General information

 

 

Welcome to C2507, Intensive General Chemistry Laboratory!  In the following pages you will find general information about the course.  Although this information will allow you to get started and understand the rules of the game, you must check the course website regularly for news and updates.

 

Teaching team

In Charge

 

 

 

Prof. Luis Avila

avila@chem.columbia.edu

4-8587

455 Chandler

Isabelle Vu Trieu

ilv2@columbia.edu

4-6790

343 Havemeyer

Luis Avila and Isabelle Vu trieu will have office hours by appointment only.

 

Teaching Assistants

 

Office hours

Joan Raitano (Associate)

jmr27@columbia.edu

 

Qazi Hai (Associate)

qih1@columbia.edu

 

Chaya Ben-Porat

chb2001@columbia.edu

 Wed 12:00-1:00 343H

Sarah Cummings

sac2005@columbia.edu

 Fri 2:30-3:30 240H

Gordana Dukovic

gd2012@columbia.edu

 Mon 3:00-4:00 343H

Iris Tam

iwt2001@columbia.edu

 Thu 3:00-4:00 343H

George Tulevski

gst2002@columbia.edu

 Mon 3:00-4:00 343H

Amanda Willis

alw2005@columbia.edu

 Wed 1:00-2:00 343H

 

LABORATORY LOCATION AND HOURS

Room 302 Havemeyer

Monday section: 1:00-5:50 PM.

Tuesday section: 1:00-5:50 PM. 

Mentoring session: 209 Havemeyer (Brian Bent Lecture Hall)

Friday 1:10-2:00 PM.


Course description

 

You need to register for CHEM C2507y, Intensive General Chemistry Laboratory, if by the end of fall semester 2001 you have completed CHEM C2407x, Intensive General Chemistry Lecture, or CHEM C3045x, Intensive Organic Chemistry Lecture for Freshmen.  This course will provide an introduction to techniques and practices of modern experimental chemistry in a contextual, collaborative learning environment. 

The first two experiments will serve the purpose to induce the formation of groups and to assure your mastery of the basic laboratory techniques necessary to successfully complete the series of experiments that follow immediately after the second week of the semester.  These experiments will cover concepts in general chemistry, including kinetics, reactivity, spectroscopy, and quantum mechanics.  You will apply these concepts toward the end of the term when your group will be given a Case Study that will include topics on Environmental Chemistry, Forensic Chemistry, Food Science and Materials Science.

 

Assignment of Laboratory Groups:

The groups will be assembled according to the bench number assigned to you during the first laboratory period (1/28 - 1/29).  Each group will be designated by a letter (A through L) and will have a Teaching Assistant (TA) / Mentor assigned.  You are expected to remain in this group throughout the semester, unless you request for a transfer due to extenuating circumstances. 

Transfer will be honored any time prior to the day of the fourth Mentoring session (February 15) under the following condition: you find another student from a different group who is willing to switch with you, or you make a written request to your mentor for transfer.  In the later case, your mentor, in consultation with Professor Avila, will consider your reasons for transfer and will honor and arrange for your transfer only if your reasons deem substantially sufficient.  Due to constraints of the course structure, transfer requests will not be accepted on or after February 19.


Group Responsibilities

Once you are assigned to a group, you will be held responsible collectively to fulfill the course requirements, which include:

·        Weekly mandatory Mentoring session

·        Preparation of Plan of Action to execute the experiments

·        Preparation of a Case Study Plan of Action

·        Case Study Laboratory Report

·        Case Study Group Presentation toward the end of the semester.

 

Mentoring Session

Each group is expected to hold a weekly mandatory group meeting every Friday from 1:10 to 2:00 PM in 209 Havemeyer. The group’s Mentor will supervise the group meetings.  An attendance sheet signed by each member of the group must accompany the Plan of Action to be turned in at the beginning of the upcoming laboratory period. 

            The agenda for the group meeting should include:

·        Pooling the data/results from the last experiment

·        Brainstorming about the Discussion of Results section of the Laboratory report

·        Drafting the Plan of Action for the next experiment. 

It is therefore imperative that each member makes ample preparation before attending these group meetings such as analyzing the data from the previous experiment, reading the manual for the next experiment, and attending the pre-lab lecture on the course website.  Once each group member is assigned particular tasks such as library work or Internet search, the group should meet again before reconvening for the next experiment.

 

Plan of Action

Except for the first experiment, The Plan of Action for each experiment will be conceived during the group meeting before the experiment.  This word-processed document will describe the distribution of the experimental tasks among the group members, and will include a well thought strategy to complete those tasks in the allotted time.  Essentially you should cover what you want to do, why you want to do it, and how you will do it.

