Dr. Ambedkar's Courses at Columbia


Economics s112 Money and Banking C. D. Agger
Will give the student a knowledge of the evolution, history and theory of money and banking with special emphasis on the experience and needs of the United States. Special reports on selected topics will be required from all the members of the class.
Economics s120 Corporation Finance Benjamin M. Anderson, Jr.
A study of the financial operations of corporations, covering methods of raising capital, stock watering and its control, the creation and investment of a surplus, sinking funds, the dividend policy and the types of securities with reference to their market value.
Sociology s102
Principles of Sociology, Historical
Franklin Henry Giddings
The main outlines of historical sociology are so presented as to constitute an introduction to the study of social evolution and the theory of progress.


Economics 101 Science of Finance Edwin R. A. Seligman
Historical, as well as comparative and critical. General introduction and history of science of finance. Different kinds of public revenues, including public domain and public property, public works and industrial undertakings, fees and special assessments. General theories and principles of taxation, incidence of taxation and newer social theories of taxation.
Economics 102
Science of Finance
Edwin R. A. Seligman
Application of general principles to consideration of actual systems of taxation. Practical American problems of federal, state and local taxation, and their inter-relations. Classes of public expenditure and fiscal principles which govern them. Public debt, methods of borrowing, redemption, refunding, repudiation, etc. Fiscal organization of state by which revenue is collected and expended. Budget, national, state and local.
Economics 125 The Economic Problems of Germany Karl F. Th. Rathgen
In this course the Kaiser Wilhelm Professor for 1913-1914 will discuss the German economic problems that he deems most interesting to American students.
Economics 201 Econ. Readings: Classical English Economists Henry Rogers Seager
Principal theories of English economists from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill. Lectures, assigned readings and reports, and discussions. Wealth of Nations, Malthus's Essay on Population, bullion controversy of 1810, corn law controversy of 1815, and treatises on Political Economy of Ricardo, Senior, and John Stuart Mill.
Economics 207 Principles and Methods of Statistics Robert Emmet Chaddock
Elementary principles of statistics and application. Study of how to gather, present and interpret statistical data. Averages, index-numbers, measures of variation from average, and principles of graphic method. Applidation of principles is required through laboratory exercises, and effort is made to acquaint student with best sources of information.
Economics 210 Social Statistics Robert Emmet Chaddock
Presupposes knowledge of elementary principles and processes. Social statistics, beginning with study of vital statistics and population in light of data afforded by official publications and special investigations and extending discussion into special social and economic problems. Laboratory exercises designed to apply principles and methods, and to render students familiar with sources of information.
Economics 204 History of Economics since Adam Smith Edwin R. A. Seligman
Chief writers discussed: (1) English Classical School; (2) Early British Socialists; (3) Continental Development to 1870; (4) Early American Writers; (5) German Historical School; (6) Socialists; (7) Austrian School; (8) Leading Contemporary Economists.
Sociology 151 Principles of Sociology--Analytical Alvan A. Tenney
Analysis of environmental and psychological factors which condition social organization. Examination of direct and indirect influences of climate, topography and natural resources upon society. Theoretical and practical significance of sympathy, interest, suggestion, imitation, invention, tradition, ideals and leadership, for rational control of social organization and attainment of social progress.
Sociology 256 Social Statistics Robert Emmet Chaddock
[A different rubric for Economics 210, "Social Statistics."]
Economics 205 Economic Theory John B. Clark
Lectures on "Conditions of Economic Progress" will discuss types of competition, phases of monopoly and different plans for dealing with it--all with special reference to progression in industry. They presuppose acquaintance with his Essentials of Economic Theory and The Distribution of Wealth.
Economics 206
Economic Theory Benjamin M. Anderson, Jr Lectures on "The Theory of Value" will begin with study of value problem, and then treat, in light of conclusions reached, certain related theoretical problems and concepts, such as capital and income, theory of money, and some aspects of distribution.
Economics 106 The Trust & Corporation Problem Henry Rogers Seager
Trust problem as presented in United States. Rise and progress of industrial combinations, forms of organization and policies of typical combinations, common law and trusts, anti-trust acts and their results, and other proposed solutions of problem.
Economics 114 Marx & Post-Marxian Socialism Vladimir G. Simkhovitch
Detailed analysis of Marxian theories as well as politivsl history of their rise and fall in continental Europe. Revisionist movement in Germany; role of revolutionary socialism in Russia; Syndicalism in France and Italy, and Anglo-American Socialism.
Economics 104 Commerce & Commercial Policy Henry R. Mussey
Conditions of modern commerce, foreign trade of principal countries, especially United States, in relation to natural resources, increase of population, changes in industrial methods and organization, and distribution of wealth. Causes and effects of modern commercial policies; economic and social conditions of chief importance for determination of trade policy in United States at present.
Economics 303-304 Seminar in Political Economy & Finance Vladimir G. Simkhovitch and Henry R. Mussey
[No catalogue description offered.]
Sociology 258 The Theory of Social Evolution Franklin Henry Giddings
Aspects of social evolution; growth; complexity; control; types; metamorphoses; theory of society; theory of grouping; theory of solidarity; theory of organization; theory of progress.
History 226 The Protestant Revolt James Robinson
Consideration of origin, character and effects of Protestant Revolt, rather than history of Europe during period of the Reformation.


