6. History


90.  Cuneiform Tablet. Cone, 11.5 cm. high, 3.8 cm. diameter. Ur, Southern Babylonia, ca. 2060 BCE. RBML, Cuneiform Collection

This cone was found prior to 1937 in what is now Southern Iraq in the archeological site of Ur of the Chaldees, the birthplace of Abraham. It was built into a temple wall with similar cones, serving a purpose similar to our modern corner stone. The inscription, dating from the reign of King Libit-Ishtar, just prior to the time of Abraham, is one of the best examples yet discovered of writing dating from that period, and confirms the existence of some of the cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis, once doubted, including Erech, Isin, Sumer and Akkad.

Gift of Frances Henne, 1973

91.  Grant of the monastery of San Salvador de Cornellana to Cluny. Manuscript document on parchment, Lugo (?), Spain, March 7, 1122 CE. RBML, Smith Documents 2

Although this is one of a constellation of three 12th century copies containing the same text with variant readings, the present document has not been studied in context with the others to ascertain its recipient. Presumably the three copies were to be retained by the parties concerned: the French Benedictine monastery of Cluny; the Spanish monastery of San Salvador; the donating family. It has been speculated that Count Suero Vermúdez and his wife, Enderquina made the donation in order to ingratiate themselves with the clergy, thus counterbalancing the power of the queen of León and Castile, Urraca (1081-1126). It was nonetheless Urraca herself, her son Alfonso and her daughter Sancia who confirmed the donation, along with four bishops, two priors, another count and a host of nobles listed in two long columns of witnesses at the end of the document. Another charter, dated eight years later, determined that, independently of the choices of the by-then king, Alfonso VII and of Count Suero, the donation was legal and must take effect (showing how little interest there had been on the part of king and count to bring the 1122 donation to effect).

Gift of David Eugene Smith, 1931

92.  Marco Polo (1254-1324).  Buch des edeln Ritters und Landtfahrers Marco Polo. Nuremberg: Friedrich Creussner, 1477. RBML, Engel Collection

Fourteen copies of this incunable survive, although not all with the woodcut frontispiece depicting Marco Polo as a Renaissance gentleman, posing before a cloth of honor. The German of the text was produced by an anonymous translator who worked from a Tuscan copy: whenever he encountered a word he didn't recognize, he left it in that Italian dialect. As with many incunables, the printed text stands independently of the surviving manuscripts (two, in this case); presumably its exemplar was jettisoned once the printer, Creussner had finished using it for setting the type.

Gift of Solton and Julia Engel, 1955

93.  Gilles Le Bouvier (1386-ca. 1457).  La chronique des rois Charles 6 et 7 conformé aux troubles d'aujourduy. Manuscript on paper. France, late 15th century. RBML, Jeanne d'Arc Collection J1.C46

Gilles Le Bouvier, herald of the King of France and King-of-Arms of Berry, was in the army with Joan of Arc from the coronation of Charles VII at Rheims to her capture at Compiègne. His chronicle was first published in 1661. This manuscript is part of the collection formed by Acton Griscom, one of the most important collections of books and manuscripts about Joan of Arc outside of France.

Gift of Acton Griscom, 1920

94.  Denga. Russia, Moscow Mint, 16th century. Silver wire coin. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive

This coin was apparently produced during the reign of Ivan IV (1530-1584) better known as Ivan the Terrible. Ivan IV was the first Russian ruler who was formally crowned as Czar (1547). Ivan the Terrible reformed the Government and Court, conquered Kazan Khan (1552) and Astrakhan Khan (1556) and created an empire that included non-Slav states. The home policy of Ivan the Terrible was accompanied by repressions and the enslaving of peasants.

95.  Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598).  Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antwerp: Egidius Coppens Diesth, 1570. RBML

Ortelius's "Theater of the Whole World" is considered the first modern geographical atlas and was first published on May 20, 1570. It proved to be so popular that a second edition appeared later that year. Ortelius compiled and edited the work, gathering together the best maps that he could find, and had them re-engraved in uniform size, listing all of the contributors to the volume. Most of the engraving work was executed by Franz Hogenberg (fl. 1558 - 1590).

