When we come to examine the institutions that have sustained the vital functions of the Peoples living in Turkey, we must bear in mind that, from the year 2000 B.C. when they first appeared on the pages of history, they have been a part of three separate civilizations. During the period when they led a nomadic life in Central Asia, they were part of the institutions that harmonized with their way of life. Upon accepting the Islamic faith, and after their expeditions to Anatolia, Turks with this admixture of Islamic and Turkish elements produced a civilization and culture all of its own, which was called the "Ottoman Composition". After the establishment of the Turkish Republic on October 29, 1923'Turkey entered the sphere of western civilization and culture, and gradually adopted institutions and elements from the west merged with those of Turkey to form the "Republican Composition".
Following the adoption of Islam, coupled with the changes in the political boundaries of the Turks and their transition to a settled civilization and new way of life, educational institutions more attuned to the times of the Seljuks and the Ottomans led to theological schools, dervish lodges, guilds and fraternities. Parallel to the developments in the west, as of the 18th century, schools of engineering, military sciences, administrative sciences, medicine, law, veterinary sciences and fine arts were opened. Furthermore, high schools were opened to bring students to the level where they could follow the studies in the universityies.
Following the foundation of the Turkish Republic, as in other fields reforms were also undertaken in education. Under the law for the unification of education, which was ratified in 1924, all schools were annexed to the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education was charged with the task of implementing a contemporary mode of education training for Turkish citizens by opening primary and secondary schools and other institutes and arranging courses within the framework of the educational policies decided upon. Today the Ministry also meets the requirements of these institutions in the way of teachers and administrators and draws up the respective rules, regulations and programmes. It also arranges educational programmes for children of school age who are needy or require special care.
The goal of the Turkish national education system could be summed up as being one where all individuals of the state are gathered together as an inseparable whole, united in national consciousness and thinking, trained to think along scientific lines with intellectually broadened views on world affairs, and to be productive happy individuals, who through their skills contribute to the prosperity of society and are instrumental in making the Turkish nation a creative and distinguished member of the modern world.
This encompasses training for those who have not as yet arrived at compulsory school age, and is optional. During 1991-1992 in 4,460 kindergartens and nursery schools,131,023 children received training from 7,763 teachers. The aim of the Sixth Plan term is to raise the present 5.1 % of pre-school age training to 12 %.
This encompasses the training of children within the 6-14 age group. This is compulsory schooling for both boys and girls, in state operated schools where tuition is free.
Primary school institutions: 5 year-primary schools, 3-year secondary schools. In cases where these two kinds of schools are united, there are also special and auxiliary classes for children requiring special tuition.
These are national educational institutions which have been opened by the State to train and educate boys and girls through the compulsory 5-year educational period.
During the 1991-1992 school year 6,870,683 children were taught in 50,669 primary schools, under the direction of 234,154 teachers.
95.24 % of the children in this age group attend schools.
The schooling here is for 8 years. During the 1991-1992 school term 1,503,095 children recieved their schooling in 2,639 primary educational schools. The number of teachers was 55,956.
These schools can be either independent or annexed to lycees. They have a 3-year curriculum and prepare children for future higher education.
During 1991-1992, 2,402,692 children continued their education in 7,078 secondary schools where the number of teachers was 51,046.
Secondary education comprises a minimum of 3 years schooling in lycees and professional and technical schools.
Lycees give schooling to children in the 15-17 age group for a 3-year period after secondary school.
The aim of lycees is to secure a level of general culture, develope an awareness of individual and community problems and be able to contribute to the economic, social and cultural growth of the country and to prepare the students for higher education.
Lycees encompass the Anatolian Lycees, Science Lycees, Teachers' Lycees of Fine Arts, Anatolian Teacher Training Lycees, Multi- programme Lycees, Evening Lycees and Private Lycees.
During the 1991-1992 school term 893,590 students received tuition in 1961 lycees, under the direction of 64,069 teachers.
These were established for the purpose of teaching students at least one foreign language, which they can utilize to further their education in the best possible manner. The educational period inclusive of secondary schooling covers 7 years with a one year preparatory course. Aside from foreign language lessons the normal lycee programme is implemented with science and mathematics lessons given in English. During the 1991-1992 school term 29,452 students received tuition in 159 Anatolian Lycees where the number of teachers was 4,273.
During the 1991-1992 school term 3,391 students received tuition in 15 science lycees where the number of teachers was 417.
