Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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  Page 317  

CHAPTER XXXI.                            317

On the other hand, however, all the canons of the
Hindus agree in this, that the latitude of Ujain is 24
degrees, and that the sun culminates over it at the time
of the summer solstice.

Balabhadra, the commentator, gives as the latitude
of Kanoj 26° 35'; as that of Taneshar, 30° 12'.                Page 163.

The learned Abu-Ahmad, the son of Catlaghtagin,
calculated the latitude of the city of Karli (?), and
found it to be 28° o', that of Taneshar 27', and both
places to be distant from each other by three days'
marches. What the cause of this difference is I do
not know.

According to the book Karanasdra, the latitude of
Kashmir is 34° 9', and the straight shadow there 8/^

I myself have found the latitude of the fortress
Lauhur to be 34° 10', The distance from Lauhiir to
the capital of Kashmir is 56 miles, half the way being
rugged country, the other half plain. What other lati¬
tudes I have been able to observe myself, I shall
enumerate in this place :—

Ghazna.       .       .       -33° 3S'


34° 43'

Kabul   .        .        .        -    33° 47'


•    34° 44'

Kandi, the guard-station


-    34° 30'

of the purines     .        .    33° 55'

Jailam .

•    33° 20'

Dunptir....    34° 20'

The fortress Nandna

-.   32°   0'

The distance between the latter place and Multan is
nearly 200 miles.

Salkot.......32° 58'

Mandakkakor.....3 5^° 50'

Multan......29° 40'

If the latitudes of places are known, and the distances
between them have been measured, the difference be¬
tween their longitudes also may be found according to
the methods explained in the books to which we have
referred the reader.
  Page 317