A WELCOME FROM THE QUEEN MOTHER
us now return to the description of our arrival [at] Dehli. When we arrived
at this place, the Vizier having previously met us, we came to the door
of the Sultan's haram, to the place in which his mother, El Makhduma Jahan,
resides, the Vizier, as also the Kazi of the place, being still with us.
These paid their respects at the entrance, and we all followed their example.
We also, each of us, sent his present to her, which was proportionate to
his circumstances. The Queen's secretaries then registered these presents,
and informed her of them. The presents were accepted, and we were ordered
to be seated. Her viands [=dishes of food she had sent to us] were then
brought in; we received the greatest respect and attention in their odd
way. After this, dresses of honour were put upon us, and we were ordered
to withdraw to such places as had been prepared for each of us. We made
our obeisance and retired accordingly. This service is presented, by one's
bowing the head, placing one of the hands on the earth, and then retiring.
I had got to the house prepared for me, I found it furnished with every
carpet, vessel, couch, and fuel, one could desire. The victuals which they
brought us consisted of flour, rice, and flesh, all of which was brought
from the mother of the Emperor. Every morning we paid our respects to the
Vizier, who on one occasion gave me two thousand dinars, and said: This
is to enable you to get your clothes washed. He also gave me a large robe
of honour; and to my attendants, who amounted to about forty, he gave two
THE EMPEROR'S HOSPITALITY AND GENEROSITY
this, the Emperor's allowance was brought to us, which amounted to the
weight of one thousand Dehli-Ritls of flour, where every Ritl is
equal to five and twenty Ritls of Egypt. We also had one thousand Ritls
of flesh; and of fermented liquors, oil, oil-olive, and the betel-nut,
many Ritls; and also many of the betel-leaf.
this time, and in the absence of the Emperor, a daughter of mine happened
to die, which the Vizier communicated to him. The Emperor's distance from
Dehli was that of ten stages; nevertheless, the Vizier had an answer from
him on the morning of the day, on which the funeral was to take place.
His orders were, that what was usually done on the death of any of the
children of the nobility, should be done now. On the third day, therefore,
the Vizier came with the judges and nobles, who spread a carpet and made
the necessary preparations, consisting of incense, rose-water, readers
of the Koran, and panegyrists. When I proceeded with the funeral, I expected
nothing of this; but upon seeing their company I was much gratified. The
Vizier, on this occasion, occupied the station of the Emperor, and giving
money to the readers, according to the order which he had received from
this, the Emperor's mother sent for the mother of the child, and gave her
dresses and ornaments, exceeding one thousand dinars in value. She also
gave her a thousand dinars in money, and dismissed her on the second day.
During the absence of the Emperor, the Vizier shewed me the greatest kindness,
on the part of himself, as well as on that of his master.
after, the news of the Emperor's approach was received, stating that he
was within seven miles of Dehli, and ordering the Vizier to come and meet
him. He went out, accordingly, accompanied by those who had arrived for
the purpose of being presented; each taking his present with him. In this
manner we proceeded till we arrived at the gate of the palace in which
he then was. At this place the secretaries took account of the several
presents, and also brought them before the Emperor. The presents were then
taken away, and the travellers were presented, each according to the order
in which he had been arranged. When my turn came, I went in and presented
my service in the usual manner, and was very graciously received, the Emperor
taking my hand, and promising me every kindness. To each of the travellers
he gave a dress of honour, embroidered with gold, which had been worn by
himself, and one of these he also gave to me.
this, we met without the palace, and viands were handed about for some
time. On this occasion the travellers ate, the Vizier, with the great Emirs,
standing over them as servants. We then retired. After this, the Emperor
sent to each of us one of the horses of his own stud, adorned and caparisoned
with a saddle of silver. He then placed us in his front with the Vizier,
and rode on till he arrived at his palace in Dehli.
third day after our arrival, each of the travellers presented himself at
the gate of the palace; when the Emperor sent to inquire, whether there
were any among us who wished to take office, either as a writer, a judge,
or a magistrate; saying, that he would give such appointments. Each, of
course, gave an answer suitable to his wishes. For my own part, I answered,
I have no desire either for rule or writership; but the office both of
judge and of magistrate, myself and my fathers have filled. These replies
were carried to the Emperor, who commanded each person to be brought before
him, and he then gave him such appointment as would suit him; bestowing
on him, at the same time, a dress of honour, and a horse furnished with
an ornamented saddle. He also gave him money, appointing likewise the amount
of his salary, which was to be drawn from the treasury. He also appointed
a portion of the produce of the villages, which each was to receive annually,
according to his rank.
