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APPENDIX III: Miscellaneous Remarks, Regulations, Orders, etc. [[638-651]]

[[638]]  As few vessels proceed to the East Indies at present, without one or two proficient Orientalists on board, the subsequent information will be no doubt perused with sufficient interest, especially as it is generally believed that a Hindoostanee and Persian Interpreter will be in future appointed to each of the King's Regiments in British
India, if not already done, since no valid reason can be assigned for this expedient having been neglected so long. This prediction has actually been verified.

The following is a List of the Hindoostanee and Persian Books, which those students who have attended the Lectures, and are conversant with the Text Set of Publications, should procure, previous to embarkation for India, with the view of learning to read and comprehend both Languages readily, in the Persi-arabic and Naguree characters, during the outward voyage; especially when the whole of this ultimate expense, or any part of it, is not an object of too much importance to the parties concerned, in this country.

Here a rudimental knowledge of Persian is so blended with colloquial proficiency in the Hindoostanee, that their united acquisition is almost inseparable, and [[639]] should be prosecuted accordingly, now that both languages have become indispensable to every candidate for speedy promotion, or a productive post in British India. They are, in fact, the best practical keys to every provincial dialect in the Peninsula, which may thus be all acquired successively, in the course of twelve months' judicious application to those living tongues, in the order of their local necessity, in various quarters of India, where they are severally most useful; however limited, compared with Hindoostanee, their partial Currency may otherwise be.

ENGLISH AND HINDOOSTANEE GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY, which last is all reversed, and bound up as such with the Persian Rudiments as a large Vocabulary, though by compression a very small book, forming a pair of volumes with the former, both comprehensive and cheap.

The foregoing works alone are well calculated as a small select library, hardly procurable for the same prices abroad, not only to supply material for literary pursuits during several years' study, but also to make every studious scholar on board ship, who knows the Text Books sufficiently, a practical linguist in the Persian and Hindoostanee Tongues, even before his arrival in India; where, by immediately passing his examination with eclat, he may in due season succeed to two or three lucrative appointments, as they fall vacant either in his own corps, or on the establishment to which he belongs: and among these, a Persian Interpretership is the most honourable object to which juvenile ambition may reasonably aspire, in the course of two years, being in fact the first grand step from regimental to general staff posts, or places of [[640]] great responsibility and emolument; besides the ultimate chance of diplomatic employment for very conspicuous talents, even of military men, in this branch of the public service.

The best preparative for a faithful compliance with the following official stipulations about eastern tongues, is to carry a quantum sufficit of rudimental knowledge of them from home; otherwise the native teachers abroad will prove very inadequate, if not blind and perverse guides to the true pronunciation, grammatical proficiency, or idiomatical practice, of raw English youths in the vernacular languages of Hindoostan, for many months after their arrival in British India; nay, if the foregoing advice be totally neglected, and giddy lads hurry away to India for the sake of mere rank, some tedious years will be required to fit them for holding a single advantageous appointment by familiar acquaintance with the paramount speech of the Peninsula.

Fort William, February 14, 1823.
The Commander-in-Chief deeming it expedient that Interpreters and Quarter Masters should be exempt from Battalion duties, except in cases of emergency, and with a view to the more general encouragement of the study of the native languages, the Governor General in Council is pleased to extend the allowance of a horse, heretofore confined to corps marching or in the field, to all Officers holding the appointment of Interpreter and Quarter Master to Cavalry and Infantry Corps of the Line, from the 1st proximo, as mounted Officers in every situation.

Head Quarters, Calcutta, February 17, 1823.
His Excellency the Commander in Chief, considering it of primary importance and advantage to the service
that the situation of Interpreter and Quarter Master to [[641]] Native Corps of the line, should be held by Officers fully competent to the performance of the duties; and also with a view of encouraging a more general study of the native language, is pleased to enact the following rules, for the attainment of these desirable objects:

Officers applying, under the sanction and approbation of the Commanding Officers of their Corps, for the situation of Interpreter, shall be required to pass an examination in the Hindoostanee language, before a Committee of competent Officers, to be assembled, by order of the Commander in Chief, at the Head Quarter Station of the Division.

The Committee will forward to the Adjutant General of the army, a detailed report of the examination, with a Certificate specifying the nature of the Officer's proficiency; and will state their opinion of his competency to conduct the duties of an Interpreter to a General Court Martial.