Economics s205
Value and Distribution
Alvin S. Johnson
A critical study of recent tendencies in economic theory. The basis of the course will be an analysis of the utility theory of value, as formulated by Jevons, Nieser and Bohm-Bawerk, and the productivity theory of distribution, as formulated by Clark and Nieser. The premises and the logic of these theories will be examined in the light of the criticisms of the neo-Marxian and the social value theorists, and of the time-preference interest theorists.
Sociology s102
Principles of Inductive Sociology
Franklin Henry Giddings
The major principles of inductive sociology are so presented as to constitute an introduction to the more advanced study of social evolution and the theory of progress. Among required texts are Giddings' Principles of Sociology and Cooley's Social Organization.
Economics s125
The Classical Economists
Alvin S. Johnson
A survey of the development of economic theory from Hume and Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill and Cairnes. The primary object of the course is to give the student a thorough familiarity with the classical body of economic thought. Especial attention will be given to the conditions, political and social, under which the character of economic science was established.


Economics 105 The Labor Problem Henry Rogers Seager
Rise of factory system, labor legislation, growth of trade unions and changes in law in respect to them, policies of trade unions, strikes, lockouts, arbitration and conciliation, proposed solutions of labor problem, and future of labor in United States.
Economics 108 Railroad Problems--Economic, Social and Legal Edward R. A. Seligman
This course treats of railroads in the four-fold aspect of their relation to investors, employees, the public, and the state, respectively. History of railways and railway policy in America and Europe. Particular attention is paid to the theory and practice of railroad rates and to the methods of regulation in the United States. Students are advised to take as a preliminary Economics 183.
Economics 109 History of Socialism Vladimir G.  Simkhovitch
Outline of social movement during nineteenth century, and brief review of doctrines of leading French, English, and German exponents of socialism, such as Baboeuf, St. Simon, Fourier, Cabet, Proudhon, Louis Blanc, Robert Owen, Thompson, English Christian Socialists, German "philosophical" socialists, Lassalle, and Robertus. Chartism and revolutionary movement of 1848.
Economics 242 Radicalism and Social Reform as reflected in the Literature of the Nineteenth Century
Vladimir G. Simkhovitch
Interpretation of various types of modern radicalism, such as socialism, nihilism, and anarchism, and of social and economic conditions on which they are based.
History 103 History of India and of Persia A. V. W. Jackson
The early history and civilization of India and of Persia. Development with special reference to general historical position and present importance in relation to the West.
History 121 The History of the Intellectual Class in Europe: Part I
James Robinson
This course and History 122 follow changes in interests, opinions, and attitude of mind of intellectual classes from days of the Greek Sophists to our own. Antecedents of intellectual history; primitive reasoning. General range of Greek speculation, especially as transmitted to western Europe by Romans, will form background for estimate of Christian conception of man and world, as represented in Augustine's City of God. Origin of medieval universities. Revival of Aristotle and range of university teaching in thirteenth century.
History 122 The History of the Intellectual Class in Europe: Part II
James Robinson
Open only to those who have taken History 121. Follows slow decline of Scholasticism during fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; intellectual aspects of "Renaissance" and of Protestant Revolt; birth of modern scientific spirit with Lord Bacon and Descartes; Deism; French Philosophies; and, finally, novel elements in contemporaneous intellectual life.
History 228 The Reforms of the French Revolution David S. Muzzey
Does not deal primarily with political history but with great and permanent achievements of Revolution. Includes description of organization of French monarchy under Louis XVI; development of spirit of reform in Europe; "benevolent despotism"; progress of reform in France to completion of the constitution of 1795.
Economics 119 Economic History Vladimir G. Simkhovitch
A general survey of the leading points in the economic history of classical antiquity, of the middle ages, and of modern times.
Economics 211 Statistical Economics Henry L. Moore
Two full courses. Statistical economics proposes: (1) to bring to test of representative facts the hypotheses and theorems of pure economics; (2) to supply data in form of general facts and empirical laws for elaboration of dynamic economics.
