Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)

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CHAPTER IX.                                  103

asked about the nature of the four castes and what
must be their moral qualities, whereupon Vasudeva
answered :

"The Brahmana must have an ample intellect, a
quiet heart, truthful speech, much patience; he must
be master of his senses, a lover of justice, of evident
purity, always directed upon worship, entirely bent
upon religion,

" P'he Kshatriya must fill the hearts with terror, must
be brave and high-minded, must have ready speech and
a liberal hand, not minding dangers, only intent upon
carrying the great tasks of his calling to a happy end,

" The Vaisya is to occupy himself with agriculture,
with the acquisition of cattle, and with trade.

"The Siidra is to endeavour to render services and
attention to each of the preceding classes, in order to
make himself liked by them.

" If each member of these castes adheres to his cus¬
toms and usages, he will obtain the happiness he wishes
for, supposing that he is not negligent in the worship of
God, not forgetting to remember him in his most im¬
portant avocations. But if anybody wants to quit the
works and duties of his caste and adopt those of another
caste, even if it would bring a certain honour to the
latter, it is a sin, because it is a transgression of the
rule."

Further, Vasudeva speaks, inspiring him with courage
to fight the enemy : " Dost thou not know, 0 man with
the long arm, that thou art a Kshatriya; that thy race
has been created brave, to rush boldly to the charge,
to care little for the vicissitudes of time, never to give
way whenever their soul has a foreboding of coming
misfortune ? for only thereby is the reward to be ob¬
tained. If he conquers, he obtains power and good
fortune. If he perishes, he obtains paradise and bliss.
Besides, thou showest weakness in the presence of the
enemy,  and   seemest   melancholy  at  the prospect of
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