The document should include the attendance sheet to the group meeting, the MSDS (Materials Safety Data Sheet) of the main chemicals to be used, instrumentation guidelines, hints, and references; especially in the use of chemicals and laboratory facilities and the waste disposal protocol for the experiment.  The Plan of Action is due at the beginning of each laboratory period.

 

Individual Responsibilities

Your performance during this semester will have an individual component that includes:

 

Preparation for the experiment

Prepare the experiment before the Friday group meeting.  You need to read about the experiment in the laboratory manual and obtain the pertinent material available in the website.  You should also prepare the laboratory session in your laboratory notebook.  Your mentor will assess your preparation during the laboratory period. 

 

Laboratory Notebook

You must purchase a laboratory notebook at the beginning of the semester (available through the Chandler Chemical Society, at Barnes and Noble’s or Papyrus). You should bring it to the laboratory with the Plan of Action.  The laboratory manual will not be permitted in the laboratory.  At the end of the lab, turn in all duplicate pages of your records with the Plan of Action.

Leave the first page of the notebook for a table of contents.  For each experiment, write the title, date, and names of the group members on the top of the first page of the record.  The notebook is divided into two columns, use the left column for procedural observations and reserve the right column for the pre-lab assignment and experimental observations.  For example, if you wrote in the left column -transfer the filtrate into a volumetric flask-; the right column could say, -during the transfer process a few drops were spilled out-. Try to be organized in writing observations, when appropriate, draw data tables to organize data.  Before coming to the laboratory, you must have completed the left column for that day’s experiment (date, names, title, purpose, procedure). It will often be useful to prepare calculations.  The procedure flow-chart should state each step of the experiment that YOU will perform (by comparison, the Plan of Action states each member’s role).  Your flow-chart should be complete enough so that you can run the experiment without the lab manual.  This will save you lots of time!  You should also include a list of any changes from the manual’s procedure that you were told to institute, as well as safety notes concerning the chemicals to be handled.

 

Sample laboratory notebook page:

 

Name     Date      Experiment title

Luis     1/28/02      Density of peanut butter

 

Name of group members

Niels Bohr

Max Planck

Marie Curie

 

Purpose:

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the density of peanut butter.

 

Safety notes:

Do not eat the peanut butter found in the lab, it can be contaminated with chemicals.

 

Procedure (and procedurial observations):

 

(…)

 

Transfer the peanut butter into the flask containing the water.

 

(…)

 

 

Pre-Lab assignment:

Density = Mass/Volume

If Mass =10g and Volume =1cubic cm

Then Density=10

 

 

 

 

Data & Observations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During the transfer process a few drops of water were spilled out

 

(…)

 

At the end of the laboratory period, sign at the end and tear down the duplicate pages of your record.  Staple all pages together and submit them with the Plan of Action to your mentor.

 

Laboratory Reports

This word-processed document represents the quality and understanding of your work in lab.  Each laboratory report is divided into sections, which are graded separately.  These include the Title, Abstract, Introduction, Experimental Method, Data & Results, Discussion & Conclusions, and References.

·        Abstract and Title page (10 points): When all sections of the report are completed to satisfaction, write an abstract of about 100 words to summarize the report.  The abstract should highlight the main points of the report.  Special attention should be paid to report the research questions asked and the results/findings of the experiment.  The Abstract should appear on the Title Page on which the title of the experiment, the name of the members in the group, the date the experiment was performed, and the date the report was submitted should appear.  The Abstract will be the last item on the Title Page.

·        Introduction (10 points):  Using your own words, describe the theoretical background upon which the experiment was based.  Include references to all sources used.

·        Experimental Method (10 points): Indicate specific details of the apparatus used (e.g., "the spectrometer used was a double-beam dispersive Perkin-Elmer UV-VIS-NIR equipped with a temperature controlled sample-holder); physical properties of chemicals used, number of runs, experimental conditions (concentration range, temperature, pressure, etc.).  Mention any modification of the procedure described in the lab manual.

·        Data & Results (30 points):  Tabulate all data used in the calculation of results, number the tables and title them properly.  Perform error analysis of your data.  Provide a typical sample calculation both for the results obtained and the associated uncertainty.  These sample calculations can be attached as an appendix and handwritten. Use a different numbering pattern for tables, figures, graphs and equations.

·        Discussion & Conclusions (30 points):  The purpose of the discussion is to expand on your observations or to comment on possible causes of poor results.  Make a quantitative comparison of your results with literature values.  Evaluate the experiment's accuracy and precision.  Answer any questions given at the end of the experiment.  Summarize the main conclusions and results.