96.  Joan Oliva (1580-1615).  Portolan atlas of five charts of the European and African Coasts of the Mediterranean and Atlantic. Manuscript on 6 parchment leaves, signed. Italy, ca. 1590. RBML, Plimpton MS 94

The portolan chart is of the same tradition as the isolario, and many of the portolan atlases made by the Oliva family and other chart makers of the period include an isolario at the end. This fine example has only charts. Portolan charts were used by mariners well into the seventeenth century, but there was also a demand for richly decorated versions among the enlightened wealthy. One can assume that the present atlas was meant for this market. Joan Oliva was the most prolific member of a large family of Catalan chart makers, one branch of which had settled in Messina (Sicily) some time before 1550. Charts signed by at least sixteen members of the Oliva family are recorded, with dates between 1538 and 1673.

Gift of George Arthur Plimpton, 1936

97.  Peter I, Czar of Russia (1672-1725).  Patent. Moscow, May 3, 1722. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive, Georgii Mitrofanovich Kiselevskii Papers

Peter I was a grandson of Russian Czar Mikhail Romanov (1596-1645), a founder of the Romanov dynasty, and was proclaimed a tsar at the age of ten. He introduced a series of important reforms, which placed Russia among the major European powers. Peter's main goal was to regain access to the Baltic Sea and in 1700 he started the Northern War with Sweden. The war lasted for 21 years, after which Russia was declared an Empire. This Patent raises Yurii Gein to the Rank of Colonel. It also signed by Alexander Menshikov (1673-1729), Peter the Great's close friend.

Purchase, 1966-1967

98.  A plan of the boundary lines between the Province of Maryland and the three lower counties on the Delaware with part of the parallel of latitude which is the boundary between the provinces of Maryland and Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Robert Kennedy, 1768. 2 sheets, (54.5 x 76 cm., 54.5 x 77 cm.) RBML, Historical Map Collection

The surveyors Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon established the boundary line in 1767, which was to bear their names, resolving a dispute of nearly ninety years between the Penns and the Baltimores. The boundary, 244 miles in length, is printed on two sheets, the eastern line on a single copperplate, the western line, because of its length, divided into three parts, one engraved under the other. This copy belonged to Benjamin Chew (1722-1810), a member of the Boundary Commission established in 1750 by the English High Court.

Gift of the Chew Family through the Courtesy of John T. Chew, 1983

99.  John Jay (1745-1829).  Federalist Number 5. Autograph manuscript, 4 p., 1788. RBML, John Jay Papers

Along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, John Jay formed the triumvirate of authors who wrote and anonymously published The Federalist, an eloquent series of essays in defense of the Constitution of 1787. Jay wrote five of the essays, and this is his manuscript draft for Number 5, which varies from the printed version. It is a concise, tightly argued exposition warning that rejection of the federal form of government would reinforce and worsen the already apparent sectional strife among the thirteen states; therefore, only through the establishment of a united American state could the young nation hope to succeed in its domestic and foreign affairs.

Purchased on the Frederic Bancroft Fund and Various Donors

100.  George Washington (1732-1799).  Proposals for the additional army. Autograph manuscript, 4 p., 1798 or 1799. RBML, Hamilton Family Papers

This working draft of George Washington's proposals for the new American army was probably given by the President to Alexander Hamilton for his comments, since it remained in the Hamilton family until coming to Columbia. Written on both sides of two integral folio leaves, it has sections headed "Half-pay, & Pensionary establishmt." and "Compleating the Regiments and altering the establishmt. of them."

Gift of Marie Hamilton McDavid Barrett, 1988

101.  France. Ministère de la Marine.  Comptabilité particulière du Citoyen David, pour l'Expedition d'Angleterre. Manuscript on paper, 21 folios. Dunkirk, 1799. RBML, Montgomery MS 252

Robert Hiester Montgomery (1872-1953) assembled an outstanding collection of books and manuscripts that document the history of accounting and business procedures from the 14th to the 20th century. These include instruction books, daybooks, waste books, journals, bank books, ledgers, receipt books, storage books, invoice books, registers, ships' logs, letterbooks, tax roll books, articles of agreement, bills of sale, deeds, wills, and other business items, making it is the largest collection of rare accounting works in the United States. This document, created for the French Ministry of the Navy by "Citoyen David," gives detailed estimates of the amount of money required for Napoleon's projected invasion of England from Dunkirk.

