Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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86                         ALBERUNPS INDIA.

Further, Socrates says: " The soul is very similar to
the divine substance which does not die nor dissolve,
and is the only intelligibile which lasts for ever; the
body is the contrary of it. When soul and body unite,
nature orders body to serve, the soul to rule ; but when
they separate, the soul goes to another place than that
to which the body goes. There it is happy with things
that are suitable to it; it reposes from being circum¬
scribed in space, rests from folly, impatience, love, fear,
and other human evils, on this condition, that it had
always been pure and hated the body. If, however, it
has sullied itself by connivance with the body, by
serving and loving it so that the body was subservient
to its lusts and desires, in this case it does not ex¬
perience anything more real than the species of bodily
things (to crw/;,aToetSes) and the contact with them."

Proclus says : " P'he body in which the rational soul
dwells has received the figure of a globe, like the ether
and its individual beings. The body in which both the
rational and the irrational souls dwell has received an
erect figure like man. The body in which only the
irrational soul dwells has received a figure erect and
curved at the same time, like that of the irrational
animals. The body in which there is neither the one
nor the other, in which there is nothing but the nourish¬
ing power, has received an erect figure, but it is at the
same time curved and turned upside down, so that the
head is planted in the earth, as is the case with the
plants. The latter direction being the contrary to that
of man, man is a heavenly tree, the root of which is
directed towards its home, i.e. heaven, whilst the root
of vegetables is directed towards their home, i.e. the
Brahman         The Hindus hold similar views about nature,    Ar-

au^A^^vattha juna asks, "What is Brahman like in the world?"
ili^gtTpcl- Whereupon Vasudeva answers, "Imagine him like an
tanja I.        AsvctttJia tree."    This is  a huge   precious   tree,  well
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