The favourable certificate and opinion of the Committee will be sufficient authority, in the first instance, to render an Officer eligible to hold the situation; but before be can be finally confirmed in it, he will be required to undergo, with the sanction of the Governor General in Council, a further examination by the Public Examiners of the College of Fort William, and to obtain from them a favourable certificate and opinion of his qualifications; and for this purpose he will (on the occasion of his arrival within the limits of the Presidency Division, either in the course of relief, or otherwise) be directed to repair to the Presidency.

But Officers within the limits of the Presidency Division, at the time of their application for the situation of Interpreter, will not be required to pass any preliminary examination. [[642]] The foregoing rules will be applicable to all Officers recommended to officiate as Interpreters; and Officers now actually holding the situation of Interpreters will be required to pass the examination above prescribed, twelve months after the promulgation of this Order to their Corps.

The Cadet (upon his being examined and approved) will be ranked according to his actual departure from England, so that the sooner he proceeds to India, the higher his rank will be above those who may be appointed in the course of the same season as himself. On his arrival at the Presidency to which he is appointed, he will enter into pay as a Cadet, at Four Shillings and Two Pence per day, and be promoted to a Commission in the Company's Army, according to his seniority in the List of rank above alluded to, provided he shall not have forfeited his claim to such promotion by any disobedience of the Court's orders, or misconduct during his passage out.

It is further expected that the Cadet will, upon his arrival in India, conform strictly to all the rules and regulations of the Institutions established at the Presidency to which he is appointed for the instruction of the Cadets, and that he will endeavour to qualify himself for his future situation, by professional acquirements, and by the attainment of a knowledge of the languages of the country; in failure of which, he will render himself liable to be dismissed the service, and ordered back to England at his own expense.

[[643]] Fort William, March 29, 1823.
1. The Government having, with reference to General Orders, June 21, 1822, sanctioned and adopted the recommendation of the Medical Board, as to the propriety of a previous examination in the Native Languages of the Medical Officer selected for the situation of Superintendent of the School for Native Doctors, it is hereby directed that, previous to confirmation in that office, the person so selected shall undergo a regular examination in the Persian and Hindoostanee languages by the Officers of the College of Fort William.

2. No candidate shall be considered entitled to confirmation, unless he shall produce a certificate, signed by the examining Officers of the College, of his possessing a competent knowledge of the colloquial and written languages of the country, especially the Hindoostanee and Persian; and that he is capable of reading the native treatises on medicine, and discoursing with the pupils on ordinary subjects of native science, in intelligible, if not in accurate terms.

3. Should the candidate require examination in the Sunscrit, Arabic, or other useful Oriental languages, it is to be granted by the Public Officers of that College, and noted accordingly in their report, and in their certificate of qualification, or otherwise.

4. The examinations above prescribed will take place on the application of the Medical Board to the Secretary of
the College Council."

Head Quarters, Calcutta, May 27, 1823.
The Commander-in-Chief is pleased to notify to the subaltern Officers of the Army, the scale of qualifications expected in the candidates for the office of Interpreter in [[644]]  Native Corps, and the tests by which such qualifications are to be ascertained, viz.
1. A well-grounded knowledge of the general principles of grammar.
2. The ability to read and write with facility the modified Persian character of the Oordoo, and the Devi Nagree of the K,hurree Bolee.
3. A colloquial knowledge of the Oordoo and Hin-doo,ee, sufficient to enable him to explain with facility, and at the moment, any orders in those dialects, or to transpose reports, letters, &c. from them into English.

The tests by which these qualifications are to be tried are,
1. By well-selected questions, not of the niceties, but of the general leading principles of grammar.
2. By viva voce conversation with the examiners.
3. By written translations into Hindoostanee, in both characters, of selected orders, or rules and regulations.
4. By reading and translating the Bagho-Buhar in Hindoostanee; the Prem Sagur in K,hurree Bolee; and the Goolistan or Unwar-i Sohuelee in Persian.

It will be the duty of Committees of Examination to ascertain the attainments of candidates by the foregoing rules ; and their reports are to specify the proficiency of the party examined, under each of those heads.

The Commander-in-Chief desires it to be further understood, that previous examination in the College of Fort William, if successful, will be considered as sufficient proof of qualification; but that the examinations which took place of Officers quitting the Barrasut Institutions, will not exempt candidates from the operation of the foregoing orders.

