This coin was apparently produced during the reign of Ivan IV (1530-1584)
better known as Ivan the Terrible. Ivan IV was the first Russian ruler who was
formally crowned as Czar (1547). Ivan the Terrible reformed the Government and
Court, conquered Kazan Khan (1552) and Astrakhan Khan (1556) and created an
empire that included non-Slav states. The home policy of Ivan the Terrible was
accompanied by repressions and the enslaving of peasants.