These lycees provide the basic knowledge future teachers will need in their carriers. The educational programme continues for three years after secondary school.
During the 1991-1992 school term 12,564 students were given tuition in 87 lycees, and the number of teachers was 1,122.
During the 1989-1990 school term, for the first time out of 28 teachers' training lycees, eight were chosen for the Anatolian Teachers' Training Lycees programme. This educational programme is for years long inclusive of a one year preparatory course.
During the 1991-1992 school period 7,482 students were given tuition in 61 lycees, where the number of teachers was 632.
These have a four year tuition course for those who because of their work cannot pursue their educational courses during the day and for those who are past school age.
During the 1991-1992 school term 5,058 students were given tuition in 10 evening lycees by 179 teachers.
These schools have been opened for children to develop special talents and to preserve cultural, artistic and national values. Tuition duration is four years, including a one-year preparatory course.
During the 1991-1992 school term 628 students received tuition in 6 lycees, where the number of teachers was 71.
In accordance with Article 29 of the National Education Basic Law,in places where the population is small and widely dispersed, the Ministry of National Education can establish a multi-programme lycee, under one administration to encompass courses of a general,professional and technical nature.
It has been decided to implement this programme in 158 suitable schools and in 36 of these tuition has started. The remaining 122 will also become operational in 1992-1993 when the necessary personnel and equipment become available.
These give the necessary training to enter the business and professional world and also prepare students for higher learning.
They are divided into 4 main groups as follows:
Male Technical Educational Schools
Girls' Technical Educational Schools
Trade and Tourism Training Schools
During the 1991-1992 school term 687,139 students were taught in 2,128 schools where the number of teachers was 55,914.
Male Technical Educational Institutions
To meet the demand for technical staff in the middle brackets in the field of industry in Turkey, the following schools under the administration of the General Directorate of Male Technical Training provide tuition: Anatolian Technical Lycees, Technical Lycees, Anatolian Professional Lycees and the Industrial Professional Lycees.
Anatolian Technical Lycees
The tuition period is five years including a one-year preparatory course. Students are taught a minimum of one foreign language in addition to the lessons included in the Science Lycees. The professional industrial training prepares them for higher education and their future work.
The programmes in these lycees include training in computers, electricity courses, journalism, construction, mechanics, remote control methods, electronics in medicine, aircraft engines and architecture.
During the 1991-1992 school term 5,675 students received tuition in 44 lycees.
These are educational institutions offering a four-year course after secondary school which includes a lycee level science course together with a professional industrial course to prepare students for institutions of higher learning.
The programmes in these schools include lessons in infrastructure, computers, educational equipment, electricity, electronics, industrial electronics, moulds, chemistry, technical drawing, microtechnical motors, medical electronics, maintenance of aircraft engines, superstructure and architectural drawing.
During the 1991-1992 school term 30,212 students were given tuition in 191 Technical Lycees.
Anatolian Professional Training Lycees
The tuition period is four years inclusive of a one-year preparatory course. Students are given training in their chosen profession and lessons in a foreign language. Courses cover five professional fields.
During the 1991-1992 school term 603 students were given tuition in three lycees.
Industrial Training Lycees
Three-year courses are taught in these lycees after secondary schooling. The programmes include professional training in various fields of industry to prepare students both for institutions of higher learning and various industrial fields.
During the 1991-1992 school term, 226,864 students were given tuition in 426 lycees by 17,446 teachers.
Girls' Technical Training Schools
Educational possibilities extended by the Girls' Technical Education General Directorate for girls and women are in the form of formal and informal training organizations.
Girls' Professional Training Lycees
This is a tuition course of three-years duration after secondary schooling to train technical personnel in various fields of business. There are presently 27 branches in which tuition is given.
During the 1991-1992 school term 49,169 students received tuition in 361 professional training lycees where the number of teachers was 12,028.
Girls' Technical Training Lycees
This encompasses a tuition course of four years.The schooling programme is based on general knowledge and science lessons. There are four industrial branches in which training is given.
During the 1991-1992 school term 687 students received tuition in 26 lycees.
Anatolian Girls' Technical Training Lycees
Duration of tuition is five years inclusive of a one-year preparatory period. A foreign language is taught at the lycees.
During the 1991-1992 school term 183 students were given tuition in one lycee.
Anatolian Professional Training Lycees for Girls
A part of the lessons are given in the English language. The duration of tuition is four years including a one year preparatory course. Training is given in 20 professional fields.
