mai;N be-dimaa;G-e ((ishq u;Thaa so chalaa gayaa
bulbul pukaartii hii rahii gulsitaa;N ke biich

1) I, ill-tempered from/with passion, arose; thus I went away
2) the Nightingale kept only/emphatically calling, in the midst of the garden



be-dimaa;G : 'Ill-tempered, irritable, impatient, easily provoked'. (Platts p.202)

S. R. Faruqi:

The sixth divan is Mir's shortest divan, but in it he has expressed this theme three times. From the sixth divan [{1796,1}]:

bulbul kaa shor sun ke nah mujh se rahaa gayaa
mai;N be-dimaa;G baa;G se u;Th kar chalaa gayaa

[having heard the tumult of the Nightingale, I couldn't bear it
I, ill-tempered, rose from the garden and went away]

From the sixth divan [{1883,5}]:

u;Thaa jo baa;G se mai;N be-dimaa;G to nah phiraa
hazaar mur;G-e gulistaa;N mujhe pukaar rahe

[when I arose from the garden, ill-tempered, then I didn't turn back
a thousand birds of the garden kept calling to me]

From the sixth divan [in two successive verses from the same ghazal] [{1889,1} and {1889,2}]:

gul ne bahut kahaa kih chaman se nah jaa))iye
gul-gasht ko jo aa))iye aa;Nkho;N pah aa))iye

[the rose said many times, please don't go from the garden
if you'll come for a stroll, come 'on our eyes']

mai;N be-dimaa;G kar ke ta;Gaaful chalaa gayaa
vuh dil kahaa;N kih naaz kisuu ke u;Thaa))iye

[I, ill-tempered, paid no heed and went away
where is the heart to endure anybody's coquetry?]

It seems that along with his years, Mir's be-dimaa;Gii in truth did increase; otherwise in a brief divan he wouldn't have expressed this theme again and again. Or else in his infirmity his memory had become weak, and he didn't remember which themes he had already versified. It's true that Mir has repeated a number of themes, but it's also true that some themes he used in the first divan, and then after that he repeated them in the sixth divan; and some he used time after time.

It's probable that he would have done this deliberately. Especially in the sixth divan, the serial repetition of this one theme seems to be the result of intention, not perturbation or thoughtlessness. The proof of this theory is that Mir has also composed some very commonplace themes a number of times. This would seem to mean that for one reason or another some themes pleased him. In the case of the present verse, it remains possible that the increasing ill-temper of old age might have caused him to repeat this theme.

In any case, in the present verse the points of interest are greater than in the verses from the sixth divan. There are two meanings for bulbul pukaartii rahii : (1) the Nightingale kept calling to me; and (2) the Nightingale kept singing (the singing of the Nightingale is also called pukaarnaa ).

In the first line, after be-dimaa;G-e ((ishq , by omitting 'am' or 'was' he has created more flowingness in the line and more dramaticness in the situation. And since he has arisen from the garden and gone away, there's also the implication that for some reason or the other he had happened to come into the garden, and there for some time he listened to the melodies of the Nightingale. Then he grew bored, or he found the Nightingale's continuous singing distaseful, and he at once arose and left the garden. He has created all these ideas with the four words u;Thaa so chalaa gayaa .



The lover, irritable or even half-crazed from/with passion, leaves the garden; the Nightingale stays and keeps 'calling' or singing. There's an explicit, full-strength opposition here-- but between what aspects of the two agents' behavior? As usual, it's left up to us to figure out why and how this opposition might be significant (or even fascinating). Here are some possibilities:

=The lover, ill-tempered and half-mad because of his wild passion, can't enjoy the beautiful garden and the Nightingale's melancholy but lovely melody (or perhaps hardly even notices them); he needs to go and wander restlessly in the desert, so he simply 'gets up and goes' without even a moment's hesitation.

=The lover has a wilder, more impatient passion than does the Nightingale, for while the Nightingale can actually sit still for long periods 'in the midst of the garden' and merely sing, the lover is too agitated even to listen to his song, and restlessly abandons the garden.

=The lover's departure symbolically empties and devalues the whole garden; thus the Nightingale, his colleague in passion, keeps calling out to him, vainly begging him not to go (just as the roses suffer when the beloved leaves the garden).

=The lover is ill-tempered not 'from' passion, but 'with' passion. He's sick of passion, he's had enough, so in disaffection and disgust he leaves the garden, the archetypal place for passion, and the Nightingale, the archetypal emblem of it. This reading takes advantage of the excellent versatility of the izafat.