Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



Jump to page:

Table of Contents

  Page 207  

CHAPTER XVIII.                           207

Thence you reach in five days the beginning of the ravine
whence the river Jailam comes ; at the other end of this
ravine is the watch-station Dvdr, on both sides of the
river Jailam. Thence, leaving the ravine, you enter
the plain, and reach in two more days Addishtan, the
capital of Kashmir, passing on the road the village
Ushkara, which lies on both sides of the valley, in the
same manner as Baramula.

The city of Kashmir covers a space of four farsakh,
being built along both banks of the river Jailam, which
are connected with each other by bridges and ferry¬
boats. The Jailam rises in the mountains Haramakot,
where also the Ganges rises, cold, impenetrable regions
where the snow never melts nor disappears. Behind
them there is Mahdcin, i.e. Great China. When the
Jailam has left the mountains, and has flowed two
days' journey, it passes through Addishtan. Four/ar-
sakh farther on it enters a swamp of one square/arsft/c/i.
The people have their plantations on the borders of this
swamp, and on such parts of it as they manage to
reclaim. Leaving this swamp, the Jailam passes the
town Ushkara, and then enters the above-mentioned

The river Sindh rises in the mountains Unang in the The upper

l-l        course of

territory of  the   Turks,  which you  can  reach m the the sindh

.           1               •         1            1-1                river and

following   way:—Leaving the  ravine  by   which  you the north
T^   1    A        1              •       1       1                 1                  1         ■'^"'^ north-

enter Kashmir and entering the plateau, then you have westfron-

T       c                             -1                                ^    c      ^          "^               •         tiers of

for a march of two more days on your left the mountains India,
of Bolor and Shamilan, Turkish tribes who are called
Bhattavarydn. Their king has the title Bhatta-Shah.
Their towns are Gilgit, Aswira, and Shiltas, and their
languaofe is the Turkish. Kashmir suffers much from
their inroads. Marching on the left side of the river,
you always pass through cultivated ground and reach Page 102.
the capital; marching on the right side, you pass
through villages, one close to the other, south of the
capital, and thence you reach the mountain Kularjak,
  Page 207