Staatsverträge 555 (OGIS 265)                                                    early 3rd century (?)

A state of isopolity existed when the citizenship of one city was made equivalent to that of another and vice-versa. In the present text such an agreement is struck between Pergamon and the Aeolian city of Temnos, the citizens of each becoming full citizens of the other. The arrangement was apparently initiated by Pergamon (where also the inscription was found). The Pergamene decree is followed on the stone by a joint resolution of the two cities, which is written in the Aeolic dialect used at Temnos.

Boule and demos [decided); proposal of the strategoi: [whereas the) demos of the Temnitans is in fact affectionately disposed towards the demos of the Pergamenes, with good fortune, be it resolved by the boule and the demos, to dispatch two envoys who, arriving (in Temnos), shall declare the goodwill towards them, and who shall address them to the effect that both cities decree isopolity; and, if this seems suitable to the Temnitans, for those dispatched to conclude (an agreement) about this as fully-empowered (representatives). Chosen were Apollonides, son of Apelles, and H[... ] son of Hermippos. With good fortune, resolved by the Temnitans and Pergamenes, (at Temnos) the prytanis being the one after [Herak]leides, son of Ditas, in the month Heraion, in [Pergamon] the prytanis being Aristokrates, son of Hiera[... ), in the month Heraion: for Temnitans to have citizenship in Pergamon and for Pergamenes (to have citizenship) (in Temnos], sharing in what the other [citizens share in], and for [the Temnitan] in Pergamon and the Pergamene in Temnos to have the right of owning land and house; and for the Temnitan to pay [taxes in Pergamon, as much as the] Pergamene pays, and for the Pergamene (to pay taxes) [in Temnos, as much as the] Temnitan pays - -.]


Syll.3 955                                                                        late 4th-early third century

Sometime around 300 the city of Arkesine on Amorgos borrowed three talents from a certain Praxikles of Naxos. The present inscription contains the terms of the loan. The interest (10%) is not in the least unusual, but the provisions about security are striking. The document is eloquently discussed by Tarn (in J.B. Bury et al., The Hellenistic Age [Cambridge 1923] 108 ff.; cf. below, #note 186#) and provides a fair indication of the uncertainty of the times.

[Good Fortune.] At Naxos in the month Hekatombaion, the aisymnetai being... enes and Sostratos; at Arkesine in the month Miltophorion, the [arch]on being Ktesiphon. Praxikles son of Polymnestos lent to the city of the Arkesineans three talents of Attic silver, guaranteed for Praxikles against all risks, at interest of five obols per mina per month, the daneistai,  Protomachos and Dio... es, having gone on public mission (to Naxos) according to the decree which Stesagoras proposed.

Mortgaged to Praxikles is all the public property of the city and the private property belonging to the Arkesineans and those dwelling in Arkesine, that within the land and that overseas.

The treasurers who collect the revenues of the Arkesineans will pay the interest each year. If they do not pay, let those who do not pay be liable to Praxikles for 150 per cent of the money owed from their own private resources, (this money to be recoverable) by all manner of execution, just as if consequent upon final court decision in accordance with the symbolon  of the Naxians and the Arkesineans; and let this money not be to the credit of the city against the loan, but let the city pay the interest. If (the city) does not pay, let the interest which it does not pay be subject to interest, payable to Praxikles, along with the principal sum at the same annual rate of interest.

They will pay back the principal sum within six months from the time Praxikles or whomever Praxikles sends demands it.

Whenever they pay the interest or the principal sum, they will pay (it) in Naxos to Praxikles, or to whomever Praxikles orders, in Attic or Alexandrian coin, which the city uses, [guaranteed against all risk], whole, genuine, uncut (?), undamaged, free of all imposts wherever Praxikles orders.

