GREEK HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS:
THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD
GREEK HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS:
THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD
By Roger S. Bagnall and Peter Derow
GREEK HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS:
THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD
Roger S. Bagnall and Peter Derow
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Bagnall, Roger S.
Greek historical documents.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
1. Greece -History -Macedonian Hegemony, 323
281 B.C.-Sources. 2. Greece -History - 281 B.C.–146
B.C. -Sources. 1. Derow, Peter. II. Title. III. Series.
DF235.AIB33 938'.08 81–5604
ISBN 0–89130–496–7 (pbk.) AACR2
To the memory of
C. BRADFORD WELLES
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
This volume contains both inscriptions and papyri from the period from the death of Philip II of Macedon in 336 to the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty in 30 B.C. The book does not, unlike its predecessors in the series, contain any literary texts. We regret this all the more in that many of the texts important for the parts of the Hellenistic period where no connected ancient narrative exists are fragmentary and inaccessible to most undergraduates. But the book is already much longer than its companions and we have thought it more important to present the documents.
The volume is intended for use either independently or as a companion for C. Bradford Welles, Alexander and the Hellenistic World (Toronto: Hakkert 1970). The present volume largely follows the organization of Welles and includes most of the papyri and inscriptions mentioned by him. The papyri have been prepared by Bagnall and the inscriptions by Derow, although we have each examined the other's section.
The choice of papyri began with a list made by Alan E. Samuel at a time when he hoped to collaborate on this volume himself. When other commitments prevented the realization of this plan, he turned his preliminary collection over to Bagnall, and it has been helpful at many points. Most of the work on the papyri was done during 1972–1974 when Bagnall was in Tallahassee; he owes some useful suggestions to students in his Hellenistic history class there who used the first draft. He was able to remedy many of the deficiencies of the Florida State University Library with funds from a grant from the university's Council on Faculty Research Support, and for this he remains grateful.
The portion of the manuscript concerning papyri was read by Elsa Peterson Gibson, whose comments improved accuracy, intelligibility, and style throughout.
The work on the inscriptions was carried out largely in Toronto between 1973 and 1975 and finished at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where Derow is extremely grateful to have been invited to spend spring 1976 as a member of the School of Historical Studies. The selection was influenced partly by the desire to include the inscriptions cited by Welles along with many of those frequently referred to in the standard histories (in English) of the Hellenistic Period and partly also by the desire to provide documents Particularly from those periods where nonepigraphical evidence is relatively scarce or fragmentary. To the Office of Research Administration of the University of Toronto Derow would like to express his thanks for two grants-in-aid which helped to facilitate this undertaking, as he would also to Michael M. Sage for bibliographical assistance at an early stage of the project. Many improvements in the inscriptions were effected by Professor M.B. Wallace, who kindly agreed to check the translations.
It can hardly be hoped that further errors have not escaped us in a work of this sort, and we shall be especially thankful to readers who send us corrections and suggestions for an eventual new edition.
This book owes much, directly and indirectly, to the scholarship and wisdom of C. Bradford Welles, our teacher at Yale and Princeton. The tradition of attention to documents which he inherited from Michael Rostovtzeff led him in turn to instill into his students a profound respect for even the humblest of first-hand testimony from the ancient world. This volume is offered to his memory in the hope that through it more students may be able to approach the Hellenistic world directly and to sense the fascination of its remains.
March, 1976 Roger S. Bagnall
Department of Greek and Latin
Department of Classics
University College, Toronto
When circumstances prevented the realization of the original plan of publication by Samuel, Stevens Publishers of Toronto, the Society of Biblical Literature very kindly agreed to take over the volume in their series of 'Sources for Biblical Study.' We are grateful to Professor Charles E. Carlston, the editor, and to the staff of Scholars Press for their care in the final stages of preparation. Except for a few references, the book reflects the state of the manuscript in spring, 1976.
