In Press

Eitam, B., & Glass, R. S., Aviezer, H., Dienes, Z., Shoval, R., & Higgins, E. T. (in press). Are task irrelevant faces unintentionally processed? Implicit learning as a test case. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.

 

Higgins, E. T. (in press). Promotion and prevention: How “0” can create dual motivational forces. In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories of the social mind. New York: Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Eitam, B. (in press). Priming…shmiming: It’s about knowing when & why stimulated memory representations become active. Social Cognition.

 

Higgins, E. T. (in press). What is value? Where does it come from?: A psychological perspective. In D. Sander & T. Brosch (Eds.), Handbook of value. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (in press). Goal pursuit functions: Working Together. In J. A. Bargh & G. Borgida (Eds.), American Psychological Association Handbook of Social Psychology. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.

 

Pierro, A., Pica, G., Mauro, R., Kruglanski, A.W., & Higgins, E.T. (in press). How regulatory modes work together: Locomotion-assessment complementarity in work performance. TPM, Testing, Psychometry, Methodology in Applied Psychology.

 

Sehnert, S., Franks, B., Yap, A. J., & Higgins, E. T. (in press). Scarcity, engagement, and value. Motivation and Emotion.

 

Higgins, E.T., Cornwell, J.F.M., & Franks, B. (in press). “Happiness” and “The Good Life” as Motivations Working Together. In Elliot, A. (Ed.), Advances in Motivation Science., New York, NY: Academic Press.

 

Eitam, B., Miele, D.B., & Higgins, E. T. (in press). Motivated remembering: remembering as accessibility and accessibility as motivational relevance. In Carlston, D. (ed.) Handbook of Social Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

2014

Zou, X., Scholer, A. A., Higgins, E. T. (2014). In pursuit of progress: Promotion motivation and risk preference in the domain of gains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 183-201.

 

Scholer, A. A., Ozaki, Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). Inflating and deflating the self: Sustaining motivational concerns through self-evaluation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51, 60-73.

 

Webb, C.E., Franks, B., Romero, T., Higgins, E.T. & de Waal, F.B.M. (2014). Individual differences in chimpanzee reconciliation relate to social switching behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 90, 57-63.

 

Zhang, S., Cornwell, J.F.M., & Higgins, E.T. (2014). Repeating the Past: Prevention Focus Motivates Repetition, Even for Unethical Decisions. Psychological Science, 25(1), 179-187.

 

Cornwell, J.F.M. & Higgins, E.T. (2014). Locomotion concerns with moral usefulness: When liberals endorse conservative binding moral foundations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 109-117.

 

Cornwell, J.F.M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E.T. (2014). Truth, control, and value motivations: The 'what,' 'how,' and 'why' of approach and avoidance. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience.

 

Eitam, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). What’s in a goal? The role of motivational relevance in cognition and action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 141-142.

 

2013

Cornwell, J.F.M. & Higgins, E.T. (2013). Morality and its relation to political ideology: The role of promotion and prevention concerns. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(9), 1164-1172.

 

Eitam, B., Kennedy, P.M., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Motivation from Control.Experimental Brain Research.229, 475-484.

 

Franks, B., Champagne, F. A., Higgins, E. T. (2013). How enrichment affects exploration trade-offs in rats: Implications for welfare and well-being. PLoS ONE 8(12):, e83578. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083578

 

Franks, B., Reiss, D., Cole, P., Friedrich, V., Thompson, N., Higgins, E. T. (2013). Predicting how individuals approach enrichment: Regulatory focus in cotton-top tamarins (Sanguinus oedipus). Zoo Biology. 32: 427-435.

 

Higgins, E.T., Franks, B., Pavarini, D., Sehnert, S., Manely, K. (2013). Expressed Likelihood As Motivator: Creating Value Through Engaging What's Real. Journal of Economic Psychology. 38:4-15.

 

Kim, H., Franks, B., Y Higgins, E. T. (2013). How self-regulatory mode affects retirement savings: Policy implications. Journal of Aging & Social Policy. 25(3): 248-263

 

Franks, B. & Higgins E.T. (2012) Effectiveness in Human and Other Animals. In Olson, K. M. & Zanna, M. P. (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Vol. 45, pp 285-346. New York, NY: Academic Press.

