*Section 1* -- The Voyage of Gutuere, or Godwera, an English Lady, towards the Holy Land, about 1097
*Section 2* -- The Voyage of Edgar Aethling to Jerusalem, in 1102
*Section 3* -- Some Circumstances respecting the Siege of Joppa, about the year 1102
*Section 4* -- Of the Transactions of certain English, Danish, and Flemish Pilgrims in the Holy Land, in 1107
*Section 5* -- The Expedition of William Longespee, or Long-sword, Earl of Salisbury, in the year 1248, under the Banners of St Louis, King of France, against the Saracens
The subsequent account of several English pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
 Hakluyt, I. p. 44. et sequ.
Volume 1, Chapter 20, Section 1 -- The Voyage of Gutuere, or Godwera, an English Lady, towards the Holy Land, about 1097.
While the Christian army, under Godfrey of Buillon, was marching through Asia Minor from Iconium, in Lycaonia, by Heraclea, to Marasia, or Maresch. Gutuere, or Godwera, the wife of Baldwin, the brother of the Duke of Lorain, who had long laboured under heavy sickness, became so extremely ill, that the army encamped on her account near Marash, for three days, when she expired. This lady is said to have been of noble English parentage, and was honourably interred at Antioch in Syria.
 Now Konieh, Erekli, and Marash; the two former in Karamania, the latter in Syria or Room.--E.
 For this story, Hakluyt quotes Hist Bel. Sacr. lib. iii. c. xvii. and Chron. Hierosol. lib. iii c. xxvii.
Volume 1, Chapter 20, Section 2 -- The Voyage of Edgar Aethling to Jerusalem, in 1102.
Edgar, commonly called Aethling, was son of Edward, the son of Edmond Ironside, who was the brother of Edward the Confessor, to whom consequently Edgar was nephew; Edgar travelled to Jerusalem in 1102, in company with Robert, the son of Godwin, most valiant knight. Being present in Rama, when King Baldwin was there besieged by the Turks, and not being able to endure the hardships of the siege, he was delivered from that danger, and escaped through the midst of the hostile camp, chiefly through the aid of Robert; who, going before him, made a lane with his sword, slaying numbers of the Turks in his heroic progress. Towards the close of this chivalric enterprize, and becoming more fierce and eager as he advanced, Robert unfortunately dropt his sword; and while stooping to recover his weapon, he was oppressed by the multitude, who threw themselves upon him, and made him prisoner. From thence, as some say, Robert was carried to Babylon in Egypt, or Cairo; and refusing to renounce his faith in CHRIST, he was tied to a stake in the market-place, and transpierced with arrows. Edgar, having thus lost his valiant knight, returned towards Europe, and was much honoured with many gifts by the emperors both of Greece and Germany, both of whom would gladly have retained him at their courts, on account of his high lineage; but he despised all things, from regard to his native England, into which he returned: And, having been subjected to many changes of fortune, as we have elsewhere related, he now spends his extreme old age in private obscurity.
 Hakluyt. I. 44. W. Malmsb. III. 58.
Volume 1, Chapter 20, Section 3 -- Some Circumstances respecting the Siege of Joppa, about the year 1102.
In the second year of Baldwin, king of Jerusalem, Joppa was besieged by the Turks of Cairo; and Baldwin embarked from the town of Assur, in a vessel called a buss, commanded by one Goderic, an English freebooter, intending to proceed to the relief of the besieged. Fixing the royal banner aloft on a spear, that it might be seen of [[=by]] the Christians, they sailed boldly towards Joppa, with but a small company of armed men. The king knew that the Christians in Joppa were almost hopeless of his life and safety, and he feared they might shamefully abandon the defence of the place, or be constrained to surrender, unless revived by his presence. On perceiving the approach of the royal banner of King Baldwin, the naval forces of the Turks, to the number of twenty gallies and thirteen ships, usually called Cazh, endeavoured to surround and capture the single vessel in which he was embarked. But, by the aid of GOD, the billows of the sea raged against them, while the king's ship glided easily and swiftly through the waves, eluding the enemy, and arrived in safety into the haven of Joppa, to the great joy of the Christians, who had mourned him as if dead.
While the Saracens continued the siege of Joppa, 200 sail of Christian vessels arrived there, with pilgrims who wished to perform their devotions at Jerusalem. Of these, the chief leaders were Bernard Witrazh of Galatia, Hardin of England, Otho of Roges, Haderwerck, one of the principal nobles of Westphalia, and others. This power, by the blessing of God, arrived to succour the distressed Christians then besieged in Joppa, on the 3d of July 1102, in the second year of Baldwin king of Jerusalem. When the numerous army of the Saracens saw that the Christians, thus reinforced, boldly faced them without the walls, they removed their tents, during the night, above a mile from the town, that they might consider whether to retreat to Ascalon, or to continue to harass the citizens of Joppa with frequent assaults. But they confided in their numbers, and continued to annoy the Christians by severe and repeated attacks.