Gift of Robert H. Montgomery, 1924

102.  Kara George (1762-1817).  Agreement. Belgrade, December 14, 1808. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia Papers

This document represents an agreement between Kara George, leader of the Serbian people in their struggle for independence from the Turks and founder of the Karageorgevic dynasty, and the Serbian National Council. It introduced a system of limited monarchy and established the legal basis for the Karageorgevich Dynasty. The text was first published in the "Istorija Matice Srpske," [Novi Sad]: Matice Srpska, 1863, page 149.

Gift of Prince Paul and Princess Olga of Yugoslavia, 1954-1985

103.  Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865).  Arithmetic exercises from manuscript sum book. Autograph manuscript, 2 p., 1824. RBML, Plimpton Collection

The earliest known examples of Lincoln's handwriting come from the arithmetic text that he copied out for his own educational use while living in Indiana. His later law partner and biographer, William H. Herndon, acquired the hand-stitched notebook in 1866. The leaves were later separated and scattered, and today only ten of them are located. It was a fitting addition to the collection of George Arthur Plimpton, a member of the board of directors of textbook publishers Ginn & Company, whose vast collection shows the development of education.

Gift of George Arthur Plimpton, 1936

104.  Alexander I, Czar of Russia (1777-1825).  Funeral scroll. Manuscript on paper, Russia, (ca. 914 cm.), 1826. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive, Georgii Mitrofanovich Kiselevskii Papers

This printed scroll (stolbets) depicts the order of the Alexander I funeral ceremony. The scroll is comprised of 18 sections, each 20 inches long and 3 inches wide. Each section describes a sequence of the mourning procession, for instance, a mourning procession being held on the occasion of a transfer of the deceased Emperor, Alexander the First, from the Our Lady of Kazan Cathedral to the Peter and Paul Cathedral. After the Master of Ceremonies there will be His Imperial Majesty's Personal Convoy, etc.

This type of funeral ceremony was introduced by Peter the Great. The Tsar-Reformer had borrowed many details from Western funeral tradition such as horses, shields with coats-of-arms, helmets, gold spurs and swords. The last Emperor buried according to the adopted tradition was Alexander III (1881).

Purchase, 1966-1967

105.  Alexander Bestuzhev (1797-1837).  On Your Namesake Day. Yakutia, May 18, 1829. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive, General Manuscript Collection, Bestuzhev

Alexander Alexandrovich Bestuzhev (pseudonym Marlinsky) was a military officer, popular writer, literary critic and poet. However, after participation in the Decembrist Revolt of 1825, his life dramatically changed. Bestuzhev was stripped of his noble status and exiled first to Siberia and then to the Caucasus. His prose and poetry were not published and his name was not mentioned until his death in 1837. In 1838 Bestuzhev's sister published his collective works. A multivolume set was sold out within weeks of its issue.

On Your Namesake Day was first published in this edition from an incomplete copy and wrongly dated 1828. The original has never been found and all later editions used the same incomplete copy.

Gift of Ekaterina G. Garina, 1964

106.  Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749-1838).  Memorie. In tre volume. Seconda editione corretta, ampliata e accresciuta. New York: Pubblicate dall'Autore, 1829-30. RBML

The beginning of Italian studies in North America can be traced to 1825 when Lorenzo Da Ponte joined the faculty of Columbia College. Da Ponte had arrived in New York in 1805, an immigrant grocer and private teacher, who had fallen on hard times following his days as Mozart's librettist. While at Columbia, he finished writing his memoirs, that had been first published as a slim volume in 1807 ("Storia compendiousa della vita di Lorenzo Da Ponte"), then as a three volume work published serially from 1823 to 1829, and this revised and augmented edition, published in 1829-1830. Da Ponte considered it to be his lifetime achievement.

