Smith, William, A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography mythology and geography

(New York :  Harper & Brothers,  1884.)



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  CalZnus (KdXavog), an Indian gymnosophiet,

followed Alexander the  Great from India, and

having been taken  ill, burned himself alive in

the presence of the Macedonians, three months

before the  death  of Alexander (B.C. 323), to

whom he had predicted his approaching end,

  Calasieies (KaXaeipieg), one of the two di¬

visions (the other being the Hermotybii) of the

warrior-easts of Egypt.  Their greatest strength

was  two hundred and fifty thousand  men, and

 heir  chief abode  in the western  part  of the

Delta.  They formed the king's body guard.

  Calatia  (Oalatlnus: now  Cajazzo), a  town

in Samnium, on the Appia Via, between Capua

aud Beneventum, was conquered by the Romans

B.C.  313, and was  colonized by Julius Caesar

with his veterans,

  Calatinus,  A. Atilius, consul. B.C. 258, in

the first Punic war, carried  on the  war  with

success  in  Sicily.   He  was  consul  a  second

time, 254,,  when he took Panormus; aud was

dictator, 249, when- he again carried on the war

in Sicily, which was the first instance of a dic¬

tator commanding an army out of Italy.

  Calacrea, -ia (KaXavpeia, KaXavpta : KaXav-

pelTng: now Poro), a small island in the Saronic

Gulf^ off the coast of Argolis,  and opposite Trce¬

zen,   posaesaed  a  celebrated temple of  Nep¬

tune  (Poseidon),  which waa regarded as an in¬

violable  asylum.  Hither Demosthenes fled to

escape Antipater, and here he took poison, B.C,

322.  This temple was the place of meeting of

an ancient Amphictyonia.   Vid.  Bid of  Ant,

p. 79, b, second edition.

  Calavius, the name of a distinguished family

  t Capua, the most celebrated member of which

was Paeuvius Calavius, who induced his fellow-

citizens to espouse the cause of Hannibal after

the battle of Cannae, B.C. 216.

  Calbis (b KdX6ig), also Indus (now Quingui

or Tanas),  a considerable river of Caria, which

rises in Mount Cadmus; above Cibyra, and after

receiving (according to Pliny) sixty small rivers

aud  one hundred- mountain  torrents, falls into

the sea west of Caunus and opposite to Rhodes.

   Calohas (KdXxag), son of Thestor of Mycenae

 or  Megara, the wisest soothsayer among the

 Greeks at  Troy, foretold the  length of the Tro¬

 jan war, explained the cause of the  pestilence

 whieh raged in the Greek  army, and  advised

 the  Greeks to build the wooden horse.  An or¬

 acle had declared that Calchas should die if he

 met with a soothsayer superior to himself; and

 this Came  to pass at Claros, near Colophon, for

 here Calchas met  the soothsayer Mopsus, who

 predicted  things   which Calchas  could not

 Thereupon Calchas died  of grief.  After his

 death he had an oracle in Daunia.

   Caldus, C.  Celius.  1. Rose from obscurity

 Dy  his oratory, was tribune of the  plebs B.C.

 107, when he proposed a lex  tabellaria, and con¬

 sul 94.  In the civil war between Sulla and the

 party of Marius, he  fought  on  the side of the

 latter,  83.—2. Grandson of  the preceding, was

  Cicero's quaestor in Cilicia, 50.

   Gale (now Oporto), a port-town of the Cal-

 laeci in Hispania  Tarraconensis,  at  the  mouth

  of the Dunus.  From Porto Gale the name of

  the country Portugal is supposed to have  come.

  . Caledonia.   Vid.. Britannia.   ^

   Oalenttm, a town probably of the Calenses


Emanici In Hispania Baetica, celebrated fur tt«

manufacture of bricks so light as to swim upon


  Calenus, Q. FufIus, tribune Of the plebe B.C

61,  when he  succeeded in  saving P. Clodius

from condemnation for his violation of the mys¬

teries of the Bona Dea.  In 69 he was praetor,

and from this time appears as an active partisal

of Caesar.  In  51 ne was legate  of  Caesar in

Gaul, and served  under Caesar in the  civil war

In 49 he joined Caesar at Brundisium and ac¬

companied him to Spain, and in 48 he was sent

by  Caesar from Epirus to bring over the re¬

mainder of the troops from Italy, but most of

his  ships  were taken  by Bibulus.  After the

battle of Pharsalia (48) Calenus took many cities

in Greece.  In 47 he  was made consul by Cae¬

sar.  After Caesar's death (44)  Calenus  joinel

M. Antony, and subsequently had the  commano

of Antony's legions in the north of Italy. At

the termination of the Peruainian war (41) Ca¬

lenus died, and Octavianus was thus enabled to

obtain possession of his army.

 • Cales or -ex (KdXng or -nl;: now Halabli), a

river of Bithynia, southwest of Heraelea Pon

tica.  (Thuc,iv, 75.)

  Cales (is, usually  PI. Cales, -ium: Calenus

now Calvi), chief town of the Caleni, an Auso-

nian people in Campania, on the Via Latina, said

to have been founded  by Calais, son of Boreas,

and therefore called Threicia by the poets.  Ca¬

les  was  taken and colonized by  the  Romans,

B.C. 835.  It was  celebrated for its excellent


  Caletes or -i, a people in Belgio Gaul, near

the mouth of the Seine: their capital was Jt


  CalStoe (KaXtfrap), son  of Clytius, slain  at

Troy by the Telamonian Ajax.

  Calidius.  1.  Q, tribune of  the plebs B.C.

 99,  carried a law for the recall of Q. Metellus

 Numidicus from  banishment. He  was  praetor

 79, and had the government of one of the Spains,

 and on his return  was accused by Q. Lollius,

 and condemned.—2. M, son of the  preceding,

 distinguished  as  an orator.   In 57 he was prae¬

 tor, and supported the recall of Cieero from ban¬

 ishment.  In  51  he  was an  unsucceasful can¬

 didate for the consulship, and on the breaking

 out of the civil war,  49,  he joined Caesar, who

 placed him over Gallia Togata, where he died

 in 48.

   Caligula, Roman  emperor, A.D. 87-41, son

 of  Germanicus aud  Agrippina,  was  born A.D.

 12, and was brought  up among the legions in

 Germany.  His  real  name was  Caius  Cesar,

 and he was always called Caius by his contem¬

 poraries: Caligula was a  surname given him

 Dy the soldiers from his wearing in his boyhood

 small calige,  or soldiers'  boots.  Having  es¬

 caped the fate of his mother and  brother,  he

 gained the favor  of Tiberius, who  raised him tc

 officeij of honor,  and held out to him hopes  of

 the succession.   On the death of Tiberius (37),

 which was either caused or accelerated  by Ca

 ligula, the  latter succeeded to the throne.  He

 was saluted by the people with the greatest en

 thusiasm as the son  of Germanicus.  His first

 acts gave promise of a just  and beneficent reign.

 He pardoned all the  persons who had appeared

 as witnesses <r accusers against bis family; h»
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