves  and

their' party. , Caesar had- many warnings of his

approaching, fate, but» he disregarded them  all

and fell by the daggers of his  assassins on  the

Ides or  15th  of March, 44.  At an appointed

signal the conspirators surrounded  him; Casca

dealt the first blow, and the others quickly drew

their swords  and attacked him; -Caesar at first

defended himself, but when he saw that Bratus,

his friend and favorite, had also drawn his sword,

he exclaimed Tu quoque Brute 1 pulled his toga

over his face, and sunk pierced with wounds at

the foot of Pompey's statue.  Julius Caesar was

the greatest man of antiquity.  He was gifted

by nature  with the most various  talents,  and

was distinguished by the most extraordinary at¬

tainments in  the most diversified pursuits.   He

was at one and the same time a general, a states¬

man, a lawgiver, a jurist, an orator, a poet,  a

historian, a philologer,  a mathematician, and an

architect. He was ■ equally fitted to excel in all,

and has given proofs that he would have  sur¬

passed almost all other men in any subject to

which he devoted the  energies of his extraordi

nary mind.  During the whole of his busy life

he found time for literary pursuits,  and  was the

author of many works,  the  majority of whicl

has  been lost   The purity of his Latin and th«

clearness of his style  were  celebrated by  th«

ancients  themselves, and are conspicuous in his

Commentarii, which are his only works that havt

eome down to us.   They relate the history of

the first seven years of the Gallic war in seven

books, and the history of the Civil war down to

the commencement of the Alexandrine  in three

books.  Neither of  these works completed  the

history of the Gallic and Civil wars.  The  his¬

tory of the former was completed in an eighth

book, which is usually ascribed to  Hirtius, and

the  history of. the Alexandrine,  African,  and

Spanish  wars were written  in three  separate

books, which are also  ascribed  to  Hirtius,  but

their authorship is  uncertain.  The lost works

of Caasar are, .1. Anticato,, in reply to  Cicero's

Cato, which Cicero wrote in praise of Cato after

the  death of the latter in 46. , 2. Be Analogia,

or, as Cicero,explains it, Be Ratione Latine lo-

quendi, dedicated to Cicero, contained investi¬

gations on the Latin language, and were writ

ten  by Caesar while he was  crossing the Alps.

3. Libri Auspiciorum, or Auguraliq.  4. Be Astris.

5. Apophthegmata, or Bicta collectanea,  a collec

tion of good  sayings.   6.  Poemata.  Two of

these, written, in his youth, Laudes Herculis and

fEdipus, were suppressed by Augustus.  , Of tl»

numerous editions of Caesar's Commentaries, the

best are by Oudendorp, Lugd. Bat,  1787, Stutt-

gard, 1822; by Morus, Lips, 1780;   by  Oberlin

Lips, 1805, 1819 ; [and by Herzog, Lips, 183I-

34, 2 vols.; and of the  Gallic War sepaiatelj

by Nipperdey, Lips, 1849.] +

   C. Cesar and L.  Cesar, the sons of M, Vipsa.

nius Agrippa and Julia, and the grandma of  J»v
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