Starting with recent economic theory in form in which presented by Clark, Marshall and Pareto, the course describes in detail those aspects of the theory that have already been tested statistically, and then seeks to indicate where the theory needs empirical verification and development, and how, by means of statistical methods, some of the problems of verification and development may be approached.
Economics 212
Statistical Economics
Henry L. Moore
See Economics 211 above.
Politics 107 Comparative Politics and Government Edward McChesney Sait
Two full courses. Comparison of system of government prevailing in England, France, Germany, and United States.
Politics 108 Comparative Politics and Government Edward McChesney Sait
See Politics 107 above.
Sociology 255 Social Evolution: Ethnic and Civil Origins Franklin Henry Giddings
The interests and achievements of mankind, considered as obtained by both individual and collective effort; the origins of social evolution, including the rise of concurrent action; ways of ameliorating the struggle for existence; the prehistoric evolution of society, including the collective struggle for vital conditions, for equipment, for effectiveness, for surplus and power; primitive social forms; ethnic groupings; the dawn of history.
Sociology 256
Social Evolution: Civilization, Liberty and Democracy
Franklin Henry Giddings
The evolution of historic civilizations; religious-military civilizations, particularly those of Babylonia and Egypt; the function of slavery; discipline and standardization; the creation of economic surplus; liberal-legal civilizations, particularly those of Greece and Rome; the achievement of liberty and individuality; the beginnings of voluntary association and of democratic experimentation.
Philosophy 231 Psychological Ethics & Moral & Political Philosophy John Dewey
It will consist of an analysis of conduct and character from the standpoint of social psychology. The formation through the influence of the social environment of biological impulses and wants into moral affections, beliefs and judgments, together with the genesis of the self as an agent will be considered. Typical Ethical theories (as the Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, Scholastic, Kantian, and Utilitarian) will be discussed so far as their psychological factors are concerned, the extra hours being given to this phase of the subject.
History 155 The Origins of European Society
James T. Shotwell
Deals with evolution of European society, with especial emphasis upon history of work and of common things of daily life. Begins with survey of prehistoric man, the stone, bronze, and early iron ages, rise of agriculture, ancient city states, commerce and slavery. Passes in review early German village life, feudalism, management of manorial estates, rise of European cities, emergence of capital and origins of national state.
History 156
Social and Industrial History of Modern England
James T. Shotwell
Begins with short survey of Commercial Revolution which changed centre of European society from Mediterranean to North. Treats of influx of gold and silver from America and the business aspects of modern politics. Industrial Revolution then taken up in detail, great inventions and rise of the factory system. Considers advent of industrial proletariat and includes survey of popular movements toward reform, social legislation, Trade Unions, Chartism and historical setting of Socialism.
Economics 301-302 Seminar in Political Economy & Finance Edwin R. A. Seligman and Henry Rogers Seager
History 226 Europe in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries James T. Shotwell
Research course open to specially qualified students.
Economics 208 Types of Economic Theory Wesley Clair Mitchell
A critical examination of the basic ideas of current economic theory; and analysis of economic problems to determine their constituent elements; and an effort to determine what type of economic theory is most serviceable for scientific and practical ends.


French sA1
Elementary Course
Albert M. Cohn-McMaster and P. de Bacourt
Intended for students who have no previous knowledge of French. The course will consist of a careful study of the essentials of French grammar, the translation into French of sentences illustrative of the elementary rules, and the reading of ordinary French prose. The reading will be taken up from the outset and attention will be paid to a correct pronunciation. Books: Aldrich and Foster, Foundations of French; Francois and Giroud, Simple French.
German sA1
Elementary Course
Harry V. E. Palmblad, F. W. Scholz, J. M. Gray
Intended to familiarize the student who has no previous knowledge of German with the common vocabulary and the fundamental grammatical facts of the language, so as to enable him to read easy German at sight. Reading forms part of the work from the beginning; grammar study, writing, and oral practice, in German, though all made use of, are regarded as means toward the attainment of reading ability. Text-books: Thomas, Practical German Grammar, 4th edition (Holt); Hervey, Supplementary Exercises to Thomas's Grammar, 4th edition (Holt).