 

Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E.T. (2013). Dodging monsters and dancing with dreams: Success and failure at different levels of approach and avoidance. Emotion Review, 5, 254-258.

 

Avnet, T., Laufer, D., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Are all experiences of fit created equal? Two paths to persuasion. Journal of Consumer Psychology.23, 301-316

 

Echterhoff, G., Kopietz, R., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Adjusting shared reality: Communicators’ memory changes as their connection with their audience changes. Social Cognition.23, 31, 162-186

 

2012

Franks, B., Higgins, E. T., & Champagne, F. A. (2012). Evidence for individual differences in regulatory focus in rats, Rattus norvegicus. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126, 347-354.

 

Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Effectiveness in humans and other animals: A common basis for well-being and welfare. M. P. Zanna & J. M. Olson (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 46, pp. 285-346. New York: Academic Press. 126, 347-354.

 

Higgins, E. T., Marguc, J., & Scholer, A. A. (2012). Value from adversity: How we deal with adversity matters. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, pp. 965-967.

 

Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E.T. (2012). Commitment to change from locomotion motivation during deliberation. Motivation and Emotion, 36, 114-129.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2012). Accessibility and priming. In Van Lange, P., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.) Handbook of theories of social psychology, (Vol. 1, pp. 75-96). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 126, 347-354.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2012). Regulatory focus theory. In Van Lange, P., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.) Handbook of theories of social psychology, (Vol. 1, pp. 483-504). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 126, 347-354.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2012). Motivational fit. In B. Gawronski & F. Strack (Eds.), Cognitive consistency: A fundamental principle in social cognition., (pp. 132-153), New York: Guilford Press. 126, 347-354.

 

Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Motivated thinking. In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of thinking and Reasoning ,(pp. 390-409). New York: Oxford University Press. 126, 347-354.

 

2011

 

Bohns, V. K. & Higgins, E. T. (2011) Liking the same things, but doing things differently: Outcome versus strategic compatibility in partner preferences for joint tasks. Social Cognition, 29, 497-527.

 

Boldero, J. M. & Higgins, E. T. (2011) Regulatory Focus and Political Decision Making: When People Favor Reform Over the Status Quo. Political Psychology, 32, 399-418.

 

Hedberg, P. H. & Higgins, E. T. (2011). What remains on your mind after you are done?: Flexible regulation of knowledge accessibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 882-890.

 

Klenk, M. M., Strauman, T. J., Higgins, E. T. (2011). Regulatory focus and anxiety: A self-regulatory model of GAD-depression comorbidity. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 935-943.

 

McNeill, I. M. & Higgins, E. T. (2011). The Price of a Piece of Cheese: Value from Fit Between Epistemic Needs and a Learning Versus an Outcome Focus. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 315-327.

 

Scholer, A.A. & Higgins, E.T. (2011). Regulatory focus in a demanding world. In R. Hoyle (Ed). Handbook of Personality and Self-Regulation. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

 

Scholer, A.A., & Higgins, E.T. (2011).  Targeting control at different levels of self-regulation. In R. Hassin, K. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Self-Control in Society, Mind, and Brain.New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Zhang, S., Higgins, E.T., Chen, G. (2011). Managing others like you were managed: How prevention focus motivates copying interpersonal norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 647-663.

 

2010

 

Appelt, K. C., Zou, X., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Feeling right or being right: When strong assessment yields strong correction. Motivation and Emotion, 34(3), 316-324.

 

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). My way: How strategic preferences vary by negotiator role and regulatory focus. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 1138-1142.

 

Cesario, J., Plaks, J. E., Hagiwara, N., Navarrete, C. D., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). The ecology of automaticity: How situational contingencies shape action semantics and social behavior. Psychological Science, 21, 1311-1317.

 

pdf Eitam, B.,& Higgins, E. T. (2010). Motivation in Mental Accessibility: Relevance of a Representation (ROAR) as a New Framework. Personality and Social Psychology Compass, 4, 951-967.

 

Higgins, E. T., Cesario, J., Hagiwara, N., Spiegel, S., & Pittman, T. S. (2010). Increasing or decreasing interest in activities: The role of regulatory fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 559-572.

 

Scholer, A. A., Zou, X., Fujita, K., Stroessner, S. J., Higgins, E. T. (2010). When risk-seeking becomes a motivational necessity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 215-231.

