Let us now return to the description of our arrival [at] Dehli. When we arrived at this place, the Vizier having previously met us, we came to the door of the Sultan's haram, to the place in which his mother, El Makhduma Jahan, resides, the Vizier, as also the Kazi of the place, being still with us. These paid their respects at the entrance, and we all followed their example. We also, each of us, sent his present to her, which was proportionate to his circumstances. The Queen's secretaries then registered these presents, and informed her of them. The presents were accepted, and we were ordered to be seated. Her viands [=dishes of food she had sent to us] were then brought in; we received the greatest respect and attention in their odd way. After this, dresses of honour were put upon us, and we were ordered to withdraw to such places as had been prepared for each of us. We made our obeisance and retired accordingly. This service is presented, by one's bowing the head, placing one of the hands on the earth, and then retiring.

        When I had got to the house prepared for me, I found it furnished with every carpet, vessel, couch, and fuel, one could desire. The victuals which they brought us consisted of flour, rice, and flesh, all of which was brought from the mother of the Emperor. Every morning we paid our respects to the Vizier, who on one occasion gave me two thousand dinars, and said: This is to enable you to get your clothes washed. He also gave me a large robe of honour; and to my attendants, who amounted to about forty, he gave two thousand dinars.


        After this, the Emperor's allowance was brought to us, which amounted to the weight of one thousand Dehli-Ritls of flour,  where every Ritl is equal to five and twenty Ritls of Egypt. We also had one thousand Ritls of flesh; and of fermented liquors, oil, oil-olive, and the betel-nut, many Ritls; and also many of the betel-leaf.

        During this time, and in the absence of the Emperor, a daughter of mine happened to die, which the Vizier communicated to him. The Emperor's distance from Dehli was that of ten stages; nevertheless, the Vizier had an answer from him on the morning of the day, on which the funeral was to take place. His orders were, that what was usually done on the death of any of the children of the nobility, should be done now. On the third day, therefore, the Vizier came with the judges and nobles, who spread a carpet and made the necessary preparations, consisting of incense, rose-water, readers of the Koran, and panegyrists. When I proceeded with the funeral, I expected nothing of this; but upon seeing their company I was much gratified. The Vizier, on this occasion, occupied the station of the Emperor, and giving money to the readers, according to the order which he had received from the Emperor.

        After this, the Emperor's mother sent for the mother of the child, and gave her dresses and ornaments, exceeding one thousand dinars in value. She also gave her a thousand dinars in money, and dismissed her on the second day. During the absence of the Emperor, the Vizier shewed me the greatest kindness, on the part of himself, as well as on that of his master.

        Soon after, the news of the Emperor's approach was received, stating that he was within seven miles of Dehli, and ordering the Vizier to come and meet him. He went out, accordingly, accompanied by those who had arrived for the purpose of being presented; each taking his present with him. In this manner we proceeded till we arrived at the gate of the palace in which he then was. At this place the secretaries took account of the several presents, and also brought them before the Emperor. The presents were then taken away, and the travellers were presented, each according to the order in which he had been arranged. When my turn came, I went in and presented my service in the usual manner, and was very graciously received, the Emperor taking my hand, and promising me every kindness. To each of the travellers he gave a dress of honour, embroidered with gold, which had been worn by himself, and one of these he also gave to me.

        After this, we met without the palace, and viands were handed about for some time. On this occasion the travellers ate, the Vizier, with the great Emirs, standing over them as servants. We then retired. After this, the Emperor sent to each of us one of the horses of his own stud, adorned and caparisoned with a saddle of silver. He then placed us in his front with the Vizier, and rode on till he arrived at his palace in Dehli.

        On the third day after our arrival, each of the travellers presented himself at the gate of the palace; when the Emperor sent to inquire, whether there were any among us who wished to take office, either as a writer, a judge, or a magistrate; saying, that he would give such appointments. Each, of course, gave an answer suitable to his wishes. For my own part, I answered, I have no desire either for rule or writership; but the office both of judge and of magistrate, myself and my fathers have filled. These replies were carried to the Emperor, who commanded each person to be brought before him, and he then gave him such appointment as would suit him; bestowing on him, at the same time, a dress of honour, and a horse furnished with an ornamented saddle. He also gave him money, appointing likewise the amount of his salary, which was to be drawn from the treasury. He also appointed a portion of the produce of the villages, which each was to receive annually, according to his rank.