·        References (10 points): References are usually located at the end of the report, right after the Discussion & Conclusions section. 

a.  Citing an article:

R. J. H. Clark and D. M. Rippon, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday II, (1973), 1497.

b.  Citing a book:

Z. Szafran; R. Pike; M. Singh Microscale Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991.

c.  Citing a chapter in a book of several authors:

George, W. O. and Coates, J. P. in Vibrational Spectroscopy-Modern Trends.  Trace Analysis by Infrared Spectroscopy  Barnes A. J. and Orville-Thomas W. J.  Elsevier, New York, 1977; Chapter 10.

The following is a useful guide on report writing:

The ACS Style Guide, Dodd, J. S.  Ed. Amer. Chem, Soc., Washington, DC, 1986.

 

All lab reports are due the following week.  Late reports will not be accepted.

 

Attendance Policy and Make-up

As described earlier in the Group Responsibilities section, the success of the group depends on the contribution of each individual in the group.  Therefore, absence from a laboratory period is unacceptable, except for a reason such as medical emergency, religious observance, etc.  Also, due to the course structure, it is impossible to make-up experiments.  Therefore, the following attendance policy will be in effect: You may miss only one laboratory period provided that you notified your group members and your mentor and that you have a valid excuse.  If you miss a lab session for a just cause, your group members have to assure that you understand the principles covered in the experiment, and you are responsible for writing a complete lab report.  In addition, you will have to attend an oral interview with your mentor who will assess your understanding of the topic.  Absences beyond the allowed one might seriously affect the grade in the course.

 

Examinations

There will not be any in-class formal examination.  Your mentor will assess your preparation for the lab experiment at the beginning of each laboratory period.  Your mentor might ask general questions pertaining to safety and procedures and to specific techniques covered during other lab periods.

 

Grading

Your letter grade for the course will be computed according to the following scale:

Preparation for Laboratory experiment                                            5%

Procedures, Techniques and Safety                                               10%

Individual Laboratory Reports                                                   30%

Peer Assessment                                                               5%

Plans of Action                                                                 10%

Case Study Plan of Action                                                       5%

Case Study Laboratory Report                                                    15%

Case Study Presentation                                                          20%

                                                                                                                                               

Resources

ChemPreps (304 Havemeyer)

Chempreps has an inventory of glassware, chemicals, and laboratory accessories.  Staff in Chempreps will assist you with your needs.  For example, if you cannot find a certain item in the laboratory, you should ask your TA before walking over to the Chempreps window.  Your instructor will clarify the exact item you need, tell you whether the item you need is in the laboratory, and if is not, advise you to get it from Chempreps.  This simple communication process will assist the staff in Chempreps to help you and prevent unnecessary access to the inventory in Chempreps.

 

Chemistry Library (4th floor Chandler)

The Chemistry Library has a remarkably large collection of chemical literature from textbooks, manuals, journal titles, to reference collections.  There are computer terminals available for you to search conveniently for chemical literature electronically.  The Reserve section of the library contains all the primary references used to prepare this manual; these references are available to you on a two-hour loan basis.  For further assistance in using the Chemistry Library, consult the librarian and the course Web site.

 

Computer Resources

MacLab (211 Havemeyer). The schedule is posted on the door of 211 Havemeyer.

 

Course website

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/chemistry/chem-c2507/

 

In the Laboratory

Glassware and equipment

You will be assigned a drawer of glassware and bench space for performing your experiments all of which you will be responsible for.  On the first day of lab, you will Check-In to your drawer and make sure that all of your glassware is present and in good order.  If anything is missing or broken, you should go to ChemPreps to replace these items.  Only on the first day of lab you will not be charged for equipment replacement in order to obtain a complete set of glassware.  For the remainder of the semester, you will be charged for what you loose or break.

            On occasion, you will need to use equipment that will not be part of your assigned glassware and thus will not be found in your drawer.  You will need to obtain these items from ChemPreps in exchange for your student ID card. Upon the end of the lab period, your ID will be returned to you in exchange for the cleaned, intact piece of equipment you used.   To clean such glassware, wash thoroughly with soap and water, rinse with distilled water, and then rinse with acetone. 

            During the last laboratory session, you will Check-Out of your drawer, and pay any fine or breakage fees that you incurred during the program. In order for them to keep things in order, ChemPreps reserves the right to place a hold on your course evaluation if you have any outstanding issues with them, such as unpaid fees or unreturned keys.

 
Safety Guidelines

All laboratory safety protocols in CHEM C2507 will be strictly enforced.  Violation of any safety protocol may result in point deduction on the Procedures, Techniques and Safety section of your individual Evaluation Sheet, and/or dismissal from the laboratory. 

