Ph.D. 1965 University of Pennsylvania
Experimental Particle Physics
My interests are and have been primarily in those aspects of
elementary particles that relate to the tiniest constituents of
matter and to the forces that the constituents use to communicate.
During and after graduate school, these interests led me to
investigate the selection rules by which the weak interactions are
governed, particularly as demonstrated by the hadrons. The rules for
changes in electric charge, strangeness, and isotopic spin that such
experiments demonstrated were important in later giving credibility
to the quarks as the elementary constituents of hadronic matter.
In the late 1960's, I began to concentrate on experimental
studies of the deep inelastic scattering of leptons (neutrinos) by
nucleons. This technique has been a principle instrument in
understanding and verifying many aspects of particles and forces
which are presently part of the Standard Model: (1) the validity of
the quark hypothesis, (2) the existence of neutral-current weak
interactions as predicted from synthesis of the weak and
electromagnetic interactions, and (3) behavior of the strong force
among quarks within the nucleon. My work on this program, which in
its latter days came to be called the CCFR collaboration, continued
until about 1990. More recently, this work was completed by
Professors Shaevitz and Conrad from Columbia in the NuTev program.
about 1985, I began working to prepare for the advent of a new era in
deep inelastic scattering with the HERA accelerator. The machine was
commissioned in 1991, and the ZEUS experiment began operation at that
time. I have worked on taking and using HERA data since then. This
novel collider permits observation of electron-proton collisions at
energies more than a factor of 10 higher than previously available. My
work at Columbia was done in collaboration with several past and
present colleagues at Columbia, including Professors Caldwell and
Parsons, and many other physicists throughout the world. We had an
important role at Columbia in designing and constructing
instrumentation, in accumulating and analyzing data for the ZEUS
experiment, and in producing new scientific results. The first few
years of operation demonstrated a new region of structure within the
proton and new mechanisms to describe that structure. Later, we
explored the scattering at energy transfers larger than the energies of
the weak bosons. The high event rates have permitted measurements of
structure functions in unexplored kinematic regimes, unique tests of
the Standard Model, and sensitivity to phenomena that lie outside the
Standard Model that are complementarity to other techniques exploring
these energy regimes.
Since choosing emeritus status in 2004 and the completion of HERA
operations, I have completed several analyses with ZEUS data with
completing PhD students and look forward to more analyses from the
data. I also have continued relationships with the Fermilab
Research Alliance (on the Fermilab Board of Trustees) and with the
Sanford Laboratory, the site of the future national deep underground
lab (as co-chair of the Experimental Advisory Committee).
For a complete listing of publications see SPIRES
"Measurement of the deltaS=deltaQ Amplitude from Ke3 Decay", with J. D.Gallivan, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 25:1214 (1970).
"Measurement of the Rate of Increase of Neutrino Cross-Sections with Energy",
with R. Blair, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 343 (1983).
Structure Functions from High Energy Neutrino Interactions with Iron and QCD
Results", with D. MacFarlane, et al., Zeitschrift f r Physik C26, 1 (1984).
"Measurement of sin2(theta) and R in Deep Inelastic Neutrino-Nucleon
Scattering", with P. G. Reutens, et al., Phys. Lett. 152B, 404 (1985).
"Deep Inelastic Lepton-Nucleon Scattering", with S. R. Mishra, Annual
Review of Nuclear and Particle Science 39, 259 (1989).
Implementation of a High Precision Readout System for the ZEUS Calorimeter",
with A. Caldwell, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A321:356 (1992).
Measurement of the Gross-Llewelyn Smith Sum Rule from the CCFR xF3 Structure
Function", with W. C. Leung, et al., Phys. Lett. B317:655 (1993).
"Measurement of the Proton Structure Function F2 in ep Scattering at
HERA", with M. Derrick, et al., Phys. Lett. B316:412 (1993).
Leptoquarks with the ZEUS Detector", with M. Derrick, et al., Phys. Lett.
"Search for Lepton Flavor Violation in ep Collisions at
300-GeV Center-of-Mass Energy", with M. Dercik, et al., Z. Phys. C73:613 (1997).
"Comparison of ZEUS Data with Standard Model Predictions for ep -> eX
Scattering at High x and Q2", with J. Breitweg, et al., Z. Phys. C74:207 (1997).
"The Standard Model", with M. K. Gaillard and P.
Grannis, , invited article for APS Centenary, published in
Rev.Mod.Phys.71 (1999) S96-S111.
"Neutron and Proton Structure Today",
invited presentation to the Royal Society conference, Phil. Trans.
R. Soc. Lond. A 359 (2001), 241-25.