Bernier, François, Travels in the Mogul Empire A.D. 1656-1668

(Westminster, Eng. :  Constable,  1891.)



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426                 JOURNEY TO KACFIEMIRE

mamiron} a small root in great repute for the cure of bad
eyes; and in returning through Great Tibet they further
loaded themselves with the produce of that countiy, such
as musk, crystal, jade, and especially with a quantity of very
fine wool of two kinds, the first from the sheep of that
countiy, and the latter which is known by the name of touz,
and resembles, as already observed, the beaver, and should
rather be called hair than wool. But since Chah-Jehan s
irruption into Great Tibet, the King has not only inter¬
dicted the passage of caravans, but forbidden any person
from Kachemire to enter his dominions. This is the reason
why the caravans now take their departure from Patna on
the Ganges so as to avoid his territories : they leave Great
Tibet on the left and proceed directly to the kingdom of
slaves, Lassa.^

In regard to the kingdom known here by the name of
Kacheguer, which is in my opinion the same as our maps
call Kascar, I shall relate all the information I have col¬
lected from merchants, natives of that countiy, who when
they heard that Aureng-Zebe intended to visit Kachemire,
brought into this kingdom for sale a great number of young
slaves, girls and boys.

They say that Kacheguer lies to the east of Kachemire
inclining somewhat to the northward;' that the shortest
route from one kingdom to the other is through Great Tibet,
but, that passage being now shut, they were under the
necessity of taking the road of Little Tibet. The first town
they passed in returning was Gourtche} the last town de-

' Still, under the name of Mamiran-i-Chini, a popular drug in the
bazaars of the Punjab. It is ground up with rose-water and then
applied to the eyes.

^ The route from Patna to Lhasa was through Napaul, and vid the
Kuti (Nialam) Pass to Shigatze, and thence to Lhasa. From Lhasa
there was a trade-route to Sining Fu on the Chinese frontier, north-east
through Kokosai and the Charing Nor. This being the Patna-China
route mentioned by Bernier on the next page.

^ As a matter of fact the town of Kashgar is due north of Srinagar in
Kashmir.                                                          * Gurez or Gurais.
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