Safety has two aspects: prevention of accident, and response to emergency.  The golden rule is to use your common sense.  Treat your classmates and chemicals in the laboratory with respect.  Do not work in the laboratory alone or perform unauthorized experiments.  Ask your instructor whenever you do not know how to perform a procedure.  Notify your instructor immediately when there is an accident (including broken glassware, chemical spill, and bodily injury).

 

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) (available from the C2507 course homepage)

Federal law requires that manufacturers and distributors of chemicals provide users with Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).  MSDS is a fairly concise technical document that gives information on any particular chemical among the over 10,000 frequently encountered chemicals in research laboratories and industries.  The information includes contact address and phone number of the chemical supplier, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, physical hazards (such as flammability, reactivity), toxicity data and health hazards, storage and handling procedures, emergency and first-aid procedures, and disposal and transportation information.  The MSDS for a chemical can be conveniently located by submitting the name of the chemical to a MSDS searchable database on the internet.  In the Case Study, you will come into contact with many chemicals that you may be unfamiliar with.  It is your responsibility to read the MSDS for a chemical that you plan to use for your particular experiment or analysis.

 

Chemical Waste Disposal

No chemicals can go down the sink.  Aqueous, organic, and solid wastes should be disposed properly in clearly labeled containers.  Ask your instructor when in doubt.

Chemicals Storage

Toward the end of a lab period, you will be asked to clean-up your working area in the laboratory.  At that time, decide what samples of chemicals you will save for the next lab period.  In general, glass vials of various sizes work well in storing aqueous and organic solutions and solid samples.  If you are not certain how to store properly your particular sample, ask your instructor.  Most samples and chemicals will be shelved in a metal solvent cabinet located in 302C Havemeyer Hall.

 

Off-hour Use of the Laboratory

Due to safety and security reasons, you are allowed to use the laboratory (302 Havemeyer Hall) only during the dates listed under the Schedule and Due Dates section.  However, if you need to repeat a measurement during any morning (Monday through Friday) when there is no class, you may ask permission from your mentor.

 

EXPERIMENTS

Code

Experiment Description

E1

Workplace Skills

E2

Wet Techniques

E3

Interphase Partition Analysis – Chemical Separation I

E4

Aspirin Synthesis and HPLC Analysis – Chemical Separation II

E5

Extraction of Chlorophyll from Fresh Spinach

E6

Investigation of the Photochemistry of Chlorophyll

E7

Infrared Spectroscopy

E8

Kinetic Determination of Glucose in Beverages

E9

Introduction to Lasers

E10

Introduction to Cyclic Voltammetry

CS

Case Study

 

Notes:

1.      All groups will perform E1 and E2 during the first two weeks of laboratory.

2.      From week 3 to week 10, experiments E3 through E10 will be performed on a rotation basis.

3.      During the mentoring session of week 9 the Case Study will be assigned.

4.       The table on the next page describes your schedule of experiments for the semester. Once you have found what column correspond to your group (A through L), you can arrange your experiments in order in the present manual.

 

L

 

E1

E2

E10

E8

E9

E5

E6

E7

E3

E4

CS

CS

CS pre

K

 

E1

E2

E10

E8

E9

E5

E6

E7

E3

E4

CS

CS

CS pre

J

 

E1

E2

E9

E7

E5

E6

E8

E3

E4

E10

CS

CS

CS pre

I

 

E1

E2

E9

E7

E5

E6

E8

E3

E4

E10

CS

CS

CS pre

H

 

E1

E2

E8

E5

E6

E3

E4

E9

E10

E7

CS

CS

CS pre

G

 

E1

E2

E8

E5

E6

E3

E4

E9

E10

E7

CS

CS

CS pre

F

 

E1

E2

E5

E6

E3

E4

E7

E10

E8

E9

CS

CS

CS pre

E

 

E1

E2

E5

E6

E3

E4

E7

E10

E8

E9

CS

CS

CS pre

D

 

E1

E2

E7

E3

E4

E9

E10

E8

E5

E6

CS

CS

CS pre

C

 

E1

E2

E7

E3

E4

E9

E10

E8

E5

E6

CS

CS

CS pre

B

 

E1

E2

E3

E4

E7

E10

E9

E5

E6

E8

CS

CS

CS pre

A

 

E1

E2

E3

E4

E7

E10

E9

E5

E6

E8

CS

CS

CS pre

Date

1/25

1/28-29

2/4-5

2/11-12

2/18-19

2/25-26

3/4-5

3/11-12

3/25-26

4/1-2

4/8-9

4/15-16

4/22-23

4/29-30

Week

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13