Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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  Page 299  

CHAPTER XXIX.                           299

their mouth: e.g. Bushang they call in their books
Fiisanj, and Sakilkand they call in their revenue-books
Pdrfaza (sic). However, what is more curious and
strange is this, that sometimes one and the same lan¬
guage changes in the mouth of the same people who
speak it, in consequence of which strange and uncouth
forms of words spring up, not intelligible save to him
who discards every rule of the language. And such
changes are brought about in a few years, without there
being any stringent cause or necessity for it. Of course,
in all of this the Hindus are actuated by the desire to
have as many names as possible, and to practise on them
the rules and arts of their etymology, and they glory in
the enormous copiousness of their language which they
obtain by such means.

The following names of countries, which we have
taken from the Vdyu-Burdna, are arranged according to
the four directions, whilst the names taken from the
Samhitd are arranged according to the eight directions.
All these names are of that kind which we have here
described (i.e. they are not the names now in general
use).    We exhibit them in the following tables :—

The single countries of the middle realm, according to     Page 150.
the  Vdyu-Burdna.

Kuru, Pancala, S^lva, Jahgala, Surasena, Bhadra-
kara (!), Bodha, Pathesvara, Vatsa, Kisadya, Kulya,
Kuntala, Kasi, Kosala, Arthayashava (?), Puhlinga (!),
Mashaka (!), Vrika.

The people in the east:—

Andhra, Vaka, Mudrakaraka (?), Pratragira (?), Vahir-
gira, Prathanga (?), Vahgeya, Malava (!), Malavartika,
Pragjyotisha, Munda, Abika (?), Tamraliptika, Mala,
Magadha, Govinda (Gonanda?),

The people in the south :—

Pandya, Kerala, Caulya, Kulya, Setuka, Mushika,
Rumana (?),  Vanavasika, Maharashtra,  Mahisha,   Ka-
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