Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 2)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)

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CHAPTER LXIII.                           133

nourishes himself by fruit, vegetables, and roots. He
lets the hair grow long, and does not anoint himself
with oil.

The fourth period extends till the end of life. He The fourth
wears a red garment and holds a stick in his hand.
He is always given to meditation; he strips the mind
of friendship and enmity, and roots out desire, and
lust, and wrath. He does not converse with anybody
at all. When walking to a place of a particular merit,
in order to gain a heavenly reward, he does not stop on
the road in a village longer than a day, nor in a city
longer than five days. If any one gives him something,
he does not leave a remainder of it for the following
day. He has no other business but that of caring
for the path which leads to salvation, and for reaching
moksha, whence there is no return to this world.

The universal duties of the Brahman throughout his The duties

..                       -          t>     •               •   •           1                 -I             ••          of Brahmans

whole life are works of piety, giving alms and receiving in general.

them.    For that which the Brahmans give reverts to

the pitaras (is in reality a benefit to the Fathers).    He

must continually read, perform the sacrifices, take care

of the fire which he lights, offer before it, worship it,

and preserve it from being extinguished, that he may

be burned by it after his death.    It is called homct.

Every day he must wash himself thrice: at the
sctmdhi of rising, i.e. morning dawn, at the sctmdhi of
setting, i.e. evening twilight, and between them in the
middle of the day. The first washing is on account of
sleep, because the openings of the body have become
lax during it. Washing is a cleansing from accidental
impurity and a preparation for prayer.

Their prayer consists of praise, glorification, and pros¬
tration according to their peculiar manner, viz. pros¬
trating themselves on the two thumbs, whilst the two
palms of the hands are joined, and they turn their faces
towards the sun. For the sun is their kibla, wherever
he may be, except when in the south.    For they do not
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