 


2000s:

2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000



2009

Koenig, A. M., Cesario, J., Molden, D. C., Kosloff, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Incidental experiences of regulatory fit and the processing of persuasive appeals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1342-1355.

 

Appelt, K. C., X. Zou, P. Arora & E. T. Higgins (2009) Regulatory fit in negotiation: Effects of “prevention-buyer” and “promotion-seller” fit.  Social Cognition, 27, 365-384.

 

Higgins, E. T. & A. A. Scholer (2009) Engaging the consumer: The science and art of the value creation process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19, 100-114.

 

Higgins, E. T., Weber, E., & Grant, H. (2009). Formulating and testing theories in psychology. In A. Gelman (Ed.), Quantitative models and methods: A tour of the social sciences (Chapter 1, pp. ). New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Koenig AM, C. J., Molden DC, Kosloff S, Higgins ET. (2009) Incidental Experiences of Regulatory Fit and the Processing of Persuasive Appeals. Pers Soc Psychol Bull.

 

Mauro, R., A. Pierro, L. Mannetti, E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (2009) The Perfect Mix: Regulatory Complementarity and the Speed-Accuracy Balance in Group Performance. Psychological Science, 20, 681-685.

 

Scholer, A. A. & E. T. Higgins (2009) Exploring the complexities of value creation: The role of engagement strength. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19, 137-143.


2008

Halamish, V., N. Liberman, E. T. Higgins & L. C. Idson. 2008. Regulatory focus effects on discounting over uncertainty for losses vs. gains. 654-666.

 

Hausmann, L. R. M., J. M. Levine & E. T. Higgins (2008) Communication and group perception: Extending the 'saying is believing' effect. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11, 539-554.

 

Higgins, E. T. & T. S. Pittman (2008) Motives of the Human Animal: Comprehending, Managing, and Sharing Inner States. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 361-385.

 

Kopietz, R., G. Echterhoff & E. T. Higgins (2008) When does communication affect communicators' memory? The role of encoding differences in audience-tuning effects. International Journal of Psychology, 43, 55-55.

 

Latimer, A. E., S. E. Rivers, T. A. Rench, N. A. Katulak, A. Hicks, J. K. Hodorowski, E. T. Higgins & P. Salovey (2008) A field experiment testing the utility of regulatory fit messages for promoting physical activity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 826-832.

 

Latimer, A. E., P. Williams-Piehota, N. A. Katulak, A. Cox, L. Mowad, E. T. Higgins & P. Salovey (2008) Promoting fruit and vegetable intake through messages tailored to individual differences in regulatory focus. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 363-369.

 

Molden, D. C. & E. T. Higgins (2008) How preferences for eager versus vigilant judgment strategies affect self-serving conclusions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1219-1228.

 

Pierro, A., S. Leder, L. Mannetti, E. T. Higgins, A. W. Kruglanski & A. Aiello (2008) Regulatory mode effects on counterfactual thinking and regret. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 321-329.

 

pdf Higgins, E.T., Camacho, C. J., Idson, L.C., Spiegel, S., & Scholer, A.A. (2008). How making the same decision in a “proper” way creates value. Social Cognition, 26, 496-514.

 

Cesario, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Making message recipients feel right: How nonverbal cues can increase persuasion. Psychological Science, 19, 415-420.

 

Cesario, J., Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2008). Regulatory fit and persuasion: Basic principles and remaining questions. The Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 444-463.

 

Higgins, E.T. & Scholer, A. A. (2008). When is personality revealed?: A motivated cognition approach. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, & L.A. Pervin, (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (Third edition). (pp. 182-207). New York: Guilford. 

 

Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., Kopietz, R., & Groll, S. (2008). How communication goals determine when audience tuning biases memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

 

Scholer, A.A., & Higgins, E.T. (2008). Distinguishing levels of approach and avoidance: An analysis using regulatory focus theory. In A.J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of Approach and Avoidance Motivation. (pp. 489-504). New York: Psychology Press. 

 

pdfScholer, A.A. & Higgins, E.T. (2008). People as resources: Exploring the functionality of warm and cold. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 1111-1120.

