:zulm hu))e hai;N kyaa kyaa ham par .sabr kiyaa hai kyaa kyaa ham
aan lage hai;N gor kinaare us kii galii me;N jaa jaa ham

1) what-all tyrannies have happened to us, what-all patience/endurance we have shown!
2) the edges of the grave have come before us, having gone again and again into her street



S. R. Faruqi:

The opening-verse is by way of introduction. But in the second line the wordplay of aan lage and jaa jaa is fine.

In the whole ghazal, the pleasure of the doubled rhyme [dohare qaafiyah] too is excellent.



Really, the 'doubled rhyme' is neat! I hardly know how to show it in my first-line index, it's so unusual and clever.

Right on the shelves beside me I have ba;hr ul-fa.saa;hat (in two editions) and other handbooks of poetics, and I could try to discover a technical Arabic name for the practice. But alas, I can't even muster the curiosity to investigate the question. I've been inventing my own analytical devices and my own terms-- at first because I found that I had to, and now because I find that they usually help to get the job done. The technical vocabulary and interests of the poetic handbooks are rarely very helpful for the kind of work that I've set myself to do. (This also means that I'm leaving a very large terrain open for you future dissertation-writers!)

SRF too is a largely uncanonical commentator-- one of his favorite qualities in Mir, after all, is the unabashedly English-derived ;Draamaa))ii . But he of course has a much solider grounding in traditional theory (even though in practice he doesn't make that much use of it), and of course he is incomparably more widely read. And I notice that in this case he doesn't have anything special and technical to say about the 'doubled rhyme' either.

Note for translation fans: I couldn't resist using 'what-all' (since I'm a bit of an Arkansan anyway) to convey the otherwise uncapturable plural-ness of the kyaa kyaa usages.