If they do not pay back the money according to the written terms, the Arkesineans agree and covenant to owe to Praxikles six talents; and it shall be permitted to Praxikles, free from all penalty, to exact this money by all manner of execution from the public property of the Arkesineans, and from the private property of the Arkesineans and those dwelling in Arkesine, both the whole amount from one individual and from all alike, in whatever way he can, just as from the losers of a final court decision in (before) the umpire city in accordance with the symbolon of the Naxians and Arkesineans. And whatever Praxikles seizes or exacts is not to be to the credit of the Arkesineans toward the repayment of the money they owe. And the Arkesineans also release from penalty and from liability to court action any who exact the money at Praxikles' behest. If any of the Arkesineans or of those dwelling in Arkesine obstructs the exactors or interferes with the exaction in any way or under any pretext whatever, let him pay as penalty to Praxikles a talent of silver, and [let him be liable for exaction] of this money, just as if he had lost a final court decision to Praxikles in (before) the umpire city in accordance with the symbolon, and let this money not be to the credit of the city toward the repayment of the loan. And if any injury or expense arises in the exaction of the money, let this be (the responsibility) of the city of the Arkesineans, and let the city pay back this money along with the rest of the loan.

The Arkesineans agree that nothing shall have precedence over this contract, neither law nor decree nor resolution nor strategos nor any other magistrate who renders a decision at odds with what is written in this contract nor anything else at all by any device or under any pretext whatsoever, but that this contract is to be valid wherever the lender or those acting on his behalf produce (it).

The Arkesineans agree to have this contract inscribed at Arkesine in the public archive [and in the] sanctuary of Hera on a stone stele within sixty days from the time when the daneistai announce, otherwise they are to owe. . ., in accordance with the contract deposited with Eurykles [and) Prax[ikles].

[Witnesses]: Eury[kles], Ateisides, [... A]ntipappos, Th[eon], Aristodemos, Niko[sthle[nes], . . . os, Eualk [ides], [Th]eopompos, An... os, Ei... mei[dla[s], Thorax, Ky .... ... nome[nes], Ant... os,



185. An ad hoc committee chosen to deal with the arrangements for this loan.

186. Not only is everything owned by all the citizens of Arkesine pledged as security to Praxikles but also everything owned by the metics (resident aliens) as well. This may be related to the provision about overseas property, as Tarn suggests (op.cit. 110): “For metics were often traders and ship-owners; and the right given to Praxicles to seize metics' property as well as citizens' property really means the right to seize any ship belonging to any inhabitant of Arcesine without enquiring as to the owner's status. If he insisted on this right, he must have thought that his security over property in Arcesine itself might become valueless; and only one thing could make it valueless, a revolution and cancellation of debts.” At issue, however, may be Arkesinean holdings on the small islands nearby.

187. Symbola were conventions between individual Greek cities that could provide for judicial procedures in cases involving citizens of both places, for regulation of commercial transactions and the like (cf. P. Gauthier, Symbola [Nancy 1972]). The symbolon here at issue provided for arbitration of (at least certain kinds of) court cases before another city (the “umpire city” of the inscription).


Syll.3 391                                                                                                     ca. 280

The temple of Apollo on Delos, the funds of which were regularly put out at interest (cf. no. 130) to individuals as well as to larger public bodies, had lent a sum to the League of the Islanders. In order to secure repayment, about which there had apparently arisen some question, the Delians appealed to Philokles, Ptolemy II's man in the Aegean, and thus, at least indirectly, to Ptolemy himself. Their démarche bore fruit, which is indicative of Ptolemy's relation to the League and, not least, of his desire to maintain order and his own influence in the area.

Resolved by the boule and the demos; Mnesalkos, son of Teles[archides] spoke: Whereas Philokles, King of the Sidonians, has in former times continually displayed all good-will and zeal towards the sanctuary and the Delians, and now, after an embassy was dispatched to him about the money which the Islanders owed to the Delians, he took all care that the Delians should recover the loans, [Just as King] Ptolemy ordered, and that there should be no [delays and postponements] of the repayment (of the money) to the Delians - - - (to) [Bacch]on the nesiarch: so in order that all who come [to Delos] may know that the demos of the Delians knows how [to return] thanks to those who benefit the sanctuary and the Delians, [be it resolved by the demos] to praise Philokles, King of the Sidonians, [on account of his piety towards the temple] and his virtue [towards the demos of the Delians, and] to crown him with a gold crown [of 1000 drachmas, and] for the sacred herald to proclaim in the theater at the (festival of the) Apollonia that the demos of the Delians crowns Philokles, King of the Sidonians, with a gold crown of 1000 drachmas, on account of his piety towards the sanctuary and his virtue towards [the] demos of the Delians; and to [sacrifice] the savior- offerings on behalf of Philokles in Delos to Apollo [and Artemis and Leto] and Zeus the Savior and Athena the Savior; and for the treasurer to provide [the] expense out of the revenues - -.