 

pdfScholer, A.A., Stroessner, S.J., & Higgins, E.T. (2008). Responding to negativity: How a risky tactic can serve a vigilant strategy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 767-774.

 


2007

Brodscholl, J. C., Kober, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Strategies of self-regulation in goal attainment versus goal maintenance. European Journal of Social Psychology.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2007). Value. In A. W. Kruglanski and E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (Second Edition). New York: Guilford.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2007).  Regulatory fit. In J. Shah and W. Gardner (Eds.). Handbook of motivation science.  New York: Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2007). In search of generative mechanisms: The case of value from engagement strength. In Y. Shoda, D. Cervone, and G. Downey (Eds.), Persons in context: Constructing a science of the individual. New York: Guilford.

 

Higgins, E. T., Echterhoff, G., Crespillo, R., & Kopietz, R. (2007). Communication effects on social knowledge: Sharing reality with individual vs. group audiences. Japanese Psychological Research.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Freitas, A. L. (2007). Regulatory fit: Its nature and consequences. In T. A. Judge and C. Ostroff (Eds.), Perspectives on organizational fit. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kruglanski, A.W., Pierro, A., Higgins, E.T., & Capozza, D (2007). “On the move”, or “staying put”:  Locomotion, need for closure and reations to organizational change.  Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

 

Liberman, N., Forster, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Completed vs. interrupted priming: Reduced accessibility from post-fulfillment inhibition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

 

Molden, D. C., Lee, A., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Regulatory focus. In J. Shah and W. Gardner (Eds.). Handbook of motivation science.  New York: Guilford Press.

 

Presaghi, F., Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). “Modi” regolatori e stili di insegnamento [Fit between regulatory mode and teaching styles]. Psicologia Sociale.


2006

Cesario, J., Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). Automatic social behavior as motivated preparation to interact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 893-910.

 

Cesario, J.,  Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2006).  Automatic social behavior as motivated preparation to interact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 893-910.

 

Förster , J., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). How global vs. local perception fits regulatory focus. Psychological Science.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2006). Value from hedonic experience and engagement. Psychological Review, 113, 439-460

 

Higgins, E. T. (2006). Theory development as a family affair. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 549-552. 

 

Higgins, E. T. (2006). How regulatory fit creates value.  D. de Cremer, M. Zeelenberg, and J. K. Murnighan (Eds.), Social psychology and economics (pp. 79-94). New York: Guilford.

 

Pierro, A. Kruglanski, A.W. & Higgins, E.T. (2006). Progress takes work: Effects of the locomotion dimension on job involvement, effort investment and task performance in organizations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

 

Pierro, A. Kruglanski, A.W. & Higgins, E.T. (2006). Regulatory mode and the joys of doing: Effects of “locomotion” and “assessment” on intrinsic and extrinsic task motivation. European Journal of Personality.

 

Silberman, I., Higgins, E.T. & Carol S. Dweck, C.S. (2006). Openness to change: The double function of religion. Journal of Social Issue 61, 761-784.

 


2005

 

pdfEchterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., & Groll, S. (2005). Audience-tuning effects on memory: The role of shared reality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 257-276.

 

Förster, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). How global versus local perception fits regulatory focus. Psychological Science, 16, 631-636.

 

Förster, J., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Accessibility from active and fulfilled goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 220 - 239.

 

Freitas, A. L., Azizian, A., Travers, S., & Berry, S. A. (2005). The evaluative connotation of processing fluency: Inherenty positive or moderated by motivatio$ context? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 636-644.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2005). Humans as applied motivation scientists: Self-consciousness from "shared reality" and "becoming." In H. S. Terrace & J. Metcalfe (Eds.), The missing link in cognition: Origins of self-reflective consciousness (pp. 157 - 173). New York: Oxford.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2005). Motivational sources of unintended thought: Irrational intrusions or side effects of rational strategies? In R. R. Hassin, J. S. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp. 516 - 536). New York: Oxford.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2005). Value from regulatory fit. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14 209 - 213.

 

Liberman, N., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Predicting the intensity of losses vs. non-gains and non-losses vs. gains in judging fairness and value: A test of the loss aversion explanation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 527-534.

 

Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Motivated thinking. In K. Holyoak & Morrison (Eds.), Handbook of thinking and reasoning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Silberman, I., Higgins, E. T., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Religion and world change: Violence and terrorism versus peace. Journal of Social Issues, 61 761 - 784.