Table of Documents xi
Editorial Practice and Abbreviations xvii
The Texts 1
Appendix: Ptolemaic Administration 253
Tables and Charts 257
I. Ptolemaic Kings 257
II. Seleucid Kings to 96 B.C. 257
III. Antigonid Kings 257
IV. Attalid Rulers 258
V. Months 258
VI. Currency 258
Glossary and Index of Greek Terms 259
Concordance: Inscriptions 263
Concordance: Papyri 265
Index of Persons, Places and Subjects 268
Table of Documents
I. Political History
A. Alexander the Great (336–323)
1. Priene Honors Antigonus—334
2. Letter of Alexander to the Chians—332
3. Cyrene Supplies Grain to the Greeks—330–326
4. Restoration of Exiles to Tegea—324
5. Restoration of Exiles to Mytilene—324
B. The Successors of Alexander (323–276)
6. Antigonus and Skepsis—311
7. Two Letters of Antigonus to Teos—306–302
8. The Hellenic League of 302
9. Ephesos Recovers from War—after 297
10. The Ionian League Honors Hippostratos of Miletos—289/8
11. Lysimachus and Priene—ca. 285 (?)
12. Letter of Lysimachus to Samos—283/2
13. Athens Honors Philippides—283/2
14. Knidian Loans to Miletos—283/2
15. Letter of Seleucus I and his son to an Official—281
16. Ilion and Antiochus I—279–274
17. Kos Gives Thanks for Defeat of the Gauls—278
C. The Period of Stability (276–221)
18. Gift of Land by Antiochus I—ca. 275
19. Chremonides’ Decree—265/4
20. Antiochus I and the Ionian League—268–262
21. Ptolemy II and Miletos—ca. 262
22. Letter of Antiochus II to Erythrai—after 261
23. Eumenes I and his Mercenaries—263–241
24. Berenike's Journey to Syria—252
25. Correspondence about a Sale of Land by Antiochus II—254/3
26. Ptolemy III Euergetes: the Adoulis Inscription—ca. 246
27. Report on the Third Syrian War—ca. 246
28. Delphi, Smyrna, and Seleucus II—242 (?)
29. Magnesia, Smyrna, and Seleucus II—after 242
30. Decree of the Achaean League—ca. 234
D. The Period of Roman Intervention (221–189)
31. Philip V and Larisa—215
32. Alliance Between Rome and Aetolia—211
32A. Enslavement During a Native Revolt—197 (C.Ptol.Sklav. 9)
33. Lampsakos, Massilia and Rome—197/6
34. Letter of Flamininus to Chyretiai—197–194
35. Statue of Flamininus at Gytheion—195
36. Eumenes II and the War Against Nabis—195
37. M. Valerius Messalla Writes to the Teans—193
38. The Scipios Write to Herakleia-by-Latmos—190
39. Letter of C. Livius Salinator to Delphi—189/8
E. The Struggle for the Survival of Hellenism (189–30)
40. Senatus Consulturn about Thisbe—170
40A. Dispatch From the Front in the Civil War of 169/8—ca. 169/8 (P.Köln IV 186)