Purchase, 2004

107.  Nicholas I, Czar of Russia (1796-1855).  Autograph letter, signed, to Count Alexander Benckendorff (with envelope). Peterhof, June 19, 1837. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive, Benckendorff Family Papers

Nicholas the First was the personification of classic autocracy. His reactionary policies earned him the title "The emperor, who froze Russia for 30 years." Nicholas was faced early in his reign with an uprising in the army, the Decembrist revolt, which he dealt with swiftly and decidedly, thus establishing his reputation as a powerful leader. In this letter to a close friend, Count Alexander Khristoforovich Benckendorff (1782-1844), he discusses his architectural projects in Peterhof (his estate near St. Petersburg) as well as his observations on a situation in England in the beginning of the reign of Queen Victoria.

Purchased from the Benckendorff Family Estate, on the Tulinoff Fund, 1995

108.  John Stuart Mill (1806-1873).  Autobiography of J. S. Mill, written by himself. Autograph manuscript, 210 leaves, 1861, 1869-70. RBML

One of the most versatile British thinkers of the nineteenth century, Mill was an incisive critic of liberalism as well as its greatest exponent. His Autobiography, published the year of his death, has eclipsed his political and economic studies, such as the Essay on Liberty and Utilitarianism. According to a note written by Mill's step-daughter Helen Taylor on this manuscript, the work was "to be published without alterations or omissions, within one year of my death." In fact, it was published from a hastily made copy, and it was not until 1924 that an edition, based on this manuscript, considered more reliable since it is in Mill's own hand, was first published by the Columbia University Press. The 1861 portion of the manuscript represents a heavily revised version of an early draft done in 1851; the last forty-eight leaves are the only draft of all but one small portion of the rest of the Autobiography.

Gift of nine members of the Department of Philosophy: Lawrence Buermayer, William F. Cooley, John J. Coss, Horace L. Friess, James Gutmann, Thomas Munro, Houston Peterson, John H. Randall, Jr., and Herbert W. Schneider, 1942

109.  K. F. von Gan.  Czar Nicholas II with his family. Photograph, Tsarskoye Selo, (18 x 24 cm.), July 17, 1906. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive, Corps of Pages Papers

Rare photo of the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II (1868-1918) holding his son, successor to the throne, Tsarevich Aleksei (1904-1918). Next to him is his wife Alexandra Fiodorovna (1872-1918) and their three daughters. This photograph was taken during maneuvers and a military review at the Guard's summer camp at Tsarskoye Selo near St. Petersburg.

Gift of Colonel Meshcherinov, 1957

110.  Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947).  Medal, Nobel Prize for Peace, 1931. RBML, Nicholas Murray Butler Papers

Butler was also involved with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, serving as its president from 1925 to 1945. He used his friendship with many world leaders, including Pope Pius XI, in pursuit of peace and international cooperation, working to secure the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Treaty outlawing wars. For this work he received the Nobel Prize for peace, jointly with Jane Addams, in 1931.

Nicholas Murray Butler, as Robert A. McCaughey has stated in his 250th anniversary history Stand Columbia, "was the dominant personality in Columbia University's history in the first half of the twentieth century," serving as President from 1902 until 1945. He viewed the world, not merely Morningside Heights, as worthy of his attention and considered himself the last of America's "presidential" university presidents. Even though, according to then university archivist Milton Halsey Thomas, Butler spent the last two years of his life directing the selected pruning of his papers for posterity, they still amount to 600 boxes of material and 315 volumes of newspaper clippings.

Gift of the Estate of Nicholas Murray Butler, 1947

111.  Jane Addams (1860-1935).  Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes ... with Illustrations by Norah Hamilton, Hull-House, Chicago. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1910.  College, Overbury Collection

Jane Addams is best known as the founder of Hull House in Chicago, one of the first social settlements in North America. During a trip to Europe in 1887-88 with Ellen Gates Starr, she was inspired by a visit to the Toynbee Hall settlement house, founded in 1884. Toynbee Hall was located in Whitechapel, the area east of the City of London that would become notorious for the exploits of Jack the Ripper beginning in August, 1888.