 


2004

Cesario, J., Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Regulatory fit and persuasion: Transfer from "feeling right." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 388 - 404.

 

Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Werth, L. (2004). How threat from stereotype disconfirmation triggers self-defense. Social Cognition, 22, 54-74.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2004). Making a theory useful: Lessons handed down. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 138-145.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2004). Regulatory fit: An experience that creates value. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology, 2, 9-22.

 

Higgins, E.T. (2004). The eighth Koan of progress in social psychology: A variable anointed as "special" will demand special treatment. In J. T. Jost, M. R. Banaji, & D. A. Prentice (Eds.), Perspectivism in social psychology: The yin and yang of scientific progress (pp. 305-317). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Spiegel, S. (2004). Promotion and prevention strategies for self-regulation: A motivated cognition perspective. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications (pp. 171-187). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Imagining how you'd feel: The role of motivational experiences from regulatory fit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 926-937.

 

Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Theory construction in social personality psychology: Personal experiences and lessons learned. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 96-97.

 

Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Categorization under uncertainty: Resolving vagueness and ambiguity with eager versus vigilant strategies. Social Cognition, 22, 248-277.

 

Shah, J. Y., Brazy, P. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Promoting us or preventing them: Regulatory focus and manifestations of intergroup bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 433-446.

 

Spiegel, S., Grant-Pillow, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). How regulatory fit enhances motivational strength during goal pursuit. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 39-54.

 


2003

 

Avnet, T., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Locomotion, assessment, and regulatory fit: Value transfer from "how" to "what." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 525 - 530.

 

Ayduk, O., May, D., Downey, G., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Tactical differences in coping with rejection sensitivity: The role of prevention pride. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 435-448.

 

Bianco, A. T., Higgins, E. T., & Klem, A. (2003). How "fun/importance" fit affects performance: Relating implicit theories to instructions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1091-1103.

 

Brockner, J., Higgins, E. T. , & Low, M. B. (2003). Regulatory focus theory and the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 203-220.

 

Camacho, C. J., Higgins, E. T., & Luger, L. (2003). Moral value transfer from regulatory fit: What feels right is right and what feels wrong is wrong. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84, 498-510.

 

Dweck, C. S., Higgins, E. T., & Grant-Pillow, H. (2003). Self-systems give unique meaning to self variables. In M. R. Leary (Ed.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 239 - 252). New York: Guilford.

 

Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Bianco, A. T. (2003). Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built-in trade-off or separate strategic concerns? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90, 148 - 164.

 

Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Optimism, promotion pride, and prevention pride as predictors of quality of life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1521 - 1532.

 

Higgins, E. T., Idson, L. C., Freitas, A. L., Spiegel, S., Molden, D. C. (2003). Transfer of value from fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1140 - 1153.

 

Higgins, E. T., Kruglanski, A. W., Pierro, A. (2003). Regulatory mode: Locomotion and assessment as distinct orientations. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 293-344). New York: Academic Press.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Molden, D. C. (2003). How strategies for making judments and decisions affect cognition: Motivated cognition revisited. In G. V. Bodenhausen & A. J. Lambert (Eds.), Foundations of social cognition (pp. 211-235). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 


2002

 

Brockner, J., Paruchuri, S., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Regulatory focus and the probability estimates of conjunctive and disjunctive events. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 87, 5-24.

 

Freitas, A. L., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Regulatory fit and resisting temptation during goal pursuit. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 291-298.

 

Freitas, A.L., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Enjoying goal-directed action: The role of regulatory fit. Psychological Science, 13, 1-6.

 

Freitas, A. L., Liberman, N., Salovey, P., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). When to begin? Regulatory focus and initiating goal pursuit. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 121-130.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2002). How self-regulation creates distinct values: The case of promotion and prevention decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12, 177-191.

 

Shah, J. Y., Brazy, P. C, & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Promotion and prevention forms of ingroup bias. In D. M. Mackie & E. R. Smith (Eds.), From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups (pp. 31-48). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

 


2001

 

Brockner, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Emotions and management: A regulatory focus perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 35-66.