During the 1991-1992 school term 3,043 students were given tuition in 36 lycees.
Trade and Tourism Vocational Schools
These are educational institutions where students receive training to prepare them for the requirements of the trade and tourism sectors.
Anatolian Hotel and Tourism Professional Training Lycee
Duration of tuition is four years inclusive of a one-year preparatory period. Students are given lessons in foreign and training languages to prepare them for their chosen professions.
During the 1991-1992 school term 5,236 students received tuition in 23 lycees, and the number of teachers was 511.
Anatolian Foreign Trade Training Lycees
These lycees give training and knowledge of a foreign language to prepare students for the field of foreign trade connected with the various concerns and organizations in the free trade zones.Tuition period is four years inclusive of a one year preparatory course.
During the 1991-1992 school term 582 students were given tuition in six lycees where the number of teachers was 28.
Anatolian Trade Lycees
This school gives training to produce qualifies personnel with knowledge of foreign languages in the field of foreign trade and data processing.Course last four years including a one year preparatory course.
During the 1991-1992 school term 3,681 students received tuition in 33 lycees, where the number of teachers was 262.
Anatolian Secretarial Vocational Lycees
These are vocational schools offering a four year programme designed with a view to meeting the requirements of various public and private enterprises in the way of skilled personnel speaking a foreign language.
During the 1991-1992 school term 715 students took courses in five lycees where 38 teachers were employed.
Anatolian Culinary Vocational Lycees
These provide a years' tuition period aimed at qualifying students for Turkish and world kitchens, and speaking a foreign language.
During the 1991-1992 school term 91 students recieved tuition in one lycee.
Validebag Professional Health Training Lycee
This lycee was established in Istanbul on October 1, 1974. The school is the only one that prepares students to be nurses in the various health training centres attached to the Ministry. 40 nurses on an avarage graduate yearly and the total number of graduates to date is 467.
Duration of tuition is four years. Tuition is free of charge and students are chosen on an examination basis.
These schools offer education in the fields of business, administration, accounting, finance, cooperative work, marketing,tourism, banking and secretarial skills to meet the demand in public and private enterprises. Duration of tuition is three years.
During the 1991-1992 school term 147,753 students received tuition in 222 lycees where the number of teachers was 6,950.
Evening Courses Trade Lycees
These are four year professional courses attended by those who after finishing their secondary education have been forced to work during the day. Here they are given the opportunity to improve their skills in the professional fields.
During the 1991-1992 school term 2,733 students received tuition in five lycees where the number of teachers was 91.
Hotel Management and Tourism Lycees
These vocational schools have a three-year educational programme designed with the aim of meeting the requirements of the tourism sector in the way of qualified people and prepare them for higher learning.
During the 1991-1992 school term 571 students recieved tuition in three lycees.
Islamic Theological Lycees
These lycees were established according to Law 430 pertaining to the Unification of the Educational System Article 4 and Law 1739 pertaining to Basic National Education Article 32. Here students are trained in teaching the Koran, preaching and other religious subjects. It also prepares students for higher learning.
Anatolian Islamic Theological Lycees
Teaching lasts eight years after primary schooling. English and German lessons are given and students are trained to lead religious services, to teach the Koran and preaching. It also prepares students for institutions of higher education.
During the 1991-1992 school term 2,067 students received tuition in 16 lycees.
Imamate Lycees (Colleges for Religious Training)
Here students are trained to become religious teachers, teach the Koran and provide other religious services.
During the 1991-1992 school term 346,174 students received tuition in 390 lycees where the number of teachers was 13,113.
Special Training Institutions
These schools were established for the purpose of training those mentally or physically handicapped and also those of high intelligence to enable them to become useful members of the community and attain a profession. Education is free in these schools which provide day classes and board and lodgings.
During the 1991-1992 school term out of 952,382 children in the 0-18 age group who required special schooling, 17,574 were placed in special schools and 5,084 in normal schools where they could mix with other children.
Schools for the Blind
These schools offer educational opportunities to those children whose vision is lower than 1/10 for both eyes and who are termed blind, and for those whose vision for both eyes is seriously impaired (between 1/10 and 1/30).
The educational period for primary schools is six years. Some of these institutions also have a secondary school. There are also independent secondary schools.