[[645]] Head Quarters, Choultry Plain, August 8, 1823.
The Commander-in-Chief has great satisfaction in recording the report made by the Board of Officers assembled at the Presidency, for the examination of Lieutenant P. Woodward, of the 9th Regiment, in his knowledge of the Hindoostanee language, which declares his general proficiency in that language, sufficient to enable him to execute any duties that might be assigned to him as a Regimental Staff Officer.
His Excellency has also received from Colonel Boles, commanding the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force, a very satisfactory report made by a Board of Officers assembled at Secunderabad, for the examination of Lieutenant J. D. Stokes, of the 4th Regiment, of the extensive acquirements which he has made in the Hindoostanee language, and which reflects the highest credit on that Officer.

The attention of government having been drawn to the necessity which exists for Medical Officers holding certain appointments being conversant in one or more native languages, in like manner as is required of the Officers in the civil and military branches of the service; the Hon. the Governor in Council is pleased to declare, that henceforth no Medical Officer will be allowed to take charge of the office of Vaccinator in any of the provinces under this Government, or be appointed to the medical duties of either of the political residences of Baroda, Sattarah, or Bhooj, until he has passed an examination in Hindoostanee, or Mahratta, or Guzeratta. On the occurrence of vacancies, examinations will be held for candidates, and the choice of Government will be made from among those who pass with credit, provided they possess the [[646]] other requisites. After the first complete change, the appointments will be made, as at present, on the ground of general merit, but the examination will be indispensable; and in the event of no Medical Officer passing, one will be appointed to the temporary charge of a Vaccinatorship, or the medical duties of a residency, liable to removal as soon as any other, properly qualified, shall have passed the examination.

In addition to all the foregoing admirable orders, did one more exist [[=if one more existed]], viz. that no office whatever, even the command of a Company, shall be confided to a military man who has not passed a fair examination, for Hindoostanee at least, in six months' time, the whole junior portion of the army would be converted to perfect linguists, those intellectual invalids excepted, from whom few laudable deeds ever can be expected, though under the impulse of the two most irresistible motives -- self-preservation and private interest.

Bombay Castle, May 13, 1824.
The serious and responsible duty of correctly interpreting the proceedings of native courts martial, having led the Hon. the Court of Directors to sanction the united appointment of interpreter and quarter-master to each native battalion, as announced in the General Order by Government, dated the 31st May, 1819, and the frequent demands that are made by the European corps for the attendance of the interpreters from native battalions, on occasions of regimental courts martial, or other inquiries in which the natives are concerned, forcibly pointing out the necessity of a similar appointment with the European corps, independent of affording the [[647]] means of communicating with the natives when on the line of march or detached duties; the Governor in Council is pleased to sanction the appointments of interpreters in the Hindoostanee and Mahratta languages to His Majesty's and the Hon. Company's European cavalry and infantry serving on this establishment, distinct from the office of quarter-master, on the following scale, viz. Hindoostanee, Rs. 60; Contingencies, 10; Total, 70. Additional: Mahratta, 30. Total, when united in the same person, 100.

The same scale is applicable to officers attached as interpreters to the extra battalions, which have no quarter-master on the establishment. In such corps throughout the army, where the same officers may not be qualified to hold the two appointments, the Governor in Council is pleased to sanction a second, or Mahratta interpreter, on the following scale, and to declare that the officer holding such appointment shall succeed (provided he be also qualified in Hindoostanee Mahratta) as interpreter with the quarter-master attached, where the offices may be united, on the first vacancy. Mahratta, Rs. 30. Contingencies, 10. Total, 40.

To C. Lushington, Esq. Secretary to Government General Department.
We have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th instant, intimating that the Hon. the Governor-General in Council, had been pleased to nominate us a Committee for fixing the degree of proficiency in the native languages, proper to be required in military [[648]] officers, candidates for the office of interpreter and

In obedience to the commands of the Honourable the Governor-General in Council, we have attentively read the Documents which accompanied your letter, and have given to the subject the careful deliberation which our respective experience prompted, the result which we shall beg leave to offer, after having stated certain considerations which have influenced us in coming to such decision.

In determining the qualifications which should be required in an interpreter to a native battalion, we look more to that knowledge of the languages, and their various dialects, which is essentially necessary and practically useful, than to a high proficiency of book-lore; which though advantageous and probably attainable, when talent and local advantages accompany each other; yet neither the opportunities which officers have of acquiring it, nor their means, justify us in exacting it.

