Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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  Page 199  

CHAPTER XVIII.                            199

In the mountains which form the frontier of India
towards the west there are tribes of the Hindus, or of
people near akin to them—rebellious savage races—
which extend as far as the farthermost frontiers of
the Hindu race.

Kanoj lies to the west of the Ganges, a very large
town, but most of it is now in ruins and desolate since
the capital has been transferred thence to the city of
Bari, east of the Ganges. Between the two towns there
is a distance of three to four days' marches.

As Kanoj (Kanydkuhja) has become famous by the
children of Pandu, the city of Mahura (Matliurd) has
become famous by Vasudeva. It lies east of the river
Jaun (Yamitnd). The distance between Mahura and
Kanoj is 2?< farsakli.

Taneshar (SthdnSsvara) lies between the two rivers to
the north both of Kanoj and Mahura, at a distance of
nearly ^o farsakh from Kanoj, and nearly ^o farsakh
from Mahura.

The river Ganges rises in the mountains which have
already been mentioned. Its source is called Gangd-
dvctra. Most of the other rivers of the country also rise
in the same mountains, as we have already mentioned
in the proper place.

As for the distances between the various parts of Hindu
India, those who have not themselves actually, seen deterinining
them must rely upon tradition ; but unfortunately it is
of such a nature that already Ptolemy incessantly com-,
plains of its transmitters and their bias towards story¬
telling. Fortunately I have found out a certain rule
by which to control their lies. The Hindus frequently
estimate the burden an ox could bear at 2000 and 3000
mand (which is infinitely more than an ox could carry
at once). In consequence they are compelled to let the
caravan make the same march to and fro during many
days—in fact, so long until the ox has carried the
whole load assigned to it from one end of the route to
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