41. Eumenes II and the Ionian League—167/6
42. Eumenes II, Attalus II and the Gauls—163–ca. 156
43. Will of Ptolemy the Younger—155
44. Letter from Esthladas to his Parents—130
45. Decree of Amnesty and Regulation—118
46. Letter of Q. Fabius Maximus to Dyme—115 (?)
47. Letter of King Antiochus to King Ptolemy—late second century
48. Decree for Diophantos, Strategos of King Mithridates VI—ca. 107
49. Chaeremon of Nysa, Mithridates and Rome—88 and following
50. Correspondence of Platon—88
51. Cn. Pompeius Magnus—ca. 67
52. Report on Disturbance in the Country—prob. 58
52A. An Alexandrian View of Rabirius Postumus—after 55-54 (SB XXII 15203)
52B. Cleopatra’s Golden Handcuffs for a Roman General—33 (P.Bingen 45)
II. The Foreign Possessions of the Ptolemies
53. Ordinances about Registration—260
54. Letters of Toubias—257
55. Letter of Apollonios about Grain—261
56. Memorandum to Zenon—258/7
57. Affairs in Kalynda—248
58. Visit of a Roman Senator—112
III. Life in Greek Cities
59. Isopolity between Pergamon and Temnos—early third century
60. Praxikles' Loan to Arkesine—IV/III
61. The Delians Honor Philokles, King of Sidon—ca. 280
62. Athens Honors Herakleides of Cyprian Salamis—325/4
63. A Samian Grain Law—second century
64. Decree for Boulagoras of Samos—ca. 240
65. Polythroos Provides for Education at Teos—second century
66. Ilion Honors Physician of Antiochus I—275–268/7
67. Eumenes I and Pergamon—ca. 260–245
IV. The Bureaucracy of Ptolemaic Egypt
68. Appointment of a Komogrammateus—119
69. Oath of Office—246–222
70. Letter of Marres to Menches—ca. 119 or 114
71. Account of a Postal Station—ca. 255
72. Announcement of a Government Auction—ca. 223
73. Avoiding a Liturgy—257
74. Letter to Zenon from Kaunians Seeking Help—257
75. Letter to Zenon about Petitioner—249
76. Zenon Petitions the King—ca. 246–240
77. Petition about Assessment—254–253
77A. The Bureaucrats Open a Sluice-Gate—232 (P.Köln VIII 342)
77B. Official Correspondence: Don’t Move the Hives; Send Calves—226
(P.Heid. VI 362)
78. Declaration of House-property—210–183
79. Letter about Collection of Taxes—228
80. Letter about Protection of Tax-farmer—117
80A. A Komarch’s Extortion Racket—151 (SB XX 15708)
81. Receipt for Medical and Police Tax—231
82. Letter to Zenon about Wax—253
83. Tax-Farmer's Petition for Relief— 236
V. The Royal Economy of Egypt
84. Letter to Apollonios about Reminting Coins—258
85. Instructions of the Dioiketes to an Oikonomos—late third century
85A. Hard and Soft Stone for Irrigation Works—256 (SB XVIII 13881)
86. Plans for Reclamation Work—259
87. The Sowing Schedule—232
88. Receipt for Seed Grain—261
89. Flooding of a Field—218
90. Loss of Water Supply—112/1
91. Protection of the Crops—113
92. Order for Delivery of Grain—265
93. Receipt for Embarkation of Grain—251
94. Lease of a Vineyard—170
95. Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Philadelphos—259
96. Assault on Oil Contractor—114
97. Overcharging for Oil—242
98. Regulating the Price of Myrrh—111
VI. The Military and Police of Ptolemaic Egypt
99. Reimbursement of Naval Expenses—257
100. Letter of Apollonios about Wood for the Navy—250
101. Pay for Elephant-hunters—223
102. Complaint about Owner of Lodging—244/3
103. Royal Ordinances—ca. 240
103A. The Allotment of the Orphan Son of a Military Man—142 (SB XVI 12720)
VII. The Ptolemaic Legal and Judicial System
104. City Laws of Alexandria—mid third century
104A. Regulations about Self-Identification in Contracts—late 3rd cent. (BGU XIV 2367)
105. Petition about Usury and Detention—245/4
106. Letter from a Man in Jail—mid third century
106A. Sent to Break Rocks for Representing a Woman Illegally—241/0 (?)
107. Contract for Sureties—263
108. Decree about a Surety—237
109. Report on an Investigation—114
110. Trial of Hermias and the Choachytai—117
111. Action before the Chrematistai—154 or 143
111A. Getting Help to Collect a Debt—2nd century (P.Münch. III 52)
112. Problems with a Brewery—254
VIII. Social Relations and Private Life
113. Bilingualism— third century
114. Complaint by a non-Greek about Contemptuous Treatment—ca. 256–255
115. Petition about an Assault—161
116. Learning Egyptian—second century
117. Scalding in the Baths—221
118. Ordinance about Slave Sales—ca. 198–197
119. Procedural Laws about Slaves—third century
120. Sale of a Slave Girl—259
121. Offer of Reward for Escaped Slaves—156
122. Marriage Contract—311
123. Request for a Guardian—218
124A. A Military Settler’s Will—238/7 (P.Petr. 2nd ed. I 13)
124B. A Greek Will in an Egyptian Milieu—123 (SB XVIII 13168)
125. Preparations for a Festival—ca. 245
125A. A Dancer Hires a Flutist—231 (CPR XVIII 1)
126. Ungrateful Daughter—221