I was called, I went in and did homage. The Vizier said: The Lord of the
world appoints you to the office of Judge in Dehli. He also gives you a
dress of honour with a saddled horse, as also twelve thousand dinars for
your present support. He has moreover appointed you a yearly salary of
twelve thousand dinars, and a portion of lands in the villages, which will
produce annually an equal sum. I then did homage according to their custom,
THE PUNITIVE TRIP TO DAWLATABAD
now proceed to give some account of the Emperor Mohammed son of Ghiath
Oddin Toglik: then of our entering and leaving Hindustan.
Emperor was one of the most bountiful and splendidly munificent men (where
he took [a fancy?]); but in other cases, one of the most impetuous and
inexorable: and very seldom indeed did it happen, that pardon followed
his anger. On one occasion he took offence at the inhabitants of Dehli,
on account of the numbers of its inhabitants who had revolted, and the
liberal support which these had received from the rest; and, to such a
pitch did the quarrel rise, that the inhabitants wrote a letter consisting
of several pages, in which they very much abused him: they then sealed
it up, and directed it to the Real Head and Lord of the world, adding,
"Let no other person read it." They then threw it over the gate of the
palace. Those who saw it, could do no other than send it to him; and he
read it accordingly. The consequence was, he ordered all the inhabitants
to quit the place; and, upon some delay being evinced, he made a proclamation
stating, that what person soever, being an inhabitant of that city, should
be found in any of its houses or streets, should receive condign punishment.
Upon this they all went out. But, his servants finding a blind man in one
of the houses, and a bed-ridden one in another, the Emperor commanded the
bed-ridden man to be projected from a balista, and the blind one to be
dragged by his feet to Dawlatabad, which is at the distance of ten days,
and he was so dragged; but, his limbs dropping off by the way, only one
of his legs was brought to the place intended, and was then thrown into
it: for the order had been, that they should go to this place. When I entered
Dehli it was almost a desert. Its buildings were very few; in other respects
it was quite empty, its houses having been forsaken by its inhabitants.
The King, however, had given orders, that any one who wished to leave his
own city, may come and reside there. The consequence was, the greatest
city in the world had the fewest inhabitants.
THE EMPEROR'S VENGEFULNESS AND CRUELTY
a certain occasion, too, the principal of the preachers, who was then keeper
of the jewellery, happened to be outwitted by some of the infidel Hindoos,
who came by night and stole some jewels. For this he beat the man to death
with his own hand.
another occasion, one of the Emirs of Fargana came to pay him a temporary
visit. The Emperor received him very kindly, and bestowed on him some rich
presents. After this the Emir had a wish to return, but was afraid the
Emperor would not allow him to do so; he began, therefore, to think of
flight. Upon this a whisperer gave intimation of his design, and the Emir
was put to death: the whole of his wealth was then given to the informers.
For this is their custom, that when any one gives private intimation of
the designs of another, and his information turns out to be true, the person
so informed of is put to death, and his property is given to the informer.
was at that time, in the city of Kambaya, on the shores of India, a Sheikh
of considerable power and note, named the Sheikh Ali Haidari, to whom the
merchants and seafaring men made many votive offerings. This Sheikh yeas
in the habit of making many predictions for them. But when the Kazi Jalal
Oddin Afgani rebelled against the Emperor, it was told him that the Sheikh
Haidari had sent for this Kazi Jalal Oddin, and given him the cap off his
own head. Upon this the Emperor set out for, the purpose of making war
upon the Kazi Jalal Oddin, whom he put to flight. He then returned to his
palace, leaving behind him an Emir, who should make inquiry respecting
others who had joined the Kazi: the inquiry accordingly event on, and those
who had done so were put to death. The Sheikh was then brought forward;
and when it yeas proved that he had given his cap to the Kazi, he was also
Sheikh Had, son of the Sheikh Baha Oddin Zakarya, was also put to death,
on account of some spite which he would wreak upon him. This was one of
the greatest Sheikhs. His crime was, that his uncle's son had rebelled
against the Emperor, when he was acting as governor in one of the provinces
of India. So war was made upon him, and being overcome, his flesh was roasted
with some rice, and thrown to the elephants to be devoured: but they refused
to touch it.
a certain day, when I myself was present, some men were brought out who
had been accused of having attempted the life of the Vizier. They were
ordered, accordingly, to be thrown to the elephants, which had been taught
to cut their victims to pieces. Their hoofs were cased with sharp iron
instruments, and the extremities of these were like knives. On such occasions
the elephant-driver rode upon them: and, when a man was thrown to them,
they would wrap the trunk about him and toss him up, then take him with
the teeth and throw him between their fore feet upon the breast, and do
just as the driver should bid them, and according to the orders of the
Emperor. If the order was to cut him to pieces, the elephant would do so
with his irons, and then throw the pieces among the assembled multitude:
but if the order was to leave him, he would be left lying before the Emperor,
until the skin should be taken off, and stuffed with hay, and the flesh
given to the dogs.
occasion one of the Emirs, viz. the Ain El Mulk, who had the charge of
the elephants and beasts of burden, revolted, and took away the greater
part of these beasts and went over the Ganges, at the time the Emperor
was on his march towards the Maabar districts, against the Emir Jalal Oddin.