 

Förster, J., Grant, H., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Success/failure feedback, expectancies, and approach/avoidance motivation: How regulatory focus moderates classic relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 253-260.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2001). Promotion and prevention experiences: Relating emotions to nonemotional motivational states. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Handbook of affect and social cognition (pp. 186-211). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

pdfHiggins, E. T., Friedman, R. S., Harlow, R. E., Idson, L. C., Ayduk, O. N., Taylor, A. (2001). Achievement orientations from subjective histories of success: Promotion pride versus prevention pride. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 3-23.

 

Higgins, E. T., & May, D. (2001). Individual self-regulatory functions: It's not "we" regulation, but it's still social. In C. Sedikides & M. Brewer (Eds.), Individual self, relational self, collective self (pp. 47-67). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

 

Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Shared reality and social influence in groups and organizations. In F. Butera & G. Mugny (Eds.), Social influence in social reality: Promoting individual and social change (pp. 33-52). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

 

Liberman, N., Molden, D. C., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E.T. (2001). Promotion and prevention focus on alternative hypotheses: Implications for attributional functions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 5-18.

 

Shah, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Regulatory concerns and appraisal efficiency: The general impact of promotion and prevention. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 693-705.

 


2000

 

Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Strack, F. (2000). When stereotype disconfirmation is a personal threat: How prejudice and prevention focus moderate incongruency effects. Social Cognition, 18, 178-197.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2000). Beyond pleasure & pain. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives. Key reading in social psychology (pp. 231-255). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

 

pdfHiggins, E. T. (2000). Does personality provide unique explanations for behaviour? Personality as cross-person variability in general principles. European Journal of Personality, 14, 391-406.

 

pdf Higgins, E. T. (2000). Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist, 55, 1217-1230.

 

Higgins, E. T. (2000). Social cognition: Learning about what matters in the social world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 3-39.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2000). Motivational science: The nature and functions of wanting. In E. T. Higgins and A.W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Motivational science: Social-personality perspectives (pp. 1-20). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

 

Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). How current feedback and chronic effectiveness influence motivation: Everything to gain versus everything to lose. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 583-592.

 

Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Distinguishing gains from nonlosses and losses from nongains: A regulatory focus perspective on hedonic intensity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 252-274.

 

Kruglanski, A. W., Thompson, E. P., Higgins, E. T., Atash, M. N., Pierro, A., Shah, J. Y., Spiegel, S. (2000). To "do the right thing" or to "just do it": Locomotion and assessment as distinct self-regulatory imperatives. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 79, 793-815.

 

Levine, J. M., Higgins, E. T., & Choi, H-S. (2000). Development of strategic norms in groups. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 82, 88-101.

 

Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Pragmatic use of stereotyping in teamwork: Social loafing and compensation as a function of inferred partner-situation fit. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 79, 962-974.

 


1990s:

1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990


 


1999

Higgins, E. T. (1999). Persons or situations: Unique explanatory principles or variability in general principles? In D. Cervone & Y. Shoda (Eds.), The coherence of personality: Social-cognitive bases of consistency, variability, and organization (pp. 61-93). New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1999). Promotion and prevention as a motivational duality: Implications for evaluative processes. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 503-525). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1999). "Saying is believing" effects: When sharing reality about something biases knowledge and evaluations. In L. L. Thompson, J. M. Levine, & D. M. Messick (Eds.), Shared cognition in organizations: The management of knowledge (pp. 33-48). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1999). Self-discrepency: A theory relating self and affect. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed), The self in social psychology. Key readings in social psychology (pp. 150-181). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

 

Higgins, E. T., Grant, H., & Shah, J. (1999). Self-regulation and quality of life: Emotional and non-emotional life experiences. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 244-266). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

 

Higgins, E. T., Trope, Y., & Kwon, J. (1999). Augmentation and undermining from combining activities: The role of choice in activity engagement theory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 285-307.

 

Liberman, N., Idson, L. C., Camacho, C. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Promotion and prevention choices between stability and change. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, 1135-1145.

 

Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Internal representations of others in self-regulation: A new look at a classic issue. Social Cognition, 17, 186-208.

 

Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Own versus other standpoints in self-regulation: Developmental antecedents and functional consequences. Review of General Psychology, 3, 188-223.