Schools for the Deaf
These schools offer educational opportunities to those children who, notwithstanding all the measures taken, have a loss of hearing of more than 70 decibels and who are classified as very deaf and for those children whose loss of hearing is between 25-70 decibels and who are classified as "hard of hearing". The educational period in the primary school section is six years. Some of these centres have a secondary school section and a kindergarten.
School for the Orthopedically Handicapped
This school offers educational opportunities to those children who notwithstanding all the measures taken are not able to follow a normal course of education because of the deformations of their bodies. The school is in Ankara and consists of a primary school, a handicrafts secondary school and a vocational lycee.
School for Retarded Children
This school is for children with an I.Q. that is between 25-44, and they are trained so that they are able to look after their own personal needs.
Schools for Retarded Children Who Can Be Trained
This is a school for children with an I.Q. that is between 45-75.
Special Training Classes
These are classes set aside in normal primary schools for the education of the deaf, blind and retarded. Special Training organizations comprise all types of schools, and courses are offered in line with Law No.625.
During the 1991-1992 school term 159,849 children had training in 873 special schools, where the number of teachers was 8,574. During the same period there were 1,813 special courses and 813 special training lessons. Special courses were attended by 227,789 children and the special lessons by 255,070.
Comprises one of the two branches of the National Education System, and entails education that includes teaching, production, guidance and implementation.The aim of an informal education is to teach adults to read and write, give them basic knowledge and develop their past knowledge and experience and create new opportunities to assist them in making a living.
Informal education has two basic sections, general and vocational.
During the 1991-1992 period 4,156 informal training organizations provided 1,434,249 persons with tuition by 24,548 teachers.
The informal training organizations consist of the following:
Practical Art Schools for Girls
Industrial Trade Institutes
Technical Training Centres for Adults
Public Training Centres
Apprenticeship Training Centres
The purpose of the higher education system is to provide training for individuals based on contemporary teaching methods, to meet the needs of the nation and country in the fields of training and education, scientific research, press and consulting services.
All universities and schools of higher learning are affiliated to the Higher Education Council established under Law No. 2547 of November 6, 1981. The Council is an autonomous public juridical body with the authority and responsibility to administer the activities of all institutions of higher learning. It annexes to itself the following: the Higher Supervisory Board, the Student Selection and Placement Centre and other sections related to planning, research, development, evaluation, budgets, investment and coordination.
In 1992 there were 54 universities with 396 faculties, 64 high schools, 174 professional high schools and 211 institutes all attached to the Higher Education Council.
During the 1991-1992 term the total number of students was 682,029, and the teaching staff 34,469. Of these 4,775 were professors, 2,433 were lecturers and 3,862 assistant lecturers. Others on the staff number 23,999.
The list of universities in Turkey is as follows:
Adana - Çukurova University
Afyon - Kocatepe University
Ankara - Ankara University, Bilkent University (private) Gazi University, Hacettepe University, Middle-East Technical University
Antalya - Akdeniz University
Aydin - Adnan Menderes University
Balikesir - Balikesir University
Bolu - Abant Izzet Baysal University
Bursa - Uludag University
Çanakkale - Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Denizli - Pamukkale University
Edirne - Trakya University
Elazig - Firat University
Erzurum - Atatürk University
Eskisehir - Anadolu University
Gaziantep - Gaziantep University
Isparta - Süleyman Demirel University
Içel - Mersin University
Istanbul - Bogaziçi University, Istanbul Technical University, Marmara
University, Mimar Sinan University, Yildiz University,
Kadir Has University (private), Koç University (private).
Izmir - Dokuz Eylül University, Ege University, Izmir High Technology University.
Hatay - Mustafa Kemal University
Kahramanmaras - Kahramanmaras Sütçü mam University
Kars - Kafkas University
Kayseri - Erciyes University
Kirikkale - Kirikkale University
Kocaeli - Kocaeli University, Gebze High Technology University
Konya - Selçuk University
Kütahya - Dumlupinar University
Malatya - Inönü University
Manisa - Celal Bayar University
Mugla - Mugla University
Nigde - Nigde University
Sakarya - Sakarya University
Samsun - Ondokuz Mayis University
Sivas - Cumhuriyet University
Sanliurfa - Harran University
Tokat - Gaziosmanpasa University
Trabzon - Karadeniz Technical University
Van - Yüzüncü Yil University
Zonguldak - Zonguldak Karaelmas University.
