American dictionary of printing and bookmaking

(New York :  H. Lockwood,  1894.)



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With Messrs. Hodge and Allen he printed and published
the first Bible ever issued in New York. He continued
in business as a bookseller until about 1825, and died on
June 26, 1836, aged seventy-three. He was largely in¬
terested in the paper trade, owning paper-mills in New
Jersey, and having been one of the. first to sell paper in
New York on commission. This was about 1819. Pa¬
per dealing is continued to the present time by his suc¬
cessors, Augustine Smith & Co.

Canada.—Upper Canada, now known as Ontario,
was a waste at the outbreak of the American Revolu¬
tion, and Lower Canada, now called Quebec, was in¬
habited only by the descendants of the French, who had
been conquered a dozen years before, and a few soldiers,
traders and adventurers. The population of the two
provinces at that time was very small. Printing began
at Quebec about 1764, by Brown & Gilmore, doing work
in both English and French, and next in Montreal.
Since the settlement of the western half of this region
many enterprising newspapers have been begun, and
there are many book and job offices. The largest places,
in this connection, are Montreal and Toronto, each of
which does a great deal of printing. The Government
Printing-Office in Ottawa is a very large one. Quebec
and Hamilton do much, and there are a dozen places
like Kingston and London where the amount of w^ork
turned out is very respectable. The number of news¬
papers published in Ontario in 1890 was 482, of which
forty-four were daily ; and in Quebec, 141, of which
eighteen were daily. Besides these two provinces the
Dominion of Canada contains British Columbia, Mani¬
toba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward
Island. The total number of newspapers in the Do¬
minion is 803, of which eighty-seven are dailies.

Canada Balsam. — An ingredient formerly much
used in printing-inks, not only by wholesale manufac¬
turers, but by printers who made their own. It was
highly recommended by Lynch and Savage. The bal¬
sam does not dry quickly.

Cancel.—1. Canceled matter is that which is set up
but has not been worked off, and is to be distributed.
In hastily-written books, where a number of persons
are employed to bring them out at once, it may happen
that what has been prepared by one is very much bet¬
ter said by some one else, or that it is inexpedient to
print a portion. 2. Canceled sheets are those which
are condemned in the pressroom as unfit for sending
out. They may be too gray or too dark, or may have
some objectionable matter or some startling error. 3. In
bookbinding, all sheets or leaves are said to be canceled
which are not allowed to be bound. 4. Canceled plates
are those stereotype or electrotype plates which have
been laid aside, better or more correct plates being used
instead of them. In printing-offices or electrotype-foun¬
dries where this happens a steel punch, with the word
*' Canceled " engraved upon it, should be driven into the
back by a hammer. Ordinarily speaking, however, it
is better to have them melted up at once. 5. A reprint
of a leaf or leaves owing to a mistake—literary or tech¬
nical—and usually indicated by an asterisk in the white
line, which serves the place of an additional signature.

Candlesticks are still made for compositors, so
that they can be put in one of the small boxes of the
case, but they have nearly been driven out by petroleum
and gas. They are of lead or iron. An expedient much
resorted to in country offices in former days was to
whittle a potato or turnip in the right shape to fit close¬
ly into a box, a circular hole being made in the centre
for the candle.

Canon.—The largest size of type that has a name of
its own. It is four lines of small pica, being larger than
double paragon and smaller than four-line pica. On
the point system it is forty-four points, and measures in
depth about three-fifths of an inch. Hansard's Typo¬
graphia in 1825 lays down the correct size of this type

as eighteen and a great primer to a foot. French canon,
a term not now used, is a little larger. The equivalent
terms for French canon and canon are in French, gros
canon ; German, Missal ; Dutch, Parys Romeyn, and
Italian, canone.

Canoncino (Ital.).—Body 28 of the Italian series, or
four lines of minion. It lacks very little of five lines of

Canone (Ital.).—Canon. There are two sizes of
this. One is body 40 and the other body 44 of the
Italian series. The former would be equivalent to body
43 and the latter to body 47 of the American point sys¬
tem, or a little less than four-line small pica and four-
line iDica, respectively.

Cap.—1. The paper covering which is over the edges
while the book is being covered and finished. 2. An
abbreviation of capital, much used. 3. The flat piece of
wood, in a wooden hand-press, which was upon the
very top, extending from one cheek to the other, and
having a mortise on each side, so that the ends of the
cheeks could be tenoned in. It was ornamented with a
molding and projected slightly. 4. An abbreviation for
foolscap, much used.

Capitalizing.—Originally there was no reason why
there should be both capitals and small letters, and it is
not believed that the first alphabets had more than one
series. The haste of writing made, in some instances,
a second series, smaller than the first and less formal.
But all languages do not have both kinds, as, for in¬
stance, the Hebrew. In Rome whole sentences at times
were written in uncials or capitals, but the general
usage of the Greeks and Romans was to place one to
each of the most important words and none to the un¬
important ones. Two or three centuries ago one word
out of every five or six was capitalized in English and
French, but by the middle of the eighteenth century
capitals were usually kept down. Dr. Franklin com¬
plains in one place of the dull uniformity which, in his
old age, was the custom of printing-offices. Since 1800
few capitals have been used, but the practice is not uni¬
form in different places. Some use many more than
others. It will be remembered that Ignatius Donnelly
formed his theory that Bacon wrote the works of
Shakespeare by noticing how irregularly the capitals
were used. In that day, if the lower case ran low, the
capitals were used to eke out, and so were the Italics.
During the transitional period from the free capitalizing
of two centuries ago and the scant capitalizing of to-day
many theories have come forward. Extracts are given
here, with the dates annexed, to show the progress :

The Administration of Justice and the Laws bein^ in such
Hands, it was no wonder that the poor Protestants in Ireland
wished rather to have had no Laws at ah, and he left to their
natural Defence, than be cheated into the Necessity of submit¬
ting to Laws that were executed only to punish, and not to pro¬
tect them.— Wei wood's Memoirs, 1689.

Let this deter Man from exercising Cruelty to any of his Beasts
that are now given him for Servants, which ought to be us'd
with that Gentleness and Compassion which Keason and Hu¬
manity will direct.—Parker's Meditations, 1735.

There has been lately several Murders of Indians in the dif¬
ferent Provinces. Those committed in this Province will be
duely enquired into, & the Murderers executed as soon as found
guilty. They are all apprehended & secured in Qaol.—Letter of
William Franklin to Benjamin Franklin, 1766.

General Washington cannot leave this place without express¬
ing his acknowledgments to the Matrons and Young Ladies who
received him in so novel and grateful a manner at the triumphal
arch in Trenton for the exquisite sensations he experienced in
that affecting moment.— Washington's Letter to the Ladies of
Trenton, April 21, 1789.

That all side, bottom, or incut Notes, be each of them,
whether occurring together or separately, paid for at the rate of
25 cents per sheet; and should they exceed what is considered
as moderate, the price shall be struck by the Joiu'neymen of the
Oifice and the Employer.—i^w'^/ Neio York 8cale of Prices, 1800.

It is agreed that the first words of paragraphs and
complete sentences must be capitalized, as well as the
first word in a line of poetry ; yet the difficulty arises
at once as to what a paragraph is and what a complete

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