Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)

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  Page 337  



CHAPTER XXXIV.                          337

According to the Vdyu-Bitrdna—

I muhtirta = 30 kald.
I kald = 30 kdshthd.
I kdsJithd =15 nimesha.

The  smaller fractions are disregarded by the  Vdyu
Purdna.

We have no means of settling the question as to which Page 171
of these systems is the most authentic one.    Therefore
it is the best for us to adhere to the theory of Utpala
and S M Y(?), i.e. to divide all measures of time smaller
than n, prdnch by eight—
 

I prdna = 8 nimesha.
I nimesha — 8 lava.
 

I lava = 8 truti.
I truti = 8 anu.
 

The  whole  system is represented in the following
table:—
 


 

How many times the
 


 

The names of the mea¬
 

smaller one is con¬
 

How many of it are con¬
 

sures of time.
 

tained in the larger
one.
 

tained in one day.
 

Ghati, Nadi
 

60
 

60
 

Kshana   .
 

4
 

240
 

Cashaka,   Vin^di,   (
Kaia    .        .'      \
 

15
 

3600
 

Prana
 

6
 

21,600
 

Nimesha.
 

8
 

172,800
 

Lava
 

8
 

1,382,400
 

Truti
 

8
 

11,059,200
 

Anu
 

8
 

88,473,600
 

The Hindus have also a popular kind of division of prabara.
the nychthemeron into eight prahara, i.e. changes of
the watch, and in some parts of their country they
have clepsydree regulated according to the ghati, by
which the times of the eight watches are determined.
After a watch which lasts seven and a half ghati has
elapsed, they beat the drum and blow a winding shell

VOL. I.                                                                 Y
  Page 337