Stokes, I. N. Phelps The iconography of Manhattan Island 1498-1909 (v. 4)

(New York :  Robert H. Dodd,  1915-1928.)



Jump to page:

Table of Contents

  Page 162  



1655   When it is suggested ihat some Indians might be captured, in
Nov,    order to exchange them for Christians held in captivity, Stuyvesant

10 declares that it is "too dangerous tor the present and Impracticable
besides," He adds: "I say too dangerous, because new occasion
might thereby be given to the savage tribes dther to murder the
captives or to carry them otf further inland, without leaving us
hope to ransom them and I value the blood of one captured Christ¬
ian more than joo Indians," He thinks it better lo get back the
captives from the Indians "by the friendliest means, even if It
were by giving some contraband articles as presents,"—W. Y.
CoL Docs., Xnl: 52-53, 54. See also Brodhead, Hist. State of
N. Y., 1:  606-11.

14         Secretary Van Tienhoven, in reply to Stuyvesant's proposals

ot November 10 (q. v.), says that, "after a general peace had been
concluded with the natives in August 1645, the peace and the
arricles ot the treaty have been infringed and broken as foUows:
First in kiUing 14 Christians since August 1645 (up to 15''' Septbr
1655) at different places and at various times, for which we have
never been able to get justice done, much less satisfaction, not¬
withstanding we asked tor it in accordance with the treaty, but
on the contrary they have fooled us with lies and false reports."
He says: "The Indians have violated and broken the treaty of
peace in an outrageous manner in this city [New Amsterdam] on
the I5*h of September last, as follows: In that they landed very
early on the rivershore within the city-walls from 64 canoes about
500 men, all in arms, without having given previous notice of it,
and that they, immediately upon their arrival, almost before any
citizens were at hand, ran in large crowds of armed men through
the streets, breaking forcibly into the house of Mr, |IsaacJ Allerton,
bursting oft the lock ot the door, threatening and beating the
people; that they noisily searched the house under the pretext
of looking for Northern Indians, as they did in many houses in
this dty, until upon the complaints of the inhabitants, and lo
avoid further troubles, they were driven from the High Street
[Hoogh Straet, now Stone St.] to the banks ot the North river,
where their canoes laid [sic] and ihey had landed in the morning."
Van Tienhoven adds that the chiefs or sachems representing
difFercnl tribes were asked in a friendly manner "to appear at
the Council-chamber in the fort, which they did," Here ihey
were asked by the counciUors, "in the presence of the Burgomas¬
ters, Schepens, citizens and miUtary officers, for the reasons ot
thdr coming thus armed" and molesting the people. The council
and city authorities thereupon requested that in the Interest of
mutual safety "and to prevent mischief and trouble the savages
should remove themselves from this island [of Manhattan] to
Noten-Island [now Governors Island], which they promised and
then took their departure." But "instead of leaving, as they had
promised, they were joined in the evening by 200 armed savages
more, they shot after guard-mounting Hendrick van Dyck, the
former Fiscal, with an arrow into the breast and threatened to kill
Paulus Leendertsen (vander Gritt], Captain of the train-bands,
with an arrow," This led to the cry of "Murder, murder, the
savages kill the Dutch," and "by this dismal cry the citizens,
standing under arms in the fort, to keep good watch, were thrown
rather into confusion and hastened without any order through the
gates and over the walls, so that they came in conflict with the
savages, who were prepared, on the strand. Two Dutchmen were
killed and three wounded; three savages remained dead on the
strand, where they were found (afterwards). After this rencontre
had taken place the savages went over the river and elsewhere and
burned during the night many houses, murdered and captured
Christians, killed cattle, and a few days later cleared Staten-Isiand
people and houses."

This action was "contrary to the articles of peace, made in the
year 1645, whereby it was expressly stipulated, that if reciprocally
on one or the other side one or more persons had been killed or
murdered, no general war should therefore Immediately be begun,
but that the injured party should make lis complaints to the chiefs
or magistrates of those, who had committed the deed, so that then
justice might be meted out to the malefactors, according to cir¬
cumstances." Van Tienhoven gave judgment that it was "just and
righteous to make war on the Indians for the breaking ot the
treaty and their fearful misdeeds." He believed it was necessary
to reduce the Indians to submission, but in the season ot December
to March he considered it not feasible; therefore he recommended
that authority to begin war be secured trom  the superiors in

Amsterdam, and that in the meantime they should "dissemble, Nov.
though it be unpleasant, and it possible not spare some small 14
presents, in order to bring the savages to a truce, without making
an absolute compact, and hdp the captives" In the hands ot the
Indians, He also urged preparedness, by placing the vUlages "on
a ddensive footing," and by awaiting succor from Holland, With¬
out such reinforcement trom abroad, he said, he did not beUeve
a war could, "humanly speaking, be brought to a desirable end,"
This opinion Van Tienhoven wrote out on the 14th, but "Dehvered
the 29'h Novbr 1655."—JV. Y. Col. Docs., XTH: 56-57. See also
Sept. 15, 1655.