Syll.3 304                                                                                                          325/4

Besides giving an indication of the importance for Athens of imported grain, particularly that from the Black Sea area, this decree provides some insight into the workings of the Athenian council and assembly. The dossier here contains five distinct elements, passed in the following order (but inscribed in the order in which they are translated below). (A) is a decree of the assembly instructing the council to prepare and to submit to the assembly a proposal for honoring Herakleides. (B) is the council's response to this instruction. (C) is the decree then passed by the assembly, providing for the honorific crown as well as for the embassy to Herakleia. (A), (B), and (C) together constitute a set of resolutions adopted after Herakleides' provision of grain at a reduced rate in 330/29 but prior to his contribution of money for grain in 328/7. (D) is the council's probouleuma issued in response to this later gesture, and (E) is the corresponding and all-embracing resolution of the assembly, which adds designation as proxenos and benefactor to the honorific crown and also provides for the recording on stone of the whole dossier.


Gods. In the archonship of Antikles; in the fifth prytany, that of (the tribe) Aigeis, for which Antiphon son of Koroibos, of (the deme) Eleusis was secretary, on the eleventh (of the month), the thirty-fourth (day) of the prytany; of the prohedroi Philyllos of (the deme) Eleusis put the question to the vote; Demosthenes son of Demokles, of (the deme) Lamptrai spoke: Whereas Herakleides of Salamis continues to act out of love of honor towards the demos of the Athenians and to do whatever good he can, and previously, during the grain shortage, he gave 3000 medimnoi of wheat at five drachmas (the medimnos), the first of the merchants who sailed in; and then, when the contributions were being made, he contributed 3000 drachmas for the purchase of grain,  and in other respects he continues to act with good-will and love of honor towards the demos, be it resolved by the demos: to praise Herakleides son of Charikleides, of Salamis, and to crown him with a gold crown for his good-will and zeal towards the demos of the Athenians; and for him to be a proxenos and benefactor of the demos of the Athenians, both himself and his descendants, and for them to have the right of owning land and house according to the law; and for them to serve on campaigns and pay the property-tax levies along with the Athenians. (Resolved) for the secretary of the prytany to have this decree and the other praises he has received inscribed on a stone stele and to have it set up on the Acropolis; and for the treasurer to provide thirty drachmas for the inscription of the stele from the (monies) spent by the demos for decree-related matters.


Telemachos son of Theangelos, of (the deme) Acharnai spoke: Whereas Herakleides of Salamis gave grain to the demos at five drachmas (the medimnos), the first of the merchants who sailed in, in the archonship of Aristophon, be it decreed by the demos: to praise Herakleides son of Charikleides, of Salamis, and to crown him with a gold crown for his zeal towards the demos of the Athenians; whereas he was forced to land by the Herakleotai, as he was sailing to Athens, and had his sails taken away by them, (resolved) to choose one man from all the Athenians as ambassador to go to Herakleia and Dionysios and ask that he return Herakleides' sails and that, for the future, he do wrong to none of those sailing to Athens, and (to say that) in doing this he will do what is right and will not fail to obtain anything of what is right from the demos [of the Athenians]; and (resolved) for the treasurer of the demos to give to the ambassador chosen travelling expenses of fifty drachmas from the monies spent by the demos for decree-related matters. Chosen as ambassador was Thebagenes of (the deme) Eleusis.


Telemachos son of Theangelos, of (the deme) Acharnai spoke: Be it decreed by the demos: that the boule form a probouleuma and introduce it at the next assembly, concerning Herakleides, in what manner he will receive such good as he can at the hands of the demos of the Athenians.


Kephisodotos son of Eucharides, of (the deme) Acharnai, spoke: Concerning the matters about which the demos has enjoined the boule to form a probouleuma about Herakleides the Salaminian, be it resolved by the boule: Whereas Herakleides, having sailed into Athens with a cargo of grain, gave 3000 medimnoi to the demos at five drachmas each, the prohedroi to whom it falls by lot to preside at the next assembly are to bring Herakleides before the demos and deal with the matter, and they are to put before the demos a proposal of the boule, (namely) that the boule resolves: To praise Herakleides son of Charikleides, of Salamis, and to crown him with a gold crown of 500 drachmas; and that it be possible for him to receive such good as he can at the hands of the demos, in order that others as well will act from love of honor, knowing that the boule honors and crowns those who do.