Returning to the United States, Addams and Starr acquired a large vacant house that had been built by Charles Hull, renaming it Hull House. This would grow to a settlement that included thirteen buildings and a camp near Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. In 1910, the year that Twenty Years at Hull House was published, she became the first woman president of the National Conference of Social Work. In 1920, she was instrumental in the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union. For these and many other endeavors, she was awarded the Nobel Prize for peace in 1931, along with Nicholas Murray Butler.

Bequest of Bertha Van Riper Overbury, 1963

112.  Frances Perkins (1880-1965).  Draft notes of reply to F. D. Roosevelt on her nomination to the Cabinet. Autograph manuscript notes, ca. February 25, 1933. RBML, Frances Perkins Papers

Frances Perkins was the first woman ever to become a U. S. presidential Cabinet member, serving as Secretary of Labor for all twelve years of the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. She had been Industrial Commissioner of New York from 1929 to 1932 while Roosevelt was Governor, and after being elected President, he asked her to join him in Washington. Before accepting his offer, she wrote these notes in order to determine whether or not he would support her ideas. These would become the most important elements of the New Deal: including unemployment relief, public works, maximum hours, minimum wages, child labor laws, and social security.

Gift of Frances Perkins, 1955

113.  Harrison & Abramovitz.  Sketch of original plans for United Nations building. Pencil on tracing paper, (36.2 x 44.5 cm.), 1947. Avery Library, Drawings and Archives, Wallace Harrison Collection

The United Nations was designed by a committee of international architects selected by Wallace Harrison. Le Corbusier from France, Howard Robertson of England, and Oscar Niemeyer from Brazil were among the members of this committee, of which Harrison was the Director of Planning. The architects were charged with planning and siting the buildings needed to house the complex functions of the newly formed international council. As the architects presented and discussed ideas, the concepts were turned over to a team of renderers, headed by Hugh Ferriss, to develop the ideas into drawings. This drawing is one of many sketches Harrison made.

Gift of Ellen Harrison (Mrs. Wallace Harrison), 1981

114.  Mikhail Taube (1869-1961).  Reminiscences, 1900-1917 [Fragment of a memoir]. Paris, 1954. RBML, Bakhmeteff Archive, Mikhail Alexandrovich Taube Papers

In 1953, Anatolii Vel'min, Parisian representative of a newly organized Russian Archive at Columbia University, asked Baron Mikhail Alexandrovich Taube, former Professor of International Law at St. Petersburg University, Senator, and former Advisor to the Imperial Minister of Public Education, to write a memoir about everything that he had witnessed and participated in during his long life. The Archive pledged to pay $100 for its first ‘commissioned memoir’. Of the three hundred memoirs now in the Bakhmeteff Archive, over one hundred date from the time of this ‘memoir initiative’. Baron Taube's reminiscences will be published by the Russian Publishing House ROSSPEN in 2005.

Purchased on the Humanity Fund, 1953

115.  Herbert L. Matthews (1900-1977).  Interview with Fidel Castro in Sierra Maestras Mountains. Autograph manuscript notes, February 17, 1957. RBML, Herbert L. Matthews Papers

During the Cuban revolution, Fidel Castro's forces were attacked by Batista's army at the foot of the Sierra Maestras in eastern Cuba. A government report claimed that forty of the rebels had been killed, including Castro. Only a few of them escaped into the mountains, among them Fidel, his brother Raul, and a gun-totting, asthmatic Argentinean physician, Che Guevara. These few survived with the help of people who lived in the mountains, while outside the Sierra Maestras few knew of the rebels' existence.

In early 1957, Herbert Matthews of the New York Times evaded army checkpoints, interviewed Castro, and returned to New York. Publication of the interview created a sensation and Cuba's minister of defense called the story a fantasy. The New York Times published a photo of Matthews and Castro, making the Batista regime look foolish. With the publication of this interview Castro gained the credibility and international support that allowed him to overthrow Batista's government. The Matthews Papers also include the working notes, manuscript, and typescript of his biography of Castro, published in 1969 by Simon and Schuster.

Matthews had Castro sign one page of his notes as further proof of the authenticity of his interview. That portion of the page was detached, and for a time was missing, but was eventually returned to Matthews who sent it along to join the other pages of notes, already given to Columbia.

