American dictionary of printing and bookmaking

(New York :  H. Lockwood,  1894.)



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Bottom of Tympan.—The stud on the frame which
the hook catches upon in order to hold the inner and
outer tympans securely.

Bound.—The term for books when in covers—cloth
or otherwise—as distinct from books in quires.

Bouquiniste (Fr.).—A dealer in second-hand books,
who generally has a bookstall at some street corner.

Bourdon (Fr.).—An out.

Bourgeois, pronounced bur Joyce, a medium-sized
kind of type, less used than some others, which is in
magnitude between brevier and long primer. By the
point system it is called nine points. About eight lines
make an inch. It is half great primer in body and twice
diamond. Few display types are made to it. This is
named gaillarde in French, burgeois in Dutch, Bourgeois
in German and gagliarda in Italian.

This line is set in Bourgeois.

Boustrophedon.—Characters written from right to
left, then returning from the left, as plowmen make their
furrows. This was the method the Greeks followed in
their earliest ages. It was disused by them four cen¬
turies before the Christian era, but was used by the
Irish at a much later period.

Bouvier, John, a native of France, came to this
country in his fifteenth year, and shortly after entered
the printing trade. After completing his time in Phila¬
delphia he began business on his own account, but sub¬
sequently devoted himself to the study of law, achieving
a high reputation as an author. His principal works
were an Abridgment of Blackstone's Commentaries, a
Law Dictionary, Bacon's Abridgment of the Law, in ten
octavo volumes, and the Institutes of American Law.
He became recorder of Philadelphia and judge of the
Court of Criminal Sessions, and in each achieved honor¬
able distinction.    He died on November 18,1865.

BoTv the Letter.—When compositors pick a bad let¬
ter out of a form in correcting it is usual to rub the face
of it on the stone and to bend the shank, if it be not a
thick letter; this is done to prevent such letters being
distributed and used again. In Moxon's time it was
styled bowing a letter. After the form is locked up and
the stone cleared these bowed (or bent) letters are thrown
into the shoe.—Savage.

BoTsrdler, Thomas.—This gentleman, who was
born in 1754 and died in 1825, will always be remem¬
bered for his attempts to purify Shakespeare of his im¬
moral or obscene passages and Gibbon of his deistical
expressions.    The efforts were failures, as people wish

to see what these au¬
thors really wrote, but
Bowdlerizing remains
as a word in the lan¬

Bo'wl. — A small
wooden bowl which
was formeriy in use in
England in compos¬
ing-rooms. It con¬
tained water, which
could be carried to
^ different parts of a
room for the purpose
of wetting matter.

Bo-wles, Samuel,
a printer and editor,
of Springfield, Mass.,
was born there on
February 9,1826. His
father, who was a
printer, had gone to
that place from Hartford, and established a weekly pa¬
per called the Republican. The son learned to set type
and did all the other work about a country newspaper


office, frequently helping also in the preparation of copy.
In 1844, when he was eighteen, he persuaded his father
to begin the daily Republican, which he himself carried
on, the first number being published on March 27. It
displayed unusual vigor and skill, and the Mexican War
coming on soon after largely extended its circulation.
For many years it had both the largest circulation and
the largest revenue of any newspaper published in a
small town in the United States. In 1853, the elder Mr.
Bowles having died, Clark W. Bryan was added to the
firm, and under his superintendence a large book and
job office was built up, and for a long time they were
extensive manufacturers of albums. In 1857 Mr. Bowles
took charge of a newspaper started in Boston, but soon
returned to Springfield, and in 1865 made a trip to the
Pacific shore with Speaker Colfax, which he afterwards
described in a published book. He died on January 16,
1878. His life by George S. Merriam appeared shortly
after. The business is still conducted by his son and

BoTffyer, "William, a printer of London, was born
in that city in 1663, being the son of John Bowyer, a
grocer. He was bound an apprentice in 1679 to Miles
Plesher, and was admitted to the freedom of the Com¬
pany of Stationers on October 4,1686. He was one of
the twenty printers allowed by the Court of Star Cham¬
ber, but this privilege was at that time drawing to a
close. In 1712 he was burned out, the loss of property
being estimated at £5,148 18s. This represented a much
larger establishment in proportion than could now be
set up for the same money, as a dozen presses, each em¬
ploying two men, could be purchased for the same sum
that is now required to buy a single cylinder. A sub¬
scription paper was soon after circulated among his
friends, which brought him in £1,162 5s. lOd., while a
royal brief, which seems to have been some kind of in¬
surance, added £1,377 9s. 4d., thus making the total
amount £2,539 15s. 2d. With this sum he again began
business, and was, as he had been before, very success¬
ful. He died on December 27, 1737, and it is recorded
that the funeral expenses were £37 10s. He was suc¬
ceeded by his son, William Bowyer the second, who had
been a partner with him from 1722. A marble monu¬
ment was erected to him in Low Leyton, in Essex, and
there is a brass plate with an inscription to his honor in
the Stationers' Hall.

Bowyer, William, the younger, entitled by Han¬
sard the most learned and distinguished printer of mod¬
ern times, was born in White Friars, London, on Decem¬
ber 19, 1699, and received his education at Merchant
Taylors' School and
St.* John's College,
Cambridge. He then
entered his father's
business, paying prin¬
cipal attention to the
correcting of proofs.
He was twice married.
His second wife, Mrs.
Elizabeth Bell, was
originally his house¬
keeper, but after her
marriage she so ap¬
plied herself that she
finally became able to
read the most learned
works that went
through the office.
She was an extraordi¬
nary woman, and was

highly appreciated by    william bowyer, the younger.
his friends, as her mod¬
esty equaled her acquirements.    In 1729, through the
friendship of the Speaker of the House of Commons,
Onslow, .Bowyer was made printer to that body, a posi-

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