Volume 6, Chapter 4 -- Continuation of the Portuguese transactions in India, after the return of Don Stefano de Gama from Suez in 1541, to the Reduction of Portugal under the Dominion of Spain in 1581: *section index*


Volume 6, Chapter 4, Section 9 -- Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions in India, from 1576 to 1581; when the Crown of Portugal was usurped by Philip II. of Spain, on the Death of the Cardinal King Henry.

In 1576 Ruy Lorenzo de Tavora went out as viceroy of Portuguese India; but [[upon his]] dying on the voyage, at Mozambique, Don Diego de Menezes assumed the government in virtue of a royal patent of succession. Nothing extraordinary happened during his government of nearly two years, when he was superseded by the arrival of Don Luis de Ataide, count of Atougaia, as viceroy of India for the second time. Ataide had been appointed general in chief of the Portuguese forces by king Sebastian, who had resolved to bury the glory of his kingdom in the burning sands of Africa; and finding his own youthful impetuosity unable to conform with the prudent councils of the count, he constituted him viceroy of India as a plausible means of removing him. The count arrived at Goa about the end of August 1577, where he immediately fitted out a mighty fleet which struck terror into all the neighbouring princes. After continuing the war for some time against Adel Khan, a peace was concluded with that prince.

Soon afterwards news was brought to India of the melancholy catastrophe which had befallen king Sebastian in Africa, and that the Cardinal Don Henry had succeeded to the throne; but he soon afterwards died, and the kingdom of Portugal came under the direction of a council of regency consisting of five members. The viceroy Don Luis died soon afterwards at Goa in the beginning of the year 1580, after governing India this second time for two years and seven months. He seemed to have had a presentiment of his death; for being applied to for leave to bury his cousin Antonio Borello beside his brother Don Juan de Ataide, he refused it, saying that he had long designed that situation for himself. He was a man of most undaunted courage, of which the following instance may be adduced. At the attack of Onore, he sailed in a brigantine sitting in a chair, having a famous musician beside him playing on the harp. When the balls from the enemy began to whistle past the ears of the musician he stopt playing, on which the count desired him to proceed, as the tune was excellent. One of the gentlemen near him, seeing his unconcernedness, requested him to expose himself less to the danger, as if he were slain all would be lost; "No such thing," answered he, "for if I am killed there are men enough who are fit to succeed me."

On his death, which appears to have happened in March 1580, he was succeeded as governor by Ferdinand Tellez de Menezes, pursuant to a patent of succession sent out by the regency in the year before. On this occasion the new governor was installed with as much demonstration of joy as if there had been no cause of sorrow among the subjects of Portugal for the melancholy state of their country. While the affairs of Portugal were in a miserable state of distraction, those of Visiapour were in no better condition, in consequence of the death of Adel Khan without heirs, in the 23d year of his reign and 50th of his age. [[Because of his]] being addicted to unnatural practices, a youth of eighteen years of age who had too much honour to submit to his base desires, stabbed him as he was endeavouring to allure him to comply with his brutal purposes. Ibrahim Khan, the son of Shah Tamas, one of two brothers whom Adel Khan had put to death, succeeded to the sovereignty; but was soon afterwards seized by a powerful Omrah, named Quisbale Khan, who made himself master of the city of Visiapour. Soon afterwards the Ethiopian guards revolted under three leaders of their own choice, Acala Khan, Armi Khan, and Delarna Khan, the last of whom secured the other two and usurped the whole power.

About this time new instructions came from the regency of Portugal, announcing that Philip II. of Spain had been admitted as king of Portugal, and enjoining the governor and all the Portuguese in India to take the oath of allegiance to the new sovereign.

At this period Mirazenam Pacha, a native of Otranto, and born of Christian parents, was governor of all that part of Arabia which is called Yemen by the natives, and resided in Sanaa or Zenan, a city in the inland part of Yeman or Arabia Felix, 60 leagues north of Mokha.[402] Sanaa stands upon a hill encompassed with a good wall, and is thought to have been founded by Ham the son of Noah, and to have been the residence of the famous queen of Sheba. The fruitful province in which it stands was called by the ancients Siria Muinifera, because it produces frankincense, myrrh, and storax. Being desirous to plunder Maskat near Cape Ras-al-gat, Mirazenam sent three Turkish galleys on that errand under Ali Beg, who took possession of Maskat, whence most of the Portuguese residents saved themselves by flight, leaving their goods to be plundered by Ali Beg.

The fugitives took refuge in Mataro, a town only a league distant, whence they went to Bruxel, a fort about four leagues inland, belonging to Catani, the sheikh or chief of a horde or tribe of Arabs. The Arab officer who commanded there received the Portuguese with much kindness and hospitality, and protected them till the departure of Ali Beg, when they returned to Maskat. On learning the ruin of Maskat, Gonzalo de Menezes, who then commanded at Ormuz, sent Luis de Almeyda with a squadron consisting of a galleon, a galley, and six other vessels, with 400 good men, to attack Ali Beg. But Almeyda neglected the orders of his superior, and sailed to the coast of the Naytaques, intending to surprise and plunder the beautiful and rich city of Pesani.[403. But the inhabitants got notice of their danger and fled, after which Almeyda dishonourably plundered the city, to which he set fire, together with near fifty sail of vessels which were in the bay. He did the same thing to Guadel or Gader, a city not inferior to Pesani, and to Teis or Tesse belonging to the barbarous tribe of the Abindos who dwell on the river Calamen in Gedrosia,[404] and who join with the Naytagites in their piracies.

