Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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  Page 258  

258                           ALBERUNPS INDIA.

The rivers of The Matsya-Burdua and Vdyu-Purdna mention the
As/aTfsin^ rivcTS flowiug iu Jambu-Dvipa, and say that they rise
iayaaud™s" in the mouutaius of Himavant. In the following table
towestTnd WO simply enumerate them, without following any
^^^^'           particular principle of arrangement.    The reader must

imagine that the mountains form the boundaries of
India. The northern mountains are the snowy Hima¬
vant. In their centre lies Kashmir, and they are con¬
nected with the country of the Turks. This mountain
region becomes colder and colder till the end of the
inhabitable world and Mount Meru. Because this
Page 129. mountain has its chief extension in longitude, the rivers
rising on its north side flow through the countries of the
Turks,Tibetans, Khazars, and Slavonians, andfallintothe
Sea of Jurjan (the Caspian Sea), or the sea of Khwarizm
(the Aral Sea), or the Sea Pontus (the Black Sea), or the
northern Sea of the Slavonians (the Baltic) ; whilst the
rivers rising on the southern slopes flow through India
and fall into the great ocean, some reaching it single,
others combined.
Rivers of          The rivcrs of India come either from the cold moun-


tains in the north or from the eastern mountains, both
of which in reality form one and the same chain, ex¬
tending towards the east, and then turning towards the
south until they reach the great ocean, where parts of
it penetrate into the sea at the place called the Dike of
Rdma. Of course, these mountains differ very much
in cold and heat.

We exhibit the names of the rivers in the following
  Page 258