Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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70                         ALBERUNPS INDIA.

qualities and distinctions, which, however, does not yet
afford the knowledge of definitions.

" 2. Such a knowledge of things as proceeds as far as
the definitions by which particulars are classed under
the category of universals, but regarding which a man
must still practise distinction.

" 3. This distinction (viveka) disappears, and man
comprehends things at once as a whole, but within

" 4, This kind of knowledge is raised above time, and
he who has it can dispense with names and epithets,
which are only instruments of human imperfection.
In this stage the intellectus and the intelligens unite
with the intellectum, so as to be one and the same

This is what Patanjali says about the knowledge
which liberates the soul. In Sanskrit they call its
liberation Moksha—i.e. the end. By the same term
they call the last contact of the eclipsed and eclipsing
bodies, or their separation in both lunar and solar
eclipses, because it is the end of the eclipse, the moment
when the two luminaries which were in contact with
Page 35-       each other separate.

According to the Hindus, the organs of the senses
have been made for acquiring knowledge, and the plea¬
sure which they afford has been created to stimulate
people to research and investigation, as the pleasure
which eating and drinking afford to the taste has been
created to preserve the individual by means of nourish¬
ment.    So the pleasure of coitus serves to preserve the
species by giving birth to new individuals.    If there
were not special pleasure in these two functions, man
and animals would not.practise them for these pur¬
On know-        In the book Gitd we read:  "Man is created for the
cording''to    purposc of kuoiviug;  and because knoioing is always
G%td.°'^^     the same, man has been gifted with the same organs.
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