Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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The two sciences of grammar and metrics are auxiliary List of

.              '-^                                                                            books on

to the other sciences. Of the two, the former, grammar, grammar.
holds the first place in their estimate, called vydkarana,
i.e. the law of the correctness of their speech and ety¬
mological rules, by means of which they acquire an
eloquent and classical style both in writing and reading.
We Muslims cannot learn anything of it, since it is a
branch coming from a root which is not within our
grasp—I mean the language itself. That which I have
been told as to titles of books on this science is the

1.   Aindra, attributed to Indra, the head of the angels.

2.   Cdndra,  composed by Candra, one of the red-robe-wearing

sect, the followers of Buddha.

3.   S'akatcL, so  called by the name of  its  author.     His tribe,

too, is called by a name derived from the same word, viz.

4.   Pdnini, so called from its author.

5.   Kdtantra, composed by Sarvavarman.

6.   S'asidevavritti, composed by Sasideva.

7.   Durgavivritti.

8.  S'ishyahitdvritti, composed by Ugrabhuti.

I have been told that the last-mentioned author was shah Inan-
the teacher and instructor of Shah Anandapala, the son hif master
of Jayapala, who ruled in our time.    After having com-    ^^^
posed the book he sent it to Kashmir, but the people
there did not adopt it, being in such things haughtily con¬
servative.    Now he complained of this to the Shah, and
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