Having allowed three days rest and refreshment to this powerful reinforcement, Baldwin issued out from Joppa early in the morning of the sixth of July, to the martial sound of trumpets and cornets, with a strong force, both of foot and horse, marching directly toward the Saracens, with loud shouts, and attacked their army with great spirit. The land attack was assisted by the Christian navy, which approached the shore, making a horrible noise, and distracting the attention of the Saracens, who feared to be attacked in flank and rear. After a sharp encounter, the Saracens fled towards Ascalon, many being slain in the battle and pursuit, and others drowned, by leaping into the sea to avoid being slain. In this battle 3000 of the Saracens perished, with a very small loss on the side of the Christians; and the city of Joppa was delivered from its enemies.
 Hakluyt, I.45. Chron. Hierosol. IX. ix. xi. xii.
Volume 1, Chapter 20, Section 4 -- Of the Transactions of certain English, Danish, and Flemish Pilgrims in the Holy Land, in 1107.
In the seventh year of King Baldwin, a large fleet from England, containing above 7000 men, many of whom were soldiers, arrived at the harbour of Joppa, along with whom came other warriors from Denmark, Flanders, and Antwerp. Having received permission and safe conduct from King Baldwin, together with a strong band of armed men as a safeguard, they arrived in safety at Jerusalem and all the other places of devotion, free from all assaults and ambushes of the Gentiles; and having paid their vows unto the Lord in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, they returned with great joy, and without molestation, to Joppa. Finding King Baldwin in that place, they made offer to assist him in any military enterprize; for which offer he gave them great commendations, saying, That he could not give an immediate answer, without consulting the patriarch and barons, of his kingdom.
He therefore called together the Lord Patriarch, Hugh of Tabaria, Gunfrid the governor of the Tower of David, and the other principal officers of the kingdom of Jerusalem, to consult together in the city of Rames, how best to employ this proferred assistance of so considerable a body of volunteers.
In that assembly, it was agreed upon to lay siege to the city of Sagitta, otherwise called Sidon; upon which, having directed every one of the nobles to go home, that they might provide armour and all other necessaries for the siege, he sent messengers to the English, requiring them not to remove their fleet and army from Joppa, but to wait there for his farther commands; informing them, that he and his nobles had resolved, with their aid, to lay siege to the city of Sidon, but it would require some time to provide the necessary engines and warlike instruments, for assaulting the walls of that place. The pilgrims answered, that they would attend his orders at Joppa, promising to be obedient to him in all things, even unto death. The king went soon afterwards, with the patriarch and all his attendants to the city of Acre; where, during forty days, he was busily employed in the construction of engines, and many different kinds of warlike instruments, and of every thing necessary for the intended siege.
When this intended expedition came to the knowledge of the inhabitants of Sidon, and they understood that a powerful army of pilgrims lay in readiness at Joppa, to assist the king of Jerusalem, they were afraid of being subdued and destroyed by the Christians, as Caesaria, Assur, Acre, Cayphas, and Tabaria had already been; and they sent secret emissaries to the king, offering a large sum of money in gold byzants, and a considerable yearly tribute, on condition that he would spare their lives and refrain from the intended siege. After a lengthened negotiation, during which the inhabitants of Sidon rose considerably in their offers, the king, being in great straits for means to discharge the pay of his soldiers, hearkened willingly to the offers of the Sidonians; yet, afraid of reproach from the Christians, he dared not openly to consent to their proposals.
In the meantime, Hugh of Tabaria, who was a principal warrior among the Christians of Palestine, and indefatigable in assaulting the pagans on all occasions, having gathered together 200 horse and 400 infantry, suddenly invaded the country of a great Saracen lord, named Suet, on the frontiers of the territory of Damascus, where he took a rich booty of gold and silver and many cattle, which would have proved of great importance in assisting the army at the siege of Sidon. On his return with this prey by the city of Belinas, otherwise called Caesaria Philippi, the Turks of Damascus, with the Saracen inhabitants of the country, gathered together in great numbers, and pursued the troops of Hugh, that they might recover the booty. Coming up with them in the mountains, over which the infantry belonging to Hugh of Tabaria were driving their prey, the Turks prevailed over the Christians, and the plunder was recovered. On receiving this intelligence, Hugh, who happened to be at some distance, hastened with his cavalry to succour his footmen, and to recover the spoil: But happening to fall in with the Turks in a strait and craggy place, and rushing heedlessly among the enemy, unprovided with his armour, he was shot in the back by an arrow, which pierced his liver, and he died on the spot. His soldiers brought back the dead body of Hugh to the city of Nazareth near Mount Thabor, where he was honourably interred. Gerard, the brother of Hugh, lay at this time sick of a dangerous illness, and died within eight days afterwards.
