Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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CHAPTER IV.                                49

are taken prisoners, and together with them the inno¬
cent man is dragged off; and being treated precisely
as they are, he receives the same punishment, without
having taken part in their action.

People say the soul resembles the rain-water which
comes down from heaven, always the same and of the
same nature. However, if it is gathered in vessels
placed for the purpose, vessels of diff'erent materials, of
gold, silver, glass, earthenware, clay, or bitter-salt earth,
it begins to differ in appearance, taste, and smell. Thus
the soul does not influence matter in any way, except
in this, that it gives matter life by being in close con¬
tact with it. When, then, matter begins to act, the
result is different, in conformity with the one of the
three primary forces which happens to preponderate,
and conformably to the mutual assistance which the
other two latent forces afford to the former. This
assistance may be given in various ways, as the fresh
oil, the dry wick, and the smoking fire help each other
to produce light. The soul is in matter like the rider
on a carriage, being attended by the senses, who drive
the carriage according to the rider's intentions. But
the soul for its part is guided by the intelligence with
which it is inspired by God, This intelligence they
describe as that by which the reality of things is appre¬
hended, which shows the way to the knowledge of God,
and to such actions as are liked and praised by every¬

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