A. Greek Sanctuaries and Cities
127. Magnesia on-the-Maeander and Artemis Leukophryene— after 208/7
128. Royal Letters to Magnesia on-the-Maeander—ca. 205
129. Letter of Kings Theodoros and Amynander to Teos 205–201
130. Accounts and Inventories of the Temple of Apollo on Delos—179
131. Establishment of a Royal Cult of Laodike—193
132. Antiochus III Appoints a Chief-Priest at Daphne—189
B. Cults in Ptolemaic Egypt
133. Decree about Dionysiac Artists—ca. 215–205
133A. Returning Home for the Festival—230 (?) (SB XX 14699)
134. The Synodos of Zeus Hypsistos—ca. 69–58
135. Release on the King's Birthday—254
136. The Canopus Decree—238
137. The Rosetta Stone—196
138. Royal Letter Guaranteeing Temple Revenues—139
138A. Petition about Sacred Land—ca. 62-50 (BGU XIV 2375)
139. Burial Preparations for Sacred Cow—257
140. Sale of Priestly Rights—106
141. Grave Robbers—127/6
142–144. Ptolemaios the Katochos of the Serapeum
142. Petition about Paternal House—160
143. Petition on behalf of his Brother—158/7
144. Letter from Wife to Husband—168
145. Transport of a Body—first century
146. Antisemites in Memphis—early first century
A Note on Editorial Practice and Abbreviations
Each document is given a brief introduction, which seeks only to provide a context; any detailed discussion is impossible here. The notes at the end are intended to justify our translation in cases where it relies on a text different from that cited as a source and to explain possibly obscure points not covered in the introduction or in the glossary. The bibliographical notes included with some documents suggest only some works that we have found helpful.
Within the texts, square brackets, ([,]) indicate places in which the damaged original has been restored, while parentheses indicate editorial insertions for the sake of clarity or give the probable sense of an unrestored passage. We have indicated small lacunae for which no restoration is offered by dots ( ... ), longer ones by dashes ( - ). It should be said that in the case of papyri where a usable English translation already existed we have used it with whatever alterations were needed rather than make an entirely new version. In the case of inscriptions, the versions in Welles' Royal Correspondence have been taken over with some changes; for the rest, although English (and other) translations were consulted where available, it seemed on the whole desirable to make new translations. These, it should be said, aim more at being fairly literal than at anything else. The technical and formulaic nature of many official texts makes it difficult to suggest good alternatives to some phrasings.
Names have been transliterated for the most part in a literal Greek-English system. A few well-known people (especially royalty) and places have been given in the traditional Latinized or Anglicized forms. Ptolemy is used for kings and their family, Ptolemaios for commoners. All dates are B.C. unless otherwise noted.
Papyri are cited according to the system described in J. F. Oates et al., Checklist of Editions of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets, 5th ed. (Oakville, Conn. 2001). The collections of inscriptions cited are the following:
Asylieurkunden = G. Klaffenbach, Asylieurkunden aus Kos (Abh.Akad.Wiss.Berlin 1952).
Erythrai = H. Engelmann, R. Merkelbach, Die Inschriften von Erythrai und Klazomenai I-II (Bonn 1972, 1973).
I.Délos = Inscriptions de Délos (Paris 1926–).
IPEP = B. Latyschev, Inscriptiones Antiquae Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini Graecae et Latinae I, 2nd ed. (Petropolis 1916).
Ilion = P. Frisch, Die Inschriften von Ilion (Bonn 1975).
Milet I 3 = A. Rehm, G. Kawerau, Das Delphinion in Milet (Berlin 1914).
Moretti = L. Moretti, Iscrizioni Storiche Ellenistiche I (Firenze 1967).
OGIS = W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graecae Inscriptiones Selectae (Leipzig 1903–05).
Priene = F. Frhr. Hiller von Gaertringen, Inschriften von Priene (Berlin 1906).
RC = C.B. Welles, Royal Correspondence in the Hellenistic Period (New Haven 1934).
RDGE = R. K. Sherk, Roman Documents from the Greek East (Baltimore 1969).
SEG = Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum (Leiden 1923–71, Amsterdam ).
Staatsverträge = Die Staatsverträge des Altertums, vol. III, ed. H.H. Schmitt (München 1969).
Syll. I = W. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, 3rd ed. (Leipzig 1915–24).
Tod, GHI = M.N. Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions II (Oxford 1948).
Some corrections to papyri are cited from their listing in:
BL = F. Preisigke et al., Berichtigungsliste der griechischen Papyrusurkunden (1915–).