A good colloquial knowledge of the dialects generally used by the Sepoys, a facility of explaining all orders in those dialects, and of interpreters from them, must be considered of the first importance, as comprising the principal duties of interpreters; and, indeed, we consider all other study (with reference of course to the case under immediate consideration) as subordinate to this, and but as the means by which this object is to be attained.

The languages most used by the Sepoys, and generally by almost all the tribes with whom an officer of a Sepoy corps is likely to have intercourse, are the Oordoo or Court Hindoostanee, and the Hindoowee or K.huree Bolee, with no mixture of Persian; and between these, with various shades of difference, may be comprehended most of the dialects of the different provinces under this Presidency. [[649]] The former is not to be acquired without some knowledge of the Persian; which will otherwise be useful, as it is the language generally in use in all the police and revenue departments throughout the districts under this Presidency, with both of which the duty of an interpreter may frequently lead him to have transactions.

Under these considerations, the acquirements which we are of opinion should be looked for in an interpreter are:
First. A well-grounded knowledge of the general principles of grammar.
Second. The ability to read and write with facility the modified Persian character of the Oordoo and Devinaguree of the K.huree Bolee.
Third. A colloquial knowledge of Oordoo and Hin-dooee, sufficient to enable him to explain with facility, and at the moment, any orders in those dialects, or to transpose reports, letters, &c. from them into English; and the tests which we would recommend are: 1st. Well selected questions, not of the niceties, but of the general leading principles of grammar. 2nd. Viva voce conversation with the Examiners. 3rd. Written translations into Hindoostanee in both characters, of selected orders, or rules and regulations. 4th. Reading and translating the Bagh o Buhar in Hindoostanee; the Prem Sagur in K,huree Bolee; and the Goolistan or Unwar Sohuelee in Persian.

We have, &c.
Calcutta, 22d April, 1823

To W. B. Bayley, Esq. President, and Members of the
Council of the College.
In compliance with your orders, we have the honor of informing you that we met at the College Hall this morning, for the purpose of ascertaining the proficiency acquired by Ensign Todd, in the study of the Hindoostanee and Persian languages, according to the tests laid down by the Committee appointed by Government for fixing the degree of proficiency in the Native Languages proper to be required in Military Officers, Candidates for the Office of Interpreter and Quarter-Master.

The exercises selected by us for the examination of Ensign Todd, consisted of the following papers:
1. A Hindoostanee Story, in Oordoo dialect and in the Persian character, to be translated into English.
An Extract from the Prem Sagur, in the Khuree Bolee dialect, and in the Nagree characters, to be translated into English.
2. Vocables in the Oordoo and K,huree Bolee dialects, and in the Persian and Nagree characters, to be translated into English.
3. An English Exercise to be translated into Hindoostanee. This contained a sketch of the formation of the 1st and 2d battalion of the 9th Native Regiment (the regiment to which Ensign Todd is at present posted), and was extracted from Captain Williamson's Bengal Native Infantry.
4. The 16th article of the 10th section of the Articles of War, to be translated into Hindoostanee.
5. The oath to be adminstered to the witnesses, and the mode of administering it among the Hindoos and Mussulmans, in the Persian and Nagree characters.

[[651]] Ensign Todd was also examined by us severally in the following Hindoostanee Books:
1. Khirud Ufroz.
2. Bagh o Buhar.
3. Prem Sagur.
And in Persian, in Goolistan, and Unwaree Sohylee, various portions of which he read and explained with great correctness and facility.

The Papers, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, were also translated by him with tolerable correctness, and evinced a very considerable knowledge of both the Oordoo and K.huree Bolee dialect. He writes also the Persian and Nagree
characters with great neatness and facility.

The result of this examination enables us to state confidently our opinion, that Ensign Todd has acquired such a knowledge, not only of the Persian language, but also of the Oordoo or K,huree Bolee dialect of Hindoostanee, as comes fully up to the standard prescribed by the Governor-General in Council for Military Candidates for the Office of Interpreter and Quarter-Master to native corps, and which was communicated for oar guidance by Mr. Secretary Lushington on the 22d of April last.
We have the honor to be,
(Signed) W. PRICE, Examiner,
A. LOCKETT, Officiating Examiner.
College of Fort William, 1th Oct. 1823.


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