History 169 The Expansion of Europe: First Phase
William Robert Shepherd
Rise of oversea dominion: early contact of Europe and Asia; commercial individualism and state-directed colonization; national mercantilism and colonization by chartered companies; development of systems and policies; methods of administration; social and industrial conditions; diffusion of commerce; transplantation of culture; reflex influence of expansion on European life and thought.
History 170
The Expansion of Europe: Second Phase
William Robert Shepherd
Europeanization of the world, and general problems involved in process: era of transition; progress toward world partition; age of imperialism; course of territorial enlargement; spread of population; effects on oversea dominions and their native inhabitants; question of racial superiority; present classification and distribution of colonies; government and administration; diffusion of European influence, with particular reference to Asia; principal changes wrought by expansion on European type of civilization today.
History 155
The Origins of European Society
James T. Shotwell
Deals with the evolution of European society, with especial emphasis upon history of work and of common things of daily life. Begins with survey of prehistoric man, the stone, bronze and early iron ages, rise of agriculture, ancient city states, commerce and slavery. Passes in review early German village life, feudalism, management of manorial estates, rise of European cities, emergence of capital and origins of national state.
History 223 Primitive Institutions in European History James T. Shotwell
Considers in detail some of the topics presented in History 155, and open only to students taking that course.
Philosophy 179 Present Day Philosophy and the  Problem of Evolution William Pepperell Montague
Two full courses. For 1915-16 the subjects will be the evolutionary theories of materialistic naturalism and absolute idealism. The authors studied will be Haeckel, Huxley, Spencer and Santayana, representing Naturalism, and Schopenhauer, Eucken, Joachim, Bradley and Royce representing Idealism.
Philosophy 180
Present Day Philosophy and the  Problem of Evolution William Pepperell Montague
See Philosophy 179 above.
Anthropology 137 General Ethnology: Technology and Primitive Man.
Alexander A. Goldenweiser
A study of industries--pottery, weaving, basketry, wood-carving, work in skins, etc.; division of labor; industry and sex; industry and physical environment.
A study of designs, realistic and geometrical; conventionalization; symbolism; relation of art to industries; theories of evolution of art.
Anthropology 138
General Ethnology: Technology and Primitive Man. Alexander A. Goldenweiser
See Anthropology 137 above.
Anthropology 139 General Ethnology: Types of Primitive Religion and Mythology--Soc. Org. Alexander A. Goldenweiser
A study of animism, magic, taboo, totemism, ancestor-worship, animal and plant worship; myths; religion and social organization; theories of religions and evolution.
Anthropology 140
General Ethnology: Types of Primitive Religion and Social Organization Alexander A. Goldenweiser
See Anthropology 140 above.
Economics e183 Railway Transportation G. G. Huebner
A review of the growth of the railway network, present railway systems and railway consolidation; construction finance; railroad capitalization; an outline of the organization of the railway as a business enterprise; a description of freight, passenger and express services; the development of cooperation among railroads; railroad traffic and rates, including a discussion of the nature and source of traffic, rate-making practice and theory, rate structures and the movement of freight rates and fares; the public regulation of railways by the federal and state governments and courts. The term will close with a comparative review of railway transportation in the leading foreign countries.
Philosophy 131 Moral and Political Philosophy John Dewey
Two full courses. The first half-year will consider the moral problems of the national state in relation to the individual on one hand and to general social relations, including international forms of association on the other.
The second half-year will consider the moral problems connected with law.
Philosophy 132
Moral and Political Philosophy John Dewey
See Philosophy 131 above.
Politics 214 The Principles of Politics Charles A. Beard
A study of leading doctrines and problems of modern politics in the light of their historical origins.

Source of transcript: Office of the Registrar, Columbia University. The list of courses was originally transcribed by FWP from a very dark and blurry xerox of his transcript, on which grades had been redacted.

Source of course information: Columbia University Graduate Faculties. Columbia University Bulletin of Information Division of Philosophy, Psychology, and Anthropology Announcement 1913-1914, 1914-1915, 1915-1916 (New York: Columbia University, 1913-1916). Research by Rohini Shukla (Sept. 2018-Feb. 2019) has provided the professors' names and the catalogue descriptions.

A note on how disciplines were organized at Columbia University in the 1910's:

Prior to 1957, all graduate studies at CU were organized into three faculties: Political Science, Pure Science, and Philosophy. The faculty of Political Science included economics, history, mathematical statistics, public law and government, sociology, and anthropology. The faculty of Pure Science included astronomy, botany, geology, geography, mineralogy, mathematics, physics, zoology, and psychology. The faculty of Philosophy included classical philology, English and comparative literature, linguistics, philosophy, religion, and language study (Chinese, Germanic, Indo-Aryan, Japanese, romance, Semitic, and Slavic languages). In 1946, psychology moved from the faculty of Philosophy to Pure Science. Anthropology, too, moved from the faculty of Philosophy to Political Science. Dr. Ambedkar studied at CU before ‘mother’ philosophy was abandoned by her ‘children,’ so to say. The 1910s were therefore years of relative inter-disciplinarity. See:  https://guides.library.columbia.edu/uarchives/gsas

--Rohini Shukla, January 2019

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