Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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15.   Scientific calculation of the correction of the
places of the planets.

16.   Scientific calculation of the three problems (v.
chap. 4).

17.   On the deflection of eclipses.

18.   Scientific calculation of the appearance of the
new moon and her two cusps.

19.   On Kuttaka, i.e. the pounding of a thing. The
pounding of oil-producing substances is here compared
with the most minute and detailed research. This chapter
treats of algebra and related subjects, and besides it
contains other valuable remarks of a more or less
arithmetical nature.

20.   On the shadow.

21.   On the calculation of the measures of poetry and
on metrics.

22.   On cycles and instruments of observation.

23.   On time and the four measures of time, the solar,
the civil, the lunar, and the sidereal.

24.   About numeral notation in the metrical books of
this kind.

These, now, are twenty-four chapters, according to
his own statement, but there is a twenty-fifth one,
called Dhydna-graha-adliydya, in which he tries to
solve the problems by speculation, not by mathematical
calculation, I have not enumerated it in this list,
because the pretensions which he brings forward in
this chapter are repudiated by mathematics, I am
rather inclined to think that that which he produces is
meant to be the ratio metaphysiea of all astronomical
methods, otherwise how could any problem of this
science be solved by anything save by mathematics ?

Such books as do not reach the standard of a Sid- onthe
dhanta  are  mostly   called   Tantra or  Karana.    The TantVas and
former means ruling under a governor, the latter means
following, i.e. following behind the Siddhanta.    Under
governors they understand the Acdryas, i.e. the sages,
anchorites, the followers of Brahman.

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