Phyleus son of Pausanias, of (the deme) Oinoi, spoke: Whereas Herakleides of Salamis, having sailed into Athens with a cargo of grain in the archonship of Aristophon, gave to the demos 3000 medimnoi at five drachmas (the medimnos), and for this reason the demos voted that the boule was to form a probouleuma and bring it before the demos, as to how he may receive such good as he can from the hands of the demos of the Athenians, and then, in the archonship of Euthykritos, he contributed to the demos 3000 drachmas for the purchase of grain, be it resolved by the boule: That the prohedroi to whom it falls by lot to preside at the statutory assembly are to bring Herakleides before the demos and deal with the matter and they are to put before the demos the proposal of the boule, (namely) that the boule resolves: To praise Herakleides son of Charikleides, of Salamis, and to crown him with a gold crown of 500 drachmas; and for it to be possible for him to receive from the demos such good as he seems to be worthy of, in order that others as well may wish [readily to benefit the] boule and the demos, seeing that those who act from love of honor [... toward the boule and the] demos [ - ].


188. 325/4. On the serious grain shortage at Athens in the early 320's compare Demosthenes 34.39; 42.20, 3 1; and no. 3.

189. This occurred during the archonship of Aristophon, 330/29; cf. text at note 191.

190. This took place in the archonship of Euthykritos, 328/7; cf. text at note 193.

191. 330/29.

192. The tyrant of Herakleia, on the northern coast of Asia Minor, about 150 miles east of Byzantium.

193. 328/7.


Syll.3 976                                                                                                      2nd century

This decree of the island city of Samos gives the detailed arrangements for the administration of a grain fund set up by the contributions of numerous citizens of the city. Overall direction was placed in the hands of a board of two wealthy men (“those elected to be in charge of the grain supply”). The money for the fund was collected by the curators, of which one was elected by each of the chiliastyes (the units into which the two Samian tribes were divided), and the curators (also wealthy men: the words with which the surviving portion of the inscription opens refer to the candidates for this position) were responsible for lending out this money and paying the proceeds over to the board of two. The latter then turned the accumulated proceeds over to the elected grain-buyer (another wealthy man), who actually purchased the grain. The grain bought was then distributed gratis, under the supervision of the board of two, at the rate of two measures a month for each citizen for as many months as the grain thus acquired lasted. Such, in outline, is the procedure laid down. The decree provides also for the appointment of the relevant officials as well as for various sanctions against financial misconduct at the different stages of the process. (Cf. in general, Hands, Charities and Social Aid 89-115, and particularly 95 ff.)

