Korean independence outbreak beginning March 1st 1919

([S.l. :  s.n.,  1920?])



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The Imperial Sussian Government, acknowledging that japsm pos¬
sesses in Korea, paramount political, military and economic inter¬
ests, engages neither to obstruct nor to interfere with the meas¬
ures of guidance, protection and control which the Imperial Govern¬
ment of Japan may find it neceaaary to take in Korea.

This is the first time that Japan is admitted to have paramount
interests of any kind in Koreal^ but the second admission comes very-
close on the heels of the first, for the second Anglo-Japanese Alliance
dated the 27th September 1905, makes no reference whatever to -the inde-
dependence of Korea but has for ArtiSle III. the following: which has
striking similarities of phraseology with the article quoted from the
PortsAouth Treaty:-

Japan possessing paramount political, military and economic
interest in Korea, Great Britain recognizes tho right.of Japan to
take such measures for guidance, control and protection in Korea as she
may deem neceaaary to saf-guard and advance those interests, provided
always that such measures are not contrary to 'the principle ot equal
opportunities for the commerce and industry of all nations.

In the series of excerpts wtioh we have just set forth, we have
tho btxth and development of the principle of apeoial interests.  In
oui- next article we shall see this principle over-ride every other.


In the two preceding articles we have seen that there were two
phases in the modern history of Korea's relations with the outside
world; first, the stage in vrhich Korea was exalted to independence of
China; and the second stage in which Japan was seduously obtaining from
various Powers the recognition of the fact that she had paramount
interests in Korea. In the third period, which only lasted five yeafs,
Japan sot herself to get from Korea herself an admi'iaion that Korea's
best interests would be best looked after by Japan, and to turn that ad¬
mission into an open door through 'Jdiich complete Japanese domination
culminating in annexation, might enter. There were two problems to be
solved first, to remove as far aspa possible all relations between Korea
and other Powers; second to deprive Korea herself of every vestige of real
power over herself. The story of the solution of these t-^o problema ie t
told in public documents. There are really two stories, and to disentangle
them the documents need to be regarded as to series, and must be set forth
not in one chronological sequence but two.

Let us follow first the pr»cesses by.which Korea wae deprived of all
power over herself, that is to say, by v/hich everything in the way of a  ^
really Korean domestic administration was abolished. The first docvment i
ini this series ia the Japan-Korean Protocol of tho 23rd February 1904,
which open with Article I., reading as follows:-

Por the purpose of majntaming a permanent and solid friendahip
between Japan and Koeoa and firmly establiaiiing peace in the par East,
the Imtiorial Govsmiiont of Korea aaall place full confidence m -the
Imperial Government of Japan iond adopt the advice of the latter in
regard to improvement in administration.

The second document in the series ia the Japan-Korean Treaty of
the 22nd August 1904, the following being in this connection the
significant articles:-
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