===
1289,
5
===

 

{1289,5}

chiraa;Gaan-e gul se hai kyaa raushnii
gulistaa;N kisuu kii qadam-gaah hai

1) from the lamps of the roses, what light/radiance is there?!
2) the garden is someone's 'footstep-place'

 

Notes:

raushnii : 'Light, brightness, splendour; illumination; brightness or clearness (of vision), sight (of the eye)'. (Platts p.606)

S. R. Faruqi:

Seeing this verse, Ghalib's verse necessarily comes to mind:

G{158,5}.

Undoubtedly Ghalib's verse, because of its flowingness, insha'iyah structure, and glitter of metaphor, is peerless. And although Mir's verse is a masterpiece of its age, in the presence of Ghalib's verse its lamp seems to burn a little dimly. Then, there's Bedil's extremely beautiful [Persian] verse:

'Wherever you pass by, there's a peacock's tail.
How colorful your footprint becomes!'

So was it necessary to bring Mir's verse before these two? One reason is that in Mir's verse the word qadam-gaah is very fresh. It recalls the qadam-gaah-e aadam , which according to the [dictionary] bahaar-e ((ajam refers to the island of Sarandip, where Adam came down from Paradise and, thanks to the blessing of his footsteps, created rubies in its earth. The way because of redness the rose is given the simile of a lamp, in the same way because of redness rubies and garnets too are given the simile of a lamp (for example, the [magical] 'night-illumining ruby' [la((l-e shab-chiraa;G]). Thus between qadam-gaah and chiraa;G , by way of qadam-gaah-e aadam , there's the pleasure of an affinity.

Then, in Mir's verse there are several meanings: (1) In the garden, is this light from lamps because of roses? No; rather, the garden is someone's qadam-gaah , and these are the marks of someone's footsteps, which spread their light everywhere. (2) Because of the lamps of the roses, what splendid light there is in the garden! And why should there not be-- after all, the garden is someone's qadam-gaah ; this light is to welcome and honor that person. (3) Is this light because of the lamps of the roses? Yes indeed-- and because the lamps are there, the garden is someone's qadam-gaah . (4) As if there would be any light from the lamps of the roses! The truth is that the garden is someone's qadam-gaah ; for this reason there's so much light.

One meaning of qadam-gaah is 'the necessary place' [=toilet]. If Tabataba'i had been here [as a commentator], he would at once have put forward an objection to the distasteful aspect. But the idea of the distasteful aspect simply wasn't there in Mir's time. Sauda's ghazals too have a number of verses that according to today's taste are so distasteful that they're not fit to be recited in any gathering. I have briefly discussed this 'distasteful aspect' [pahluu-e ;zam] in ((aruu.z , aahang , aur bayaan and tafhiim-e ;Gaalib . It should be kept in mind that by 'distasteful aspect' is meant that the poet himself would have no intention of composing anything distasteful or obscene, but that due to the constraints of expression, or through ignorance or inattentiveness, a text would be created in which there would be an obscene or 'objectionable' meaning. Where the poet deliberately says something obscene (for example, in a satire) the concept of a 'distasteful aspect' doesn't apply; rather, we can even say that the very excellence of a satirical text is that in it there would be many obscene meanings.

FWP:

SETS == A,B; GROTESQUERIE; KYA
MOTIFS
NAMES
TERMS == SATIRE

The richness of this simple and pleasant little verse depend, like that of so many others, on the 'kya' in one line, combined with an 'A,B' relationship of the lines. Thus the 'kya' in the first line offers us various choices, and the relationship of the lines can easily be adjusted so that the second line becomes perfectly responsive:

= What light comes from the lamps of the roses! (an admiring exclamation)

Line 2: The garden is someone's qadam-gaah -- for this reason the garden is especially glorious.

= As if the light comes from the lamps of the roses! (an indignant rejection of the idea)

Line 2: The garden is someone's qadam-gaah -- so the light is from some other, special source instead.

= Does the light come from the lamps of the roses? (an inquiry)

Line 2: The garden is someone's qadam-gaah -- this is what explains the light.

= What kind of light comes from the lamps of the roses?

Line 2: The garden is someone's qadam-gaah -- perhaps that's why the light is so extraordinary.