Taking advantage of the death of these two famous princes, King Baldwin agreed to receive the money which had been offered to him by the city of Sidon, yet kept his intentions of making peace private, and sent to Joppa, desiring the chiefs of the English, Danes, and Flemings, to come with their fleet and army to Acre, as if he had meant to prosecute the siege. When they arrived, he represented to their chiefs the great loss he had sustained by the death of two of his chief warriors, on which account, he was constrained to defer the siege to a more convenient opportunity, and must now dismiss his army. On this the strangers saluted the king very respectfully, and, embarking in their ships, returned to their own countries.
 Hakluyt, I. 47. Chron. Hierosol. lib. x.
 Though not mentioned in the text, it seems presumable that these pilgrims deemed it necessary for them to proceed unarmed in execution of their devotions, under an escort.--E.
Volume 1, Chapter 20, Section 5 -- The Expedition of William Longespee, or Long-sword, Earl of Salisbury, in the year 1248, under the Banners of St Louis, King of France, against the Saracens.
When Louis, King of France, went against the Saracens in 1248, William Earl of Salisbury, with the Bishop of Worcester, and other great men of the realm of England, accompanied him in the holy warfare. About the beginning of October 1249, the French king assaulted and took the city of Damietta, which was esteemed the principal strong-hold of the Saracens in Egypt; and having provided the place with a sufficient garrison, under the Duke of Burgundy, he removed his camp, to penetrate farther eastwards. In this army William Earl of Salisbury served, with a chosen band of Englishmen under his especial command; but the French entertained a great dislike to him and his people, whom they flouted upon all occasions, calling them English tails, and other opprobrious names, insomuch, that the King of France had much ado to keep peace between them. This quarrel originated from the following circumstance: Not far from Alexandria there was a strong castle belonging to the Saracens, in which they had placed some of their principal ladies, and much treasure; which fortress the earl and his English followers had the good fortune to take, more by dexterous policy than by open force of arms, through which capture he and his people were much enriched; and when the French came to the knowledge of this exploit, which had not been previously communicated to them, they were much enraged against the English, and could never speak well of them afterwards.
Not long after this, the earl got secret intelligence of a rich caravan of merchants belonging to the Saracens, who were travelling to a certain fair which was to be held near Alexandria, with a multitude of camels, asses, and mules, and many carts, all richly laden with silks, precious jewels, spices, gold, silver, and other commodities, besides provisions and other matters of which the soldiers were then in great want. Without giving notice of this to the rest of the Christian army, the earl gathered all the English troops, and fell by night upon the caravan, killing many of the people, and making himself master of the whole carts and baggage cattle with their drivers, which he brought with him to the Christian camp, losing only one soldier in the skirmish, and eight of his servants, some of whom were only wounded and brought home to be cured. When this was known in the camp, the Frenchmen, who had loitered in their tents while the earl and his people were engaged in the expedition, came forth and forcibly took to themselves the whole of this spoil, finding great fault with the earl and the English for leaving the camp without orders from the general, contrary to the discipline of war; though the earl insisted that he had done nothing but what he would readily justify, and that his intentions were to have divided the spoil among the whole army. But this being of no avail, and very much displeased at being deprived in so cowardly a manner of what he had so adventurously gained, he made his complaint to the king; and being successfully opposed there by the pride of the Count of Artois, the king's brother, who thwarted his claims with disdainful spite, he declared that he would serve no longer in their army, and bidding farewell to the king, he and his people broke up from the army and marched for Achon. Upon their departure, the Count d'Artois said that the French army was well rid of these tailed English; which words, spoken in despite, were ill taken by many good men, even of their own army. But not long after, when the governor of Cairo, who was offended with the Soldan, offered to deliver that place to the French king, and even gave him instructions now he might best conduct himself to accomplish that enterprize, the king sent a message in all haste to the Earl of Salisbury, requesting him to return to the army, under promise of redressing all his grievances; on which he came back and rejoined the French army.
The king of France now marched towards Cairo, and came to the great river Nile, on the other side of which the Soldan had encamped with his army, on purpose to dispute the passage. At this time, there was a Saracen in the service of the Count of Artois, who had been lately converted to the Christian faith, and who offered to point out a shallow ford in the river, by which the army might easily cross over. Upon receiving this intelligence, Artois and the master of the Knights Templars, with about a third of the army, crossed to the other side, and were followed by Salisbury and the English. These being all joined, made an assault upon a part of the Saracen army which remained in the camp, and overthrew them, the Soldan being then at some distance with the greater part of his army.