--- of the wealthiest. Let them make the appointment in the month Kronion at the second of the assemblies. Let the prytaneis convoke the assembly [in the] theater, and let them order those attending the assembly to sit by chiliastys, making signs and setting off a place for each of the chiliastyes. Whosoever disobeys and does not sit with his own chiliastys, let them fine him a native stater. If he says he has been unjustly fined, let him register a plea, and let the judgment take place in the city court within twenty days. Let both the putting forward (of names) and the election be done by the members of the chiliastyes themselves. At this assembly let the chiliastyes examine also the securities and the guarantors: and let the prytaneis enter in the public records whatever securities and whichever guarantors they approve. Similarly, let them enter in the public records the curators who are appointed. When the voting is about to take place, let the city's herald utter a prayer, that it may be well for those who vote for the ones who they believe will best supervise the funds. Let the ones appointed exact the interest from the borrowers, and let them make it over to the men elected to be in charge of the grain supply. And let the latter buy the grain deriving from the five per cent tax levied from the district of Anaia,  paying to the goddess a price not less than the five (drachmas) and two obols that the demos formerly assigned. The money left over, if the demos does not resolve to buy grain, they are to keep until others have been appointed to be in charge of the grain supply; then they are to make it over to them. If the demos does resolve to buy grain, let them make the money over immediately to the grain-buyer who has been elected. Let the latter buy the grain from the land of Anaiitis in whatever way he believes will turn out most profitably for the city, unless it seems to the demos more profitable to buy the grain from somewhere else. Otherwise, let the matter be handled in whatever way the demos resolves. Every year let the prytaneis in office for the month Arternision bring this matter forward, giving public notice beforehand. Let the demos every year, at the first of the elections after the appointment of the elected magistrates, designate two men, one from each tribe, to be in charge of the grain supply, each of these having property worth not less than three talents. Let these, after receiving the interest from the curators, pay the price of the grain and any other expense that may arise, and let them also measure out the grain. And let the demos at the, same assembly appoint a grain-buyer, having property worth not less than two talents. And, if it seems good, let the money from the interest be lent out, if any wish, after giving sufficiently valuable securities and providing guarantors, to buy earlier and arrange the grain supply more profitably. Let the men elected to be in charge of the grain supply accept the guarantors at their own risk. Let them measure out all the purchased grain to the resident citizens by chiliastys, giving to each two measures a month as a gift. Let them begin the distribution in the month Pelusion, and thereafter let them measure out for as many months as the grain holds out. Let them not measure out grain to one on behalf of another, unless someone is ill. Let them conduct the distribution from the first to the tenth (of the month), but until the thirtieth for those who are abroad, if they come. Let them render an account each month to the office of the public auditor of those who received grain, recording it by chiliastys and adding the names of the recipients. Let the members of the chiliastyes have the power to appoint the same curator for five years in succession. If any of the borrowers does not pay back the money, either the whole sum or a part of it, let the chiliastys surrender the security; and if there is a surplus, let the chiliastys pay it to the one who gave the security. If there is a deficiency, let the chiliastys exact it from the guarantor. Let the chiliastys give the interest accruing to those elected to be in charge of the grain supply. If it does not pay, let the members of the chiliastys not receive the grain distribution due to them until they fulfill their obligation. If any of the elected curators, after taking the money which he is supposed to put out at interest, does not put it out at interest but wrongfully holds it himself, let him owe to the city (a fine of) 10,000 drachmas; similarly, if he does not pay the interest to the men elected to be in charge of the grain supply, let him owe an equal amount as penalty and let the public auditors register his property as forfeit to the chiliastys against the money which he ought to have paid; and, besides the penalty, let him be registered as atimos, and let him be atimos until he pays. And let the members of the chiliastys, who appointed the curator who did not pay the money, not receive the grain distribution due to them. If [the] members of the chiliastys wish to pay the money, either all of them or some of them in proportion, which the curator or the borrower did not pay to the city, let them have the power to do so, and when they have paid let them receive their grain distribution from the time they paid. Let no one have the power to use this money or the interest deriving from it for any purpose other than the free distribution of grain. If any prytanis brings forward a measure, or any speaker proposes, or any epistates puts the question, to the effect that it should be used or transferred for any other purpose, let each one (of them) owe (a fine of) 10,000 drachmas; similarly, if any treasurer or curator or any of those elected to be in charge of the grain supply or any grain-buyer gives or lends it for any purpose other than the free distribution (of grain).

(There follows here a long list [occupying 128 lines] of those who provided money for the grain fund with an indication of the amount given by each. The individual contributions were from 50 to 1000 drachmas.)


194. This particularly fertile area was on the mainland of Asia Minor, directly to the east of Samos. As it was temple land under Samian control, the money paid for grain would not in fact be altogether lost to the city (cf. Hands, op.cit. 95).

195. Le., deprived of civic rights.


SEG I 366                                                                                                     ca. 240

This honorific decree from Samos gives fair indication of the fragility of the public finances of Greek cities and of the extent to which they could, and did, become precariously dependent for their welfare upon their most wealthy citizens (cf. in this connection 13). Besides assuming responsibilities within the city, which required time and money, Boulagoras provided the money needed for a theoria to Alexandria and effectively constituted by himself the city's grain fund (cf. 63), as well as providing a source of interest-free loans to some of the less fortunate. He undertook, moreover, an embassy to King Antiochus (most likely Antiochus II, although Hierax has been suggested), who had made gifts of Samian properties in the Ananitis to some of his high-ranking subordinates. This area was of the greatest importance to Samos (cf. its role as a source of grain in 63), and foreign control there likely accounts for much of the financial and alimentary difficulty experienced by the city. Later, when possession of the Anaitis was secure, it was possible to establish the permanent mechanism for bringing grain to the city which is set out in no. 63.