Gift of Herbert L. Matthews, 1962

116.  L. S. Alexander Gumby (1885-1961).  Collection of Negroiana. New York, ca. 1800 - 1961. Multi-media. RBML, Gumby Collection

Earlier treasures of the Columbia libraries exhibits have overlooked the achievement of Alexander Gumby, a book collector and Harlem hairdresser who compiled a remarkable series of scrapbooks that document African-American life in America. Gumby started his collection in 1901 at the age of sixteen, and in 1910 began the process of gathering the material into scrapbooks. Most of the material dates from the period 1910 until 1950, the year that he presented the collection to the Columbia University Libraries. Whole volumes are devoted to major figures such as Booker T. Washington, Paul Robeson and Josephine Baker. In addition to his six volumes of personal scrapbooks, labeled "Gumby's Autobiography," that came with the original collection, the library has recently acquired materials that were held back as too private, detailing his life as a gay black man.

Gift of L. S. Alexander Gumby, 1950

117.  Kate Millett (b. 1934).  Sexual Politics [Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Ph.D.]. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1970. RBML

In her groundbreaking Columbia University dissertation, Kate Millett proposed an end to patriarchy. Using passages from Henry Miller, Jean Genet and Norman Mailer, Millett illustrated how men use sex to degrade women. Millett assailed romantic love ("a means of emotional manipulation which the male is free to exploit") and called for an end to monogamous marriage and the family. The late 60's and early 70's became the second wave of the fight for equal rights for women. At that time woman were only 3% of the lawyers in the country and 7% of the doctors, earning 59% of the salaries given to men for similar jobs. Millet used the $30,000 that she earned for the initial publication of Sexual Politics to establish the Women's Art Colony Farm for writers and visual artists.

Copy submitted for the Ph.D., 1970

118.  Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993).  Transcript of Oral History Interview. New York: Columbia University, Oral History Research Office, 1977. Oral History Research Office

The Columbia University Oral History Research Office is the oldest and largest organized oral history program in the world. Founded in 1948 by Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Allan Nevins, the oral history collection now contains nearly 8,000 taped memoirs, and nearly 1,000,000 pages of transcript. These memoirs include interviews with a wide variety of historical figures, including Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1967. Some interviews, conducted in the late 1940s, contain recollections dating back to the second administration of Grover Cleveland. An interview with Charles C. Burlingham conducted in 1949 opens with a discussion of the drafts riots during the U. S. Civil War. This transcript of Thurgood Marshall's oral history interview, conducted by Ed Edwin in Washington, D.C. in February, 1977, captures something of his unique presence, even on paper.

The Oral History Research Office has never confined its work to one area of historical experience or to one region. It is the only oral history program in the country which conducts interviews over a broad range of fields and areas. Thus it has attracted scholars from around the world, whose research has examined almost every aspect of our recent past. The focus of the collection is United States political and cultural history. However, there are large projects in the history of China and Argentina, and some scattered interviews on the histories of other countries. Each year approximately 200 to 300 interviews are added to the collection through the efforts of the OHRO itself and by donation. These interviews generally fall into two categories: longer biographical memoirs and shorter interviews focused on specific topics or experiences.

119.  Harrison E. Salisbury (1908-1993).  China Diary-Tiananmen. Spiral bound notebook. Beijing, June, 1989. RBML, Harrison E. Salisbury Papers

The American journalist Harrison E. Salisbury was well-known for his reporting and authorship of books on the Soviet Union. A distinguished correspondent and editor for The New York Times, he was the first American reporter to visit Hanoi during the Vietnam War. In 1989, at age 81, Salisbury journeyed to China to collaborate on a documentary marking forty years of the Chinese People's Republic. His assignment by Japan's NHK TV coincided with the events in Beijing during the first days of June, 1989. Salisbury found himself in a hotel room one block away from Tiananmen Square, arriving the day before student demonstrators and government troops met for their bloody confrontation. His book, Tiananmen Diary: Thirteen Days in June, published later that year, records not only the terror and confusion in Beijing, but also the reaction in the countryside, where Salisbury traveled in the aftermath of the tragedy.

Gift of the Estate of Harrison E. Salisbury, 1993