Upon this occasion the people of the country proclaimed the runaway emperor:
but an insurrection arising, the matter soon came to an end.
of his Emirs, namely Halajun, also revolted, and sallied out of Dehli with
a large army. The Viceroy in the district of Telingana also rebelled,
and made an effort to obtain the kingdom; and very nearly succeeded, on
account of the great number who were then in rebellion, and the weakness
of the army of the Emperor; for a pestilence had carried off the greater
part. From his extreme good fortune, however, he got the victory, collected
his scattered troops, and subdued the rebellious Emirs, killing some, torturing
others, and pardoning the rest. He then returned to his residence, repaired
his affairs, strengthened his empire, and took vengeance on his enemies.--But
let me now return to the account of my own affairs with him.
THE TERM AS JUDGE IS CUT SHORT
he had appointed me to the office of Judge of Dehli, had made the necessary
arrangements, and given me the presents already mentioned, the horses prepared
for me, and for the other Emirs who were about his person, were sent to
each of us, who severally kissed the hoof of the horse of him who brought
them, and then led our own to the gate of the palace; we then entered,
and each put on a dress of honour; after which we came out, mounted, and
returned to our houses.
Emperor said to me, on this occasion, Do not suppose that our office of
Judge of Dehli will cost you little trouble: on the contrary, it will require
the greatest attention. I understood what he said, but did not return him
a good answer. He understood the Arabic, and was not pleased with my reply.
I am, said I, of the sect of Ibn Malik, but the people of Dehli follow
Hanafi; besides, I am ignorant of their language. He replied, I have appointed
two learned men your deputies; who will advise with you. It will be your
business to sign the legal instruments. He then added: If what I have appointed
prove not an income sufficient to meet your numerous expenses, I have likewise
given you a cell, the bequests appropriated to which you may expend, taking
this in addition to what is already appointed. I thanked him for this,
and returned to my house.
days after this he made me a present of twelve thousand dinars. In a short
time, however, I found myself involved in great debts, amounting to about
fifty-five thousand dinars, according to the computation of India, which
with them amounts to five thousand five hundred tankas; but which, according
to the computation of the west, will amount to thirteen thousand dinars.
The reason of this debt was, the great expenses incurred in waiting on
the Emperor, during his journies to repress the revolt of the Ain El Mulk
(p. 147). About this time, I composed a panegyric in praise of the Emperor,
which I wrote in Arabic, and read to him. He translated it for himself,
and was wonderfully pleased with it: for the Indians are fond of Arabic
poetry, and are very desirous of (being memorialized in) it. I then informed
him of the debt I had incurred; which he ordered to be discharged from
his own treasury, and said: Take care, in future, not to exceed the extent
of your income. May God reward him.
time after the Emperor's return from the Maabar districts, and his ordering
my residence in Dehli, his mind happened to change respecting a Sheikh
in whom he had placed great confidence, and even visited, and who then
resided in a cave without the city. He took him accordingly and imprisoned
him, and then interrogated his children as to who had resorted to him.
They named the persons who had done so, and myself among the rest; for
it happened that I had visited him in the cave. I was consequently ordered
to attend at the gate of the palace, and a council to sit within. I attended
in this way for four days, and few were those who did so, who escaped death.
I betook myself, however, to continued fasting, and tasted nothing but
water. On the first day I repeated the sentence, "God is our support, and
the most excellent patron,'' three and thirty thousand times; and after
the fourth day, by God's goodness was I delivered; but the Sheikh, and
all those who had visited him, except myself, were put to death.
this I gave up the office of Judge, and bidding farewell to the world,
attached myself to the holy and pious Sheikh, the saint and phoenix of
his age , Kamal Oddin Abd Ullah El Gazi, who had wrought many open miracles.
All I had I gave to the Fakeers; and, putting on the tunic of one of them,
I attached myself to this Sheikh for five months, until I had kept a fast
of five continued days; I then breakfasted on a little rice.
*on to chapter 6*