Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)

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I40                        ALBERUNPS INDIA.

without vowel, whilst in writing both are represented
as one and the same thing (i.e. by the sign of the con¬
sonant in question).
Names of         Taken   alone by  themselves,  laghu  and  guru  are

g^uru. ^" called by various names : the former, la, kali, rupa,
cdmara, and graha; the latter, ga, nivra, and a half
amsaka. The latter name shows that a complete
amsaka is equal to two guru or their equivalent. These
names they have invented simply to facilitate the ver¬
sification of their metrical books. For this purpose
they have invented so many names, that one may fit
into the metre if others will not.
The single The fcct arising out of combinations of laghu and
guru are the following :—

Twofold both in number and measure is the foot 11,
i.e. two syllables and two mdtrd.

Twofold in number, not in measure, are the feet, | <
and < I ; in measure they are = three mdtrd \ \ \ (but,
in number, only two syllables).

The second foot < | (a trochee) is called krittikd.
The quaternary feet are in each book called by dif¬
ferent names:

<  <   paksha, i.e. the half month.
11 <   jvalana, i. e. the fire.

I < I   viadhya (? madhu).

<  1 I   parvata, i.e. the mountain, also called hdra and rasa.
I 111   ghana, i.e. the cube.

The feet consisting of five mdtrd have manifold
forms ; those of them which have special names are the
following :—

|< <  hastin, i.e. the elephant.    |      < < | (? lacuna).
<|<   kdma, i.e. the wish.             |      | | | <   kusuma.

A foot consisting of six mdtrd is < < <.
Some people call these feet by the  names of the
chess figures, viz.:

jvalana = the elephant.              i             parvata = the pawn.

madliya = the tower.                   |             ghana = the horse.
  Page 140