        When I was called, I went in and did homage. The Vizier said: The Lord of the world appoints you to the office of Judge in Dehli. He also gives you a dress of honour with a saddled horse, as also twelve thousand dinars for your present support. He has moreover appointed you a yearly salary of twelve thousand dinars, and a portion of lands in the villages, which will produce annually an equal sum. I then did homage according to their custom, and withdrew.


        We shall now proceed to give some account of the Emperor Mohammed son of Ghiath Oddin Toglik: then of our entering and leaving Hindustan.

        This Emperor was one of the most bountiful and splendidly munificent men (where he took [a fancy?]); but in other cases, one of the most impetuous and inexorable: and very seldom indeed did it happen, that pardon followed his anger. On one occasion he took offence at the inhabitants of Dehli, on account of the numbers of its inhabitants who had revolted, and the liberal support which these had received from the rest; and, to such a pitch did the quarrel rise, that the inhabitants wrote a letter consisting of several pages, in which they very much abused him: they then sealed it up, and directed it to the Real Head and Lord of the world, adding, "Let no other person read it." They then threw it over the gate of the palace. Those who saw it, could do no other than send it to him; and he read it accordingly. The consequence was, he ordered all the inhabitants to quit the place; and, upon some delay being evinced, he made a proclamation stating, that what person soever, being an inhabitant of that city, should be found in any of its houses or streets, should receive condign punishment. Upon this they all went out. But, his servants finding a blind man in one of the houses, and a bed-ridden one in another, the Emperor commanded the bed-ridden man to be projected from a balista, and the blind one to be dragged by his feet to Dawlatabad, which is at the distance of ten days, and he was so dragged; but, his limbs dropping off by the way, only one of his legs was brought to the place intended, and was then thrown into it: for the order had been, that they should go to this place. When I entered Dehli it was almost a desert. Its buildings were very few; in other respects it was quite empty, its houses having been forsaken by its inhabitants. The King, however, had given orders, that any one who wished to leave his own city, may come and reside there. The consequence was, the greatest city in the world had the fewest inhabitants.


        Upon a certain occasion, too, the principal of the preachers, who was then keeper of the jewellery, happened to be outwitted by some of the infidel Hindoos, who came by night and stole some jewels. For this he beat the man to death with his own hand.

        Upon another occasion, one of the Emirs of Fargana came to pay him a temporary visit. The Emperor received him very kindly, and bestowed on him some rich presents. After this the Emir had a wish to return, but was afraid the Emperor would not allow him to do so; he began, therefore, to think of flight. Upon this a whisperer gave intimation of his design, and the Emir was put to death: the whole of his wealth was then given to the informers. For this is their custom, that when any one gives private intimation of the designs of another, and his information turns out to be true, the person so informed of is put to death, and his property is given to the informer.

        There was at that time, in the city of Kambaya, on the shores of India, a Sheikh of considerable power and note, named the Sheikh Ali Haidari, to whom the merchants and seafaring men made many votive offerings. This Sheikh yeas in the habit of making many predictions for them. But when the Kazi Jalal Oddin Afgani rebelled against the Emperor, it was told him that the Sheikh Haidari had sent for this Kazi Jalal Oddin, and given him the cap off his own head. Upon this the Emperor set out for, the purpose of making war upon the Kazi Jalal Oddin, whom he put to flight. He then returned to his palace, leaving behind him an Emir, who should make inquiry respecting others who had joined the Kazi: the inquiry accordingly event on, and those who had done so were put to death. The Sheikh was then brought forward; and when it yeas proved that he had given his cap to the Kazi, he was also slain.

        The Sheikh Had, son of the Sheikh Baha Oddin Zakarya, was also put to death, on account of some spite which he would wreak upon him. This was one of the greatest Sheikhs. His crime was, that his uncle's son had rebelled against the Emperor, when he was acting as governor in one of the provinces of India. So war was made upon him, and being overcome, his flesh was roasted with some rice, and thrown to the elephants to be devoured: but they refused to touch it.

        Upon a certain day, when I myself was present, some men were brought out who had been accused of having attempted the life of the Vizier. They were ordered, accordingly, to be thrown to the elephants, which had been taught to cut their victims to pieces. Their hoofs were cased with sharp iron instruments, and the extremities of these were like knives. On such occasions the elephant-driver rode upon them: and, when a man was thrown to them, they would wrap the trunk about him and toss him up, then take him with the teeth and throw him between their fore feet upon the breast, and do just as the driver should bid them, and according to the orders of the Emperor. If the order was to cut him to pieces, the elephant would do so with his irons, and then throw the pieces among the assembled multitude: but if the order was to leave him, he would be left lying before the Emperor, until the skin should be taken off, and stuffed with hay, and the flesh given to the dogs.