Resolved by the boule and the demos, proposal of the prytaneis, concerning [(the matters) which] Hippodamas son of Pantonaktides initially raised, (namely) that Boulagoras son of Alexis, having rendered many services to the demos as a whole and individually to many of the citizens, might be praised and crowned as the boule and demos may decide: Whereas Boulagoras, in previous times, when properties were commandeered in the territory of Anaiitis, which was then subject to Antiochus the king, and the citizens who had their holdings taken away had recourse to the demos and requested an embassy to Antiochus, in order that they might retrieve what was theirs, appointed ambassador, and going initially to Ephesus and when Antiochus marched off accompanying him as far as Sardis, exercised all eagerness and zeal - standing against, during his embassy, the most illustrious of Antiochus' friends, who happened to be in possession of the commandeered (properties) - that the demos, recovering the holdings commandeered at that time, might restore them to those from whom they had been taken away; and he brought letters about these matters from Antiochus to our city and to his. garrison-commander in Anaia and to the dioiketes, thanks to which those who were then deprived regained possession of their own property and no one in Antiochus' service subsequently undertook to commandeer the property of citizens; and, often chosen by the demos as proegoros in the public court cases, he was constantly vigorous and zealous and brought about many useful and beneficial things for the city; and, elected director of the gymnasium by the people according to the law, on account of the deficiency of the gymnasiarch, he supervised the good-conduct of the ephebes and the youths fairly and nobly; and in the present year, when it was time for the dispatch of the theoroi to Alexandria, knowing that the demos set the greatest importance by the honors of King Ptolemy and his sister Queen Berenike,  since limited funds were available for their crowns and for the sacrifices, which the theoroi must needs perform in Alexandria, while for the travelling expenses of the architheoros and the theoroi, by whom the crown had to be delivered and the sacrifices performed, there was no (money) at all nor any place whence at the time it might be got, wishing that nothing be lacking from the honors previously decreed for the king and the queen and their parents and ancestors, he promised to advance the money required for these things from his own resources, (a sum) not much less than 6000 drachmas; and when a shortage of grain beset the city and the citizens, due to the urgency of the need, appointed three commissions to buy grain, he showed no lack of zeal and love of honor, but in the case of the first commission he advanced all the money to be put out at interest, according to what the demos decreed, in the case of the second he promised the same amount as those who contributed the most, and in the case of the third he not only provided all the money to be lent out from his own resources, but also, when the grain was brought into the city and the grain-buyer had contracted a loan on it, he came before the assembly and promised, since there was no source whence the money would be repaid, to pay off the loan for the city as well as the interest and all the other expenses, and he did this quickly and reimbursed the lender without making any contract with the city for this money or requiring guarantors to be appointed for him, but considering more important the common good and that the demos might live in prosperity; and in all other matters he continues to show himself zealous and kind both to the demos in general and individually to each of the citizens, [giving] the best [counsel] and reconciling those with differences and lending without interest from his own resources to many of those who are in difficulties; in order, then, that we may be clear in honoring good men and in urging many of the citizens to the same attitude, be it resolved by the demos: to praise Boulagoras son of Alexis for his virtue and his good-will toward the citizens, and to crown him with a gold crown at the tragedies during the Dionysia, and for the agonothetes to look after the announcement; and for the exetastai to have this decree inscribed on a stone stele and set up in the sanctuary of Hera; and for the treasurer of the sacred funds to provide the expense from the money he has on hand from fines. Present were Hyblesios, Herodotos, Monimos, Demetrios.


196. The supervision of the gymnasium involved not only looking after the training of the youths of the city but also the provision of the oil used for the athletic part of the program. It was thus a financial burden, and this presumably explains the difficulty encountered by the gymnasiarch, whose responsibility this was.

197. Ptolemy III Euergetes and Berenike.

198. On the mechanics involved in these operations, cf. in general 63, where the procedure is, by contrast, a permanent one.

199. It may be noted that in none of these three cases does Boulagoras permanently part with money. He rather allows the city to use his capital for a time. The same is true in the case of the theoria to Alexandria.


Syll.3 578                                                                                                        2nd century

The city of Teos here deals with a gift made for the purpose of education in essentially the same way as Miletos dealt with Eudemos' gift in Syll.3 577. Some differences, however, are apparent. Besides the greater variety of instructors to be hired, it may be particularly noted that the education of girls is here provided for and that a wider range of children's ages is apparently at issue than was the case at Miletos. The oldest of them share at least part of the ephebes' curriculum, and indeed some of the income from the gift is to be used to pay certain instructors of the ephebes.