 


1998

 

Brendl, C. M., Markman, A. B., & Higgins, E. T. (1998). Mental accounting as self-regulation: Representativeness to goal-derived categories. Zeitschrift Fuer Sozialpsychologie, 29, 89-104.

 

Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Idson, L. C. (1998). Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: Regulatory focus and the "goal looms larger" effect. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75, 1115-1131.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1998). From expectancies to worldviews: Regulatory focus in socialization and cognition. In J. M. Darley & J. Cooper (Eds.), Attribution and social interaction: The legacy of Edward E. Jones (pp. 243-309). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1998). The aboutness principle: A pervasive influence on human inference. Social Cognition, 16, 173-198.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Silberman, I. (1998). Development of regulatory focus: Promotion and prevention as ways of living. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life span (pp. 78-113). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

Shah, J., Higgins, E. T., & Friedman, R. S. (1998). Performance incentives and means: How regulatory focus influences goal attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 285 - 293.

 


1997

 

Crowe, E., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Regulatory focus and strategic inclinations: Promotion and prevention in decision-making. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 69, 117-132.

 

pdfHiggins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280-1300.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1997). Biases in social cognition: "Aboutness" as a general principle. In C. McGarty & S. A. Haslam (Eds.), The message of social psychology: Perspectives on mind in society (pp. 182-199). Malden, MA, US: Blackwell Publishers.

 

pdfHiggins, E. T., Shah, J., & Friedman, R. (1997). Emotional responses to goal attainment: Strength of regulatory focus as moderator. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 72, 515-525.

 

Shah, J., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Expectancy * value effects: Regulatory focus as determinant of magnitude and direction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 447-458.

 


1996

Alfieri, T., Ruble, D. N., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Gender stereotypes during adolescence: Developmental changes and the transition to junior high school. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1129-1137.

 

Brendl, C. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Principles of judging valence: What makes events positive or negative? In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 95-160). San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.

 

Hardin, C. D., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Shared reality: How social verification makes the subjective objective. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition, Vol. 3: The interpersonal context (pp. 28-84). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1996). Emotional experiences: The pains and pleasures of distinct regulatory systems. In R. D. Kavanaugh, B. Zimmerberg, & S. Fein (Eds.), Emotion: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 203-241). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1996). Ideals, oughts, and regulatory focus: Affect and motivation from distinct pains and pleasures. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 91-114). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1996). Knowledge activation: Accessibility, applicability, and salience. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 133-168). New York: The Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1996). The "self digest": Self-knowledge serving self-regulatory functions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 1062-1083.

 


1995

Brendl, C. M., Higgins, E. T., & Lemm, K. M. (1995). Sensitivity to varying gains and losses: The role of self- discrepancies and event framing. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69, 1028-1051.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Brendl, C. M. (1995). Accessibility and applicability: Some "activation rules" influencing judgment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 218-243.

 

Higgins, E. T., Lee, J., Kwon, J., & Trope, Y. (1995). When combining intrinsic motivations undermines interest: A test of activity engagement theory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 68, 749-767.

 

Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Moretti, M. (1995). Self-discrepancies and developmental shifts in vulnerability: Life transitions in the regulatory significance of others. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Emotion, cognition, and representation. Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology, Vol. 6. (pp. 191-230). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

 

Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Ruble, D. N. (1995). The four A's of life transition effects: Attention, accessibility, adaptation, and adjustment. Social Cognition, 13, 215-242.

 

Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1995). Social determinants of cognition. Social Cognition, 13, 183-187.

 

Roney, C. J., Higgins, E. T., & Shah, J. (1995). Goals and framing: How outcome focus influences motivation and emotion. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1151-1160.

 


1994

Higgins, E. T., & Liberman, A. (1994). Memory errors from a change of standard: A lack of awareness or of understanding? Cognitive Psychology, 27, 227-258.

 

Ruble, D. N., Eisenberg, R., & Higgins, E. T. (1994). Developmental changes in achievement evaluation: Motivational implications of self other differences. Child Development, 65, 1095-1110.

 

Higgins, E. T., Roney, C. J., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994). Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance distinct self-regulatory systems. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 276-286.

 

Tykocinski, O., Higgins, E. T., & Chaiken, S. (1994). Message framing, self-discrepancies, and yielding to persuasive messages: The motivational significance of psychological situations. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 107-115.