        On one occasion one of the Emirs, viz. the Ain El Mulk, who had the charge of the elephants and beasts of burden, revolted, and took away the greater part of these beasts and went over the Ganges, at the time the Emperor was on his march towards the Maabar districts, against the Emir Jalal Oddin. Upon this occasion the people of the country proclaimed the runaway emperor: but an insurrection arising, the matter soon came to an end.

        Another of his Emirs, namely Halajun, also revolted, and sallied out of Dehli with a large army. The Viceroy in the district of  Telingana also rebelled, and made an effort to obtain the kingdom; and very nearly succeeded, on account of the great number who were then in rebellion, and the weakness of the army of the Emperor; for a pestilence had carried off the greater part. From his extreme good fortune, however, he got the victory, collected his scattered troops, and subdued the rebellious Emirs, killing some, torturing others, and pardoning the rest. He then returned to his residence, repaired his affairs, strengthened his empire, and took vengeance on his enemies.--But let me now return to the account of my own affairs with him.


        When he had appointed me to the office of Judge of Dehli, had made the necessary arrangements, and given me the presents already mentioned, the horses prepared for me, and for the other Emirs who were about his person, were sent to each of us, who severally kissed the hoof of the horse of him who brought them, and then led our own to the gate of the palace; we then entered, and each put on a dress of honour; after which we came out, mounted, and returned to our houses.

        The Emperor said to me, on this occasion, Do not suppose that our office of Judge of Dehli will cost you little trouble: on the contrary, it will require the greatest attention. I understood what he said, but did not return him a good answer. He understood the Arabic, and was not pleased with my reply. I am, said I, of the sect of Ibn Malik, but the people of Dehli follow Hanafi; besides, I am ignorant of their language. He replied, I have appointed two learned men your deputies; who will advise with you. It will be your business to sign the legal instruments. He then added: If what I have appointed prove not an income sufficient to meet your numerous expenses, I have likewise given you a cell, the bequests appropriated to which you may expend, taking this in addition to what is already appointed. I thanked him for this, and returned to my house.

        A, few days after this he made me a present of twelve thousand dinars. In a short time, however, I found myself involved in great debts, amounting to about fifty-five thousand dinars, according to the computation of India, which with them amounts to five thousand five hundred tankas; but which, according to the computation of the west, will amount to thirteen thousand dinars. The reason of this debt was, the great expenses incurred in waiting on the Emperor, during his journies to repress the revolt of the Ain El Mulk (p. 147). About this time, I composed a panegyric in praise of the Emperor, which I wrote in Arabic, and read to him. He translated it for himself, and was wonderfully pleased with it: for the Indians are fond of Arabic poetry, and are very desirous of (being memorialized in) it. I then informed him of the debt I had incurred; which he ordered to be discharged from his own treasury, and said: Take care, in future, not to exceed the extent of your income. May God reward him.

        Some time after the Emperor's return from the Maabar districts, and his ordering my residence in Dehli, his mind happened to change respecting a Sheikh in whom he had placed great confidence, and even visited, and who then resided in a cave without the city. He took him accordingly and imprisoned him, and then interrogated his children as to who had resorted to him. They named the persons who had done so, and myself among the rest; for it happened that I had visited him in the cave. I was consequently ordered to attend at the gate of the palace, and a council to sit within. I attended in this way for four days, and few were those who did so, who escaped death. I betook myself, however, to continued fasting, and tasted nothing but water. On the first day I repeated the sentence, "God is our support, and the most excellent patron,'' three and thirty thousand times; and after the fourth day, by God's goodness was I delivered; but the Sheikh, and all those who had visited him, except myself, were put to death.

        Upon this I gave up the office of Judge, and bidding farewell to the world, attached myself to the holy and pious Sheikh, the saint and phoenix of his age , Kamal Oddin Abd Ullah El Gazi, who had wrought many open miracles. All I had I gave to the Fakeers; and, putting on the tunic of one of them, I attached myself to this Sheikh for five months, until I had kept a fast of five continued days; I then breakfasted on a little rice.

*on to chapter 6*

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