Students are admitted to the universities through a two-phase examination held once a year by the Centre for Student Selection and Placement attached to the Higher Education Council. During 1991-1992, 114,902 students availed themselves of the 114 dormitories in various parts of the country. Additionally higher education credits were extended to 149,961 students. Auxiliary credits were also extended to another 47,600 students. Furthermore, the meal expenses of 134,000 students were also met.
A special examination is held once a year for foreign students by the same organization. As the examination papers are in both Turkish and English, a knowledge of Turkish is not necessary. Those who pass the exams, and have only a little knowledge of Turkish, are considered to be on leave for a period of one year to gain proficiency in the Turkish language. Turkish language courses for foreigners are given by the Turkish Teaching Centre (T Ö MER) of Ankara University. There are also Turkish language courses in Istanbul and Izmir universities. During the 1991-1992 term there were 14,548 foreign students in the universities of which 7,000 were from the Turkic republics.
There are 31 educational organizations abroad of which 18 are educational consultants and 18 educational attaches, all of which extend services to Turkish citizens abroad. There are presently 2,539,677 Turks living outside the country and the number of children studying is 677,153. To teach these children Turkish, Turkish Culture and morals 1,236 teachers have been recruited from Turkey and 2,677 teachers have been sent abroad.
Scientific research in Turkey is primarily carried out by the universities. However, there are other autonomous research institutions and organizations like the Turkish Atomic Energy Council (TAEK), the Technical Research Institute (T Ü B TAK) and the Atatürk High Institute of Culture, Language and History.
While Turkey's move towards contemporary science and technology had its start in the Republican era, the foundation dates of certain national research institutions go back to the 19th century. Following the foundation of the Republic, research institutes and centres were rapidly established with a view towards increasing agricultural yields and adding impetus to development. Decisions influencing development were made and implemented by the State, and consequently, much of the pioneering work relevant to scientific and technological research was also undertaken by the State.
In the 1980s, research and development studies in public institutions indirectly concerned with scientific and technological matters were undertaken by units affiliated with the General Directorate. In some organizations research councils were established under the presidency of the respective ministry to plan and manage the research and development work. In organizations without any research sections, departments charged with quality control undertook those duties.
In recent years, the Turkish private sector has come to realize the significance of research and consequently, research and development units have been established in many private sector enterprises.
To ensure coordination and communication among research organizations inclusive of universities, a Science and Technology Supreme Council attached to the Prime Ministry was established on October 4, 1983.
All departments and branches in universities are charged with carrying out research and 100 research institutes have been established in the fields of health, nuclear sciences, solar energy, marine sciences, ecology, medicine, bio-medicine, engineering, investigation and prevention of accidents, fine arts, television and cinema. Furthermore, a Higher Education Council research fund regulation was issued on May 20, 1984 advocating support for project based research including that made at post-graduate level.
Universities which are the most qualified sources in the field of scientific research, undertake their work with assistance from the general budget, TÜBITAK, the public and private sectors, university funds and support from abroad. Within the framework of 34 existing agreements, Turkish universities which also have close to 100 agreements with foreign universities, presently undertake various scientific research studies on a project basis with NATO, WHO, the Atomic Energy Organization, UNESCO and other international organizations.
A survey made between 1970 and 1972 by the State Planning Organization on research in universities has shown that in the nine universities then in existence, 2,387 research studies were undertaken in 376 branches of science. A report by Ankara University on "Turkish Universities and University Research" states that 758 scientists were engaged in 4,187 research studies between 1971 and 1981. The Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Institute was established on July 17, 1963 to develop, support and organize basic and applied research. The Institute offers information services, initiates and coordinates scientific work and offers training facilities based on research. It provides grants to capable students thereby extending financial support for the human element in scientific development.
The Turkish Atomic Energy Organization is charged with the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes in accordance with development plans for the benefit of the country, the determination and recommendation of fundamental principles and policies and the initiation of scientific, technical and administrative studies, together with corresponding support and coordination work.
The Atatürk High Institution of Culture, Language and History was established in 1983 for the purpose of directing interested specialized personnel towards research in the fields of culture, language and history. The institution is composed of the Atatürk Centre of Research, the Turkish Language Society, the Turkish Historical Society and the Atatürk Cultural Centre. It aims at scientific research into and promotion of Atatürk's concepts, principles and reforms and Turkish culture, history and language. It also issues publications covering these topics.
Publication Date : 06/06/95 4:04 PM Source Document :