chalte ho to chaman ko chalye kahte hai;N kih bahaaraa;N hai
paat hare hai;N phuul khile hai;N kam kam baad-o-baaraa;N hai

1) if you're going out, then go to the garden-- they say that it's springtime
2) leaves are green, flowers have bloomed, wind and rain are {very little / gradual}



S. R. Faruqi:

For discussion of kam kam , see


The sentence paat hare hai;N too is interesting, and shows Mir's inclination toward Prakritic forms. Otherwise, barg hare hai;N or patte hare hai;N would also have fitted the meter. [Further linguistic discussion.] With regard to pronunciation and tone the Urdu word patte is closer to Prakrit, and the Braj/Avadhi word paat is farther from it, and is comparatively easier to use.

Ghalib's approach is that rather than Prakrit he adopts Persian words; and among Urdu-Persian words he adopts those words less used in Urdu:


This verse of Ghalib's is a good example of this tendency. Here, there would have been no harm in saying qar.z instead of daam , and magar instead of vale . But Ghalib unconsciously (or perhaps consciously) gave preference to daam and vale . In contrast to Ghalib, Mir has no special preferences, but if he leans in any direction then it's toward non-Persian words, and toward the kind of words that would be easy to use in the atmosphere of the verse.

Now let's consider the aspects of meaning. As in many of Mir's verses, in this one too the addressee is ambiguous. The addressee of this verse can be the speaker himself, or can be some friend or sympathizer. In both cases, the speaker is not fully informed about the external world. In kahte hai;N there's the implication both of ignorance, and thus of being confined within a room. Or if the speaker is not confined within a room, then some other cause (for example, sickness or debility) prevents him from going out. In any case the verse certainly has a 'wistfulness'-- that there must be such a good scene outside now, if only the speaker too could go out and enjoy it!

Or if this is not the case, and the speaker is free to go out, then his innocence and simplicity, and his inclination toward the scenes of nature, and his way of considering a small bit of happiness to be large, are interesting. A very light rain falling, a season made colorful by fresh moist flowers and leaves-- to him, this is the best means of enjoyment, because he mentions it with extreme ardor and emotion.

It's possible that an opening-verse of Sa'ib's [in Persian] might have inspired Mir:

'Spring has come, and people go to the garden,
The madmen go to the foothills of the mountains.'

In Sa'ib's verse, the comparison and contrast of ;xalq (ordinary people) and diivaanagaan (madmen) is fine. But in his verse the depiction of the spring scene lacks the gladness that's in Mir's verse. And his verse doesn't have the style of taking a gentle/steady pleasure in the rains and the springtime that is in Nazir's verses:

hai;N is havaa me;N kyaa kyaa barsaat kii bahaare;N
sabzo;N kii lahlahaava;T baa;Gaat kii bahaare;N
buu;Ndo;N kii jhamjhamaaha;T qa:traat kii bahaare;N
har baat ke tamaashe har ghaat kii bahaare;N
-- kyaa kyaa machii hai;N yaaro;N barsaat kii bahaare;N

[in this air, what-all springtimes of the rainy season there are
waving/blooming of greenery, springtimes of gardens
sparkling of raindrops, springtimes of drops,
spectacles of everything, springtimes of every riverbank
-- how the springtimes of the rainy season, oh friends, have been stirred up!]

yih rut vuh hai kih jis me;N ;xurd-o-kabiir ;xvush hai;N
adn;aa ;Gariib muflis shaah-o-vaziir ;xvush hai;N
ma((shuuq shaad-o-;xurram ((aashiq asiir ;xvush hai;N
jitne hai;N ab jahaa;N me;N sab ay na:ziir ;xvush hai;N
-- kyaa kyaa machii hai;N yaaro;N barsaat kii bahaare;N

[this season is the one in which small and great are happy
the lowly, wretched, poor; the King and Minister, are happy
the beloved is glad and joyous; the lover in bondage is happy
however many there are now in the world, all, oh Nazir, are happy
-- how the springtimes of the rainy season, oh friends, have been stirred up!]

It's clear that Nazir's speaker is an 'extravert' and a sociable person, and he looks at the world from this (externally apparent) perspective. Mir's speaker has an inward perspective, and he has no interest in the abundance/extravagance of the 'extravert'-- to the extent that instead of speaking of the intense gusts and blows of rain and wind, he speaks of kam kam .

It will not be unenjoyable to compare this verse with


In the present verse too there's a light touch of melancholy, but along with a slight wish to live there's also an emotional longing to find pleasure in the beauty of life. In {1502,2} too there's an emotional longing, but it is such, and in such a context, that it evokes fear. In the present verse there's a childlike innocence, and the idea of taking a harmless pleasure. In {1502,2} the speaker has already experienced everything; he has already lost a great deal-- including even his intellect.

[See also {1507,1}.]



I have nothing special to add.