Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 2)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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kites, whilst he expressly states that he does not know
the Jacobites. Gf. "Chronology of Ancient Nations," pp.
283, 4; 292, 12 ; 295, 22 ; 312, 16.

Where Alberuni learned Greek philosophy, and who
introduced him to the study of Plato's Dialogues and leges,
he does not state himself. The Arabic translations which
he used, and which are tolerably correct, had passed
through Syriac versions which are now no longer extant
(e.g. those of Plato). Alberuni was personally acquainted
and had literary connections with a man who was one of
the first representatives of Greek learning in the Muslim
world in that age, Abulkhair Alkhammar, and it was
perhaps to him that Alberuni owed part of his classical
education. Abulkhair was born a Christian in Bagdad,
A.H. 942. He lived some time in Khwarizm, and migrated
thence, together with Alberuni and others, to Ghazna, A.D.
1017, after Mahmud had annexed that country to his
empire. He died in Ghazna during Mahmud's reign, i.e.
before a.d. 1030, and is said to have become a Muslim
towards the end of his life. He was a famous physician,
and wrote on medical subjects and on Greek philosophy;
besides he translated the works of Greek philosophers
(e.g. Theophrast) from Syriac into Arabic. Of his writ¬
ings we may mention a "Book of Comparison of the
Theory of the (Greek) Philosophers and of the Christians,"
"Explanation of the Theory of the Ancients (i.e. Greek
philosophers) regarding the Creator and regarding Laws,"
" The Life of the Philosopher," " On the {5X7^," " On Meteo¬
rology," &c. His pedigree points to a Persian descent. Gf.
Ghronologic Orientalischer Volker, Einleitung, p. xxxii.,
Fihrist, p. f 1 e and the work of Shahrazuri <^'j,,. _t, S\\ Jx-;

-^'y^l (manuscript of the Royal Library of Berlin, MSS.

Orient, oct. 217, fol. I44&-I46a); C. Schefer,. CA?'es;^o-
mathie Persctne, p. 141.

It must be observed that Alberuni, in comparing Hindu
doctrines with those of Plato, follows in the wake of
Megasthenes,    who   says:   HapairXiKoven   Se   koL   jjlvOov?,

wcTTrep   Kal  riAarojv,   Trepl   re   dc^^apcrtas   \jyv)^rj'i   koI   tcov   ko.O''

a8ov Kpla-ewv kcu dAAa roiavra (Schwanbeck, Bonn, 1846,
p. 138).

P.  8.   Sdnkhya   (or   Sdmkhyel)   and   Pcttctfijctla.—The
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