Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 2)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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394                             ALBERUNTS INDIA.

the Hindu Shah. The same double rule existed in

About A.D. 950-975 the city of Kabul was already
Muslim, whilst the suburb was inhabited by the Hindus
(and by Jews). Kabul was the coronation-city for the Pala
dynasty, as Konigsberg in Prussia for the Hohenzollerns.
Even when they ceased to reside in Kabul, they had to be
crowned there.

By the Ispahbad, mentioned by Alberuni, I under¬
stand the Hindu goyernor who ruled over the city for the
PrUa king. Our author applies a title of the Sasanian
empire to the official of a Hindu empire.

In what year the negotiation referred to by Alberuni
took place is not known. Perhaps under Ma'miin, when
the city was definitely ceded to the Muslim conquerors.

It seems to have been the public opinion among Mus¬
lims that Hindus considered fornication as lawful, as Ibn
Khurdadhbih expresses it (Elliot, "History of India," i,
13), whilst, according to Alberuni, they considered it in¬
deed as unlawful, but were lax in punishing it,

P, 157,—The Buyide prince 'Adud-aldaula, who held
Persia under his sway, died A.H. 372 = a.d. 982. Not long
before Alberuni wrote, the last of their dominions had been
annexed to the empire of Mahmud of Ghazna,

P, 158,—'lyas Ibn Muawiya was judge in Basra under
the Omayya Khalif Omar Ibn 'Abdala'ziz, and died there,
A.H. 122 = A.D. 740.

P. 159.—With the author's description of the ordeals,
ef. Manu, viii, 114 seq., and a translation of the chapter on
ordeals from the Vydvahdret Mayitkhct by G. Biihler, in
"Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," 1867, vol.
XXXV. pp. 14 secq.; Stenzler, Die Inelischen Gottcsurtheile, in
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldnedischen Gesellschctft, ix.
p. 661. The last-mentioned kind of ordeal (p. 160) is also
described in Elliot's " History of India," i. 329 (the Sindian
ordeal of fire).

P. 164. According to ct pctssctge in the book Manu.—Cf.
Manu, ix. 118.
  Page 394