Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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  Page 355  

CHAPTER XXXVI.                          355

In all these things the Hindus use lunar years, months,
and days, which are called tithi.

The sdvana-mdna is used in the calculation of the
vdra, i.e. the days of the week, of the ahargana, i.e. the
sum of the days of an era (v. chap, Ii.) ; in determining
the days of marriage and fasting (v. chap. Ixxv.); the
siltakct, i.e. the days of childbed (v. chap. Ixix.); the
days of the uncleanness of the houses and the vessels
of the dead (v. chap. Ixxii.); the cikitsd, i.e. certain
months and years in which Hindu medical science pre¬
scribes the taking certain medicines; further in deter¬
mining the prdyascitta, i.e. the days of the expiations
which the Brahmans make obligatory for those who
have committed some sin, times during which they are
obliged to fast and to besmear themselves with butter
and dung (v. chap, Ixxi,). All these things are deter¬
mined according to sdvana-mdna.

On the contrary, they do not determine anything
by the nakshatra-mdna, since it is comprehended in the

Every measure of time which any class of people
may choose by general consent to call a day, may be
considered as a mdna. Some such days have already
been mentioned in a preceding chapter (v. chap, xxxiii.).
However, the four mdnas par excellence are those to
the explanation of which we have limited the present
  Page 355