After this easy victory, Artois was so puffed up with pride and elated by success, that he believed nothing could withstand him, and would needs advance [[=insisted on advancing]] without waiting for the coming up of the main body of the army under the king of France, vainly believing that he was able with the power he had to conquer the whole force of the Saracens. The master of the Templars, and other experienced officers, endeavoured to dissuade him from this rash conduct; advising him rather to return to the main army, satisfied with the signal advantage he had already achieved; that thereby the whole army of the Christians might act in concert, and be the better able to guard against the danger of any ambushes or other stratagems of war, that might have been devised for their destruction. They represented to him that the horses of this vanguard were already tired, and the troops without food; and besides, that their numbers were utterly unable to withstand the vastly superior multitude of the enemy; who besides, having now obviously to fight for their last stake, the capital of their dominions, might be expected to exert their utmost efforts.
To this salutary counsel, the proud earl arrogantly answered with opprobrious taunts; reviling the whole Templars as dastardly cowards and betrayers of their country, and even alleged that the Holy Land of the Cross might easily be won to Christendom, if it were not for the rebellious spirit of the Templars and Hospitallers, and their followers: which, indeed, was a common belief among many. To these contumelious remarks, the master of the Templars angrily desired him, in his own name and that of his followers, to display his ensign when and where he dared, and he should find them as ready to follow as he to lead. The Earl of Salisbury now remonstrated with Artois, advising him to listen to these experienced persons, who were much better acquainted with the country and people than he could be; and endeavoured to convince him that their advice was discreet and worthy to be followed. He then addressed his discourse to the master of the Templars, prudently endeavouring to sooth his anger against the arrogance of the Count of Artois. But Artois cut him short, exclaiming in anger with many oaths, "Away with these cowardly Englishmen with tails; the army would be much better rid of these tailed people;" and many other scandalous and disdainful expressions. To this the English earl replied, "Well, Earl Robert, wherever you dare set your foot, my steps shall go as far as yours; and I believe we shall go this day where you shall not dare to come near the tails of our horses."
And it so happened as Earl William said: For Earl Robert of Artois persisted to march forward against the Soldan, vainly hoping to win all the glory to himself, before the coming up of the main body of the host. His first enterprize was ordering an attack on a small castle, or fortified village, called Mansor; whence a number of the villagers ran out, on seeing the approach of the Christians, making a great outcry, which came to the ears of the Soldan, who was much nearer with his army than had been supposed. In the mean time, the Christians made an assault on Mansor with too little precaution, and were repulsed with considerable loss, many of them being slain by large stones, thrown upon them as they entered the place; by which the army not only lost a considerable number of men, but was much dispirited by this unexpected repulse.
Immediately on the back of this discomfiture, the Soldan came in sight with his whole army; and seeing the Christians in this divided state, brother separated from brother, joyfully seized the opportunity he had long wished for, and inclosing them on all sides, that none might escape, attacked them with great fury. In this situation, the Earl of Artois sore repented of his headstrong rashness, when it was too late; and, seeing Earl William Longespee fighting bravely against the chief brunt of the enemy, he called out to him in a cowardly manner to flee, as God fought against them. But William bravely answered, "God forbid that my father's son should flee from the face of a Saracen." Earl Robert turned out of the fight, and fled away, thinking to escape from death or captivity by the swiftness of his horse; and taking the river Thafnis, sank through the weight of his armour, and was drowned. On the flight of Earl Robert, the French troops lost heart, and began to give ground: But William Longespee, bearing up manfully against the whole force of the enemy, stood firm as long as he was able, slaying and wounding many of the Saracens. At length, his horse being killed, and his legs maimed, he fell to the ground; yet he continued to mangle their legs and feet, till at last he was slain with many wounds, being finally stoned to death by the Saracens. After his death, the Saracens set upon the remainder of the army, which they had surrounded on every side, and destroyed them all, so that scarce a single man remained alive. Of the whole, only two templars, one hospitaller, and one common soldier escaped, to bring the melancholy tidings to the king of France. Thus by the imprudent and foolish rashness of Earl Robert, the French troops were utterly discomfited, and the valiant English knight overpowered and slain, to the grief of all the Christians, and the glory of the Saracens; and, as it afterwards fell out, to the entire ruin of the whole French army.
 Hakluyt, I. 70.
 Hakluyt dates this expedition in the 32d year of the reign of Henry III. of England. He mentions, in a former passage, I. p. 59. that the same Earl of Salisbury, accompanied Richard Earl of Cornwall, in the 23d year of the same kings reign into Syria against the Saracens, with many other English of note, where they performed good service against the unbelievers, but gives no relation of particulars.--E.
 The meaning of this term of reproach does not appear; unless, from some after circumstances, it may have proceeded from their horses having long tails, while those of the French were dockt.--E.
 Probably Aboukir.--E.
 St John d'Acre.--E.
 This is probably meant for that branch of the Nile which they had previously crossed on their way to Mansor.--E.
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