 


1993

Alexander, M. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). Emotional trade-offs of becoming a parent: How social roles influence self-discrepancy effects. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1259-1269.

 

Trope, Y., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). The what, when, and how of dispositional inference: New answers and new questions. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 493-500.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Winter, L. (1993). The "acquisition principle": How beliefs about a behavior's prolonged circumstances influence correspondent inference. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 605-619.

 

Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). The self construct in social cognition: Past, present, and future. In Z. V. Segal & S. J. Blatt (Eds.), The self in emotional distress: Cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives (pp. 3-40). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Levine, J. M., Resnick, L. B., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). Social foundations of cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 585-612.

 


1992

Higgins, E. T. (1992). Achieving "shared reality" in the communication game: A social action that creates meaning. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 11, 107-131.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Tykocinski, O. (1992). Self-discrepancies and biographical memory: Personality and cognition at the level of psychological situation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 527-535.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1992). Increasingly complex but less interesting articles: Scientific progress or regulatory problem? Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 489-492.

 

Newman, L. S., Higgins, E. T., & Vookles, J. (1992). Self-guide strength and emotional vulnerability: Birth order as a moderator of self-affect relations. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 402-411.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1992). Unconscious sources of subjectivity and suffering: Is consciousness the solution? In L. L. Martin & A. Tesser (Eds.), The construction of social judgments (pp. 67-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1992). Social cognition as a social science: How social action creates meaning. In D. N. Ruble, P. R. Costanzo, & M. Oliveri (Eds.), The social psychology of mental health: Basic mechanisms and applications (pp. 241-278). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Ruble, D. N., Costanzo, P. R., & Higgins, E. T. (1992). Social psychological foundations of mental health. In D. N. Ruble, P. R. Costanzo, & M. Oliveri (Eds.), The social psychology of mental health: Basic mechanisms and applications (pp. 1-23). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T., Vookles, J., & Tykocinski, O. (1992). Self and health: How "patterns" of self-beliefs predict types of emotional and physical problems. Social Cognition, 10, 125-150.

 


1991

 

Higgins, E. T. (1991). Expanding the law of cognitive structure activation: The role of knowledge applicability. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 192-193.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1991). Development of self-regulatory and self-evaluative processes: Costs, benefits, and tradeoffs. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self processes and development. The Minnesota symposia on child psychology, Vol. 23 (pp. 125-165). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

McCann, C. D., Higgins, E. T., & Fondacaro, R. A. (1991). Primacy and recency in communication and self-persuasion: How successive audiences and multiple encodings influence subsequent evaluative judgments. Social Cognition, 9, 47-66.

 


1990

 

Higgins, E. T. (1990). Lay epistemic theory and the relation between motivation and cognition. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 209-210.

McCann, C. D., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Social cognition and communication. In H. Giles & W. P. Robinson (Eds.), Handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 13-32). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

 

Higgins, E. T., Tykocinski, O., & Vookles, J. (1990). Patterns of self-beliefs: The psychological significance of relations among the actual, ideal, ought, can, and future selves. In J. M. Olson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Self-inference processes: The Ontario symposium, Vol. 6. Ontario Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology (pp. 153-190). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Higgins, E. T., & Trope, Y. (1990). Activity engagement theory: Implications of multiply identifiable input for intrinsic motivation. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior, Vol. 2 (pp. 229-264). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1990). Personality, social psychology, and person-situation relations: Standards and knowledge activation as a common language. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 301-338). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

 

Moretti, M. M., Higgins, E. T., & Feldman, L. A. (1990). The self-system in depression: Conceptualization and treatment. In C. D. McCann & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Depression: New directions in theory, research, and practice (pp. 127-156). Toronto, ON, Canada: Wall & Emerson, Inc.

 

Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). The development of self-system vulnerabilities: Social and cognitive factors in developmental psychopathology. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Kolligian (Eds.), Competence considered (pp. 286-314). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

 

Higgins, E. T. (1990). Self-state representations: Patterns of interconnected beliefs with specific holistic meanings and importance. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28, 248-253.

 

Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Relating self-discrepancy to self-esteem: The contribution of discrepancy beyond acutal-self ratings. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 108-123.

 


1980s


 


1987

Higgins, E. T. (1987). Seld-Discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 3, 319-340.


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