[Resolved - - - and, after the] selection of [the] gymnasiarch, for a paidonomos to be appointed not less than 40 [years) of age; and, in order that the freeborn children may be educated as Polythroos, son of Onesimos, taking forethought, announced to the demos and gave for this purpose 34,000 drachmas, establishing a most noble reminder of his love of glory, for there to be appointed each year at the elections of magistrates, after the selection of the secretaries, three grammar-masters to teach the boys and the girls; to pay to the one elected for the first level 600 drachmas a year, to the one for the second level 550 drachmas, to the one for the third level 500 drachmas; for two gymnastics-masters to be appointed, and for wages of 500 drachmas a year to be given to each of them; for a lyre- or harp-player to be appointed and for the one elected to be paid a wage of 700 drachmas a year; lie will teach music and lyre- or harp-playing to the children fit to be chosen for the first level [and] to the ones a year younger than these, and music to the ephebes; let the paidonomos decide as to the ages of these children; and, if we have an intercalary month, to pay the wage that falls due for the month; let the paidonomos and the gymnasiarch pay the arms instructor and the instructor in archery and spear-throwing, after referring (the matter) to the demos; let these teach the ephebes and the ones for whom instruction in music is (here) scheduled; let pay of 250 drachmas be given to the instructor in archery and spear-throwing, and 300 drachmas to the arms-instructor; the arms-instructor will teach for a period of not less than two months; in order that the children and the ephebes may be carefully trained in their lessons, for the paidonomos and the gymnasiarch to supervise carefully as is laid down for each of them according to the laws; if -he grammar-masters dispute among themselves about the number of children, let the paidonomos decide (the matter), and, as he arranges, let -hem obey; for the grammar-masters to hold the recitations that are to take place in the gymnasium, and the music-instructor (those that are to take place) in the bouleuterion; [ - ] if they do not pay the fine, let it be permitted [to compel] them; regarding the arms-master and the instructor in archery and spear-throwing let it be done as is written above; if the treasurer now in office or those in office at any time (in the future) do not pay the money according to what is written, or anyone else, whether magistrate or private citizen, speaks or acts or proposes or puts to the vote or proposes a law contrary to this or cancels this law in any way or on any pretext whatsoever, to the effect that the money should be touched or expenditure not made from it for the purposes directed by this law or that it be allocated for [any] other (purpose) and not for what is enjoined in this law, let such actions be invalid and let the treasurers next in office allocate to the account (set up) according to this law an equal sum of money from the revenues of the city, and in other respects let it be carried out according to this law; may he be utterly ruined, himself and his entire family, who says or does anything contrary to this law, and let him be (regarded as) a temple-robber, and let there be carried out against him all that is written in the laws about the temple-robber; and let each of those who does anything against this law about this money, or who fails to do what is enjoined, owe to the city 10,000 drachmas, let anyone who wishes bring a case against him, both by private and by public action, both after the presentation of the monthly account and at any time he wishes; let it not be possible to dismiss one of these cases by reference to the required period of time or by any other means whatsoever; let the one convicted pay a fine of double (the sum involved), and let half of this belong to the city, sacred to Hermes and Herakles and the Muses, and let it be deposited in the aforementioned account, and let half belong to the one who obtains the conviction; let the public examiners see to the completion of these cases, as of the other public cases; let the timouchoi, whoever are in office, proclaim, in addition to the (regular) imprecation, that he is to be utterly ruined, himself and his entire family, who touches the money given by Polythroos son of Onesimos for the education of the freeborn children in any way or on any pretext whatsoever, or who assigns (the money) for anything else and not for what is provided for in the law, or who does not carry out what is prescribed by the law; if the treasurers do not lend out the money according to the written provisions or do not pay what [according to this] law is due to those elected to be in charge of the lessons, let each of them owe to the city 2000 drachmas; let anyone who wishes bring a case against him - - - let the one convicted pay a fine of double (the sum involved), and


200. It is clear from what follows that the oldest group is quite close to the military age.

201. These two instructors were presumably already on hand to teach the ephebes. Since their appointment is not provided for in the present decree, the approval of the demos must be obtained before they can be paid out of the proceeds of Polythroos' gift.