Solomon Pietersen La Chair, notary pubUc, Is granted per- 15
mission by the burgomasters and schepens "lo keep [a] tavern in
the house ot Tennis Kraey" (present cor. Stone and Broad Sts.).—
Rec. N. Am., 1: 401. This is the earliest reference to him in the
records. He dwdt in one of the houses owned by Jacob Steendam,
the poet, and had "lived" there "one quarter" when suit was
brought tor the rent, on March 6, 1656,—Ibid., II: 53. See
Dutch Grants, II: 383,

Michiel Jansen petitions the burgomasters and schepens for 22
permission "to tap, as he has In this recent [Indian] disaster been
driven oft and lost his all, and in addition is an old man with 3
large family," It is granted,—Rec. N. Am., I: 405, His de-
vasted property was on his grant In Pavonia (N. J.),—A', 2",
Col. Docs., XIII: 37 (see also 61), The tavern house at New
Amsterdam was at the present No, 12 State St.—See CasteUo
Plan, II: 284-85; Landmark Map Ref. Key, HI: 979. Jansen
also had a brew-house on the Beaver St, side of the present Del-
monico building.—See CasteUo Plan, II:  302; and Feb. 15, 1656.

Councillor Nicasius de Sllle, in reply to Stuyvesant's proposals 17
of Nov. 10 (q.v.), says: "it the war with the Indians Is brought to a
close, first the natives must be forbidden not only this island
[ManhattanJ but also the city [New Amsterdam! and espedally
the fort and that aU inhabitants must be interdicted to give them
lodgings and, by penalty of the gallows, to sell or give them brandy,
but that a trading place should be appointed for them, the Indians,
outside or in the outskirts ot the city, where it may be considered
most suitable: that the soldiers' quarters in our tort Amsterdam
must be finished speedily, also the gates provided with locks, and
other means ot securing it."—N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII: 54,

Councillor La Montagne gives his opinion in answer to Stuy- "
vesant's proposals of Nov, 10, stating, among other things, that it
cannot be determined whether the recent troubles with the Indians
constitute ground for a war, "because it is necessary to know first,
whether they [ihe Indians] were the cause ot it or not." Rderring
to events which laid the Indians "open to suspicion," he says:
"Fhst the unseasonable gathering here ot 1900 savages, without
our knowledge and consent, ot whom nearly 800 were already here,
to attack, contrary lo their usual manner, 50 or 60; was it not
sufficient lo create suspicion ot their bad intentions? And did
not their insufferable insolence, shown by breaking into Mr, [Isaac]
AUerton's house and beating some of our dtizens in theh own
houses increase that suspicion?" He also adds: "As to captives,
experience has taught us, that they must be ransomed."—W, Y.
Col. Docs., XUI: 55-56,

Seven Indians from Long Island appear before Stuyvesant and "
Pieter Wolphertsen [van CouwenhovenI, the latter "the Lieu¬
tenant of the train-bands," and able to speak "the Indian lan¬
guage," One of the Indians, named Adam, who "spoke very good
English," makes a statement on behalf of the chid sachem, "Marse-
paln, called Tachpausaan, alias Mcautinnemin," the well-known
Tackpouche, chief of the Marseplnghs, and the other Indians ot
the island, declaring their fealty and observance of peace during
the late Indian troubles. "He further presents a box with wam¬
pum, which, he says, has been sent by bis Sachem Tachpausaan
and the chiefs on the east end ot Long-Island with the request
to accept il as a token of theh friendship," and as an assurance
that whenever aid is needed from the sachem or his people, it will
be given as soon as called tor.—A'. Y. Col. Docs., XIH:  58,

The provincial treasury has been severdy depleted by "ei- 29
cessive expenses incurred the last year on account ot the EngUsh
troubles, and now again de novo created by the Southern [Delaware]
expedition," as weU as by the more recent "deplorable encounter
with the Indians." To replenish it, the tavern-keepers' excise is
increased throughout New Netheriand.—L(?tuj & Ord. N. Neth.,
202-3.    ^'  ■'■^ same time the brewing price ot "strong New
  Page 162