202. This evidently refers to a regulation according to which it was not possible to challenge accounts after a certain period of time had elapsed.


Ilion 34 (OGIS 220)                                                                                    275-268/7

This decree of the city of Ilion was prompted by two letters addressed to the city, one from Antiochus himself and one from Antiochus' deputy in Asia Minor, Meleager (cf. no. 18). There must be presumed to have been also a third, sent by Antiochus to Meleager. All of this suggests that Metrodoros was to be rewarded for healing the king (saving his life?) in a good many cities of the Seleucid realm.

Whereas King Antiochus has sent to us (to say) that, having been wounded in the neck in the battle, he was safely healed by Metrodoros the physician, (and whereas) Meleager the strategos, thinking of what is in the interest of the city, has also sent (to us) about him, be it resolved by the boule and the demos to praise Metrodoros son of Timokles, of Amphipolis, for his virtue and his good-will towards the Kings Antiochus and Seleucus and towards the demos, and for him to be (declared) proxenos and benefactor of the city; and for there to be granted to him citizenship and the right of owning land and the right to approach the boule and the demos first after the sacred matters; and to permit him to [enter into] whatever tribe and phratry he may wish - -.


203. For this governor of the Hellespontine satrapy, cf. 18. (It is, however, not impossible that this is another Meleager and that the kings at issue are Antiochus III and his son, the future Seleucus IV).

204. Seleucus was the elder son of Antiochus I and was associated with his father as king from 275 to 268/7 (cf. Chiron 5 [1975] 61) at least. From 266 on the co-regent was the king's younger son, Antiochus (the future Antiochus II) who succeeded to the position after the death of his brother (for suspicion of treachery?).


RC 23 (OGIS 267 I) and OGIS 267 II                                                    ca. 260-245

This inscription contains a letter addressed by Eumenes to the city of Pergamon and the Pergamene decree passed in direct response. The city clearly maintained itself institutionally as a democracy, but its relation to the ruler is equally clear, particularly from the Pergamene decree. A board of five strategoi constituted the chief magistracy - the wide extent of their competence emerges from the Pergamene resolution - and these five were appointed each year by Eumenes. The Pergamene decree indicates the existence at Pergamon of a cult in honor of Eumenes, with the epithet Euergetes (“the benefactor”).

RC 23

[Eumenes son of Philetairos to the demos of the Pergamenes], greeting. [Palamandros, Skymnos, Metrodoros, Theotimos, Phi]liskos, the strategoi [who served in the year when... was priest], appear [to have filled] their office [well on all occasions]. They have performed justly [the other duties of the office and in the matter of finance they have not only] managed profitably for the demos and for the gods [all the] city's and the sacred revenues of their year but they have sought out obligations overlooked by the previous magistrates and by sparing no one who had held back anything they have restored (these sums) to the city. They have cared also for the repair of the offerings in the temples. As they have brought these matters into good order, future strategoi also following their example may easily manage the common affairs. Considering then that it is not just to slight such officials, so that those subsequently appointed may try to preside properly over the demos, we have ourselves determined to crown them at the Panathenaia and we thought it best to write you about them, so that in the intervening time you might consider the matter and honor them as you think they deserve. Farewell.


The demos decided; Archestratos son of Hermippos spoke: Whereas the strategoi appointed by Eumenes - Palamandros, Skymnos, Metrodoros, Theotimos, Philiskos - have conducted their office well, be it resolved by the demos: to praise Eumenes on account of the fact that on every occasion he takes thought for what is good for the demos and honors and crowns those of the citizens who join him in contributing to these things, wishing to make the magistrates appointed more eager to take thought for sacred and civic affairs. And in order that the demos may be clear in its support for Eumenes with regard to these men, be it resolved by the demos: to crown them at the Panathenaia with a gold crown on account of their virtue and their good-will toward Eumenes and the demos; and let the treasurers appointed for a year always give them a sheep at the Eumeneia, and let them take it and sacrifice it to Eumenes Euergetes, in order that the demos may be clear to all in its gratitude. (Resolved also) to have the letter from Eumenes and the decree inscribed on a stone stele and set up in the agora, and for the treasurers in office during the priesthood of Arkeon to provide the expense for the stele and the inscription.