[Footnote 402: Sanaa is about 80 marine leagues, or 278 English miles N.E. from Mokha, and 30 leagues, or about 100 miles nearly north from Makulla, the nearest port of Arabia on the Indian ocean.--E.]
[Footnote 403: Perhaps Posino on the oceanic coast of Makran, one of the provinces of Persia, is here meant, nearly north from Maskat, on the opposite coast of the entrance towards the Persian Gulf.--E.]
[Footnote 404: Gedrosia the ancient name of that province of Persia on the Indian Ocean between the mouth of the Persian Gulf and the Indus, now called Mekran or Makran.--E.]



Volume 6, Chapter 4, Section 10 -- Transactions of the Portuguese in India, from 1581 to 1597.[405]

Don Francisco Mascarenhas, count of Santa Cruz, was the first viceroy sent out to India after the revolution by which Philip II of Spain acquired the sovereignty of Portugal. The honour and advantages conferred upon him on receiving this important office were greater than had ever been enjoyed by any of his predecessors. He well deserved all rewards of honour and profit, having served with great reputation in India, particularly in the brave defence of Chaul, with an incompetent garrison, and hardly any fortifications, against the power of the Nizam, who besieged it with 150,000 men. Yet his advancement on this occasion proceeded more from the policy of the king of Spain than the merit of Mascarenhas, to endeavour to gain the hearts of the Portuguese in India by his bounty. On his arrival at Goa in 1581, the new viceroy found that all the Portuguese had already submitted to the government of the king of Spain, so that he had only to attend to the usual affairs of his viceroyalty.

Sultan Amodifar, the lawful king of Guzerat, after being long kept prisoner by the Mogul who had usurped his kingdom, made his escape by the assistance of some women and came in disguise to a Banian at Cambaya, by whom he was conveyed to Jambo, a person who had secured himself in a portion of the kingdom of Guzerat in the late revolution. Jambo not only acknowledged Amodifar as his legitimate sovereign, but procured the submission of many other chiefs and great men, so that he was soon at the head of a large army, in which there were above 30,000 horse, and in a short time Amodifar recovered possession of almost all Guzerat, either by force or consent. In hopes of profiting by these confusions, and in particular expecting to acquire possession of Surat, the viceroy went with 40 sail to Chaul, whence he sent some intelligent agents to Baroach, which was then besieged by Amodifar, the wife and children of Cotub oddin Khan having taken refuge in that place. These agents had instructions to treat secretly both with Amodifar and the wife of Cotub, without letting either of them know the correspondence with the other, that the Portuguese interest might be secured with the party that ultimately prevailed.

But a large Mogul army invaded Guzerat and recovered possession of the whole country, so that the negociations of the viceroy fell to nothing, and be returned to Goa. While absent from that city, the subjects of the new king of Visiapour, provoked by the insolences of Larva Khan the favourite minister, wished to set up Cufo Khan the son of Meale Khan, who had been long kept prisoner at Goa; but on this coming to the knowledge of Larva Khan, he contrived, by means of an infamous Portuguese, named Diego Lopez Bayam, to inveigle Cufo Khan into his power, who thinking to gain a crown was made prisoner by Larva Khan and deprived of his eyes.

After Don Francisco de Mascarenhas had enjoyed the viceroyalty for three years, Don Duarte de Menezes came out in 1581 as his successor. His first measure was to restore peace at Cochin, where a revolt was threatened by the natives in consequence of the Portuguese having usurped the management of the custom-house to the prejudice of the Rajah; but an accommodation was now entered into, and the people appeased by restoring matters to their ancient footing. The Naik of Sanguicer, a place dependent upon the king of Visiapour, having converted his place of residence into a nest of pirates, to the great injury of the Portuguese trade on the coast of Canara, an agreement was entered into with the king of Visiapour for his punishment; the governor of Ponda named Kosti Khan being to march against him by land with 40,000 men, while the Portuguese were to attack the Naik by sea. This was accordingly executed, and the Naik being driven to take refuge is the woods, implored mercy, and was restored to his ruined district.

Some years before the present period a prodigious inundation of Kafrs or Negro barbarians from the interior of Africa invaded the country of Monomotapa, in multitudes that were utterly innumerable. They came from that part of the interior in which the great lake of Maravi is situated, out of which springs the great rivers whose source was formerly unknown. Along with this innumerable multitude, a part of whom were of the tribes called Macabires and Ambei, bordering upon Abyssinia, came their wives, children, and old people, as if emigrating bodily in search of new habitations, from their own being unable to contain them. They were a rude and savage people, whose chosen food was human flesh, only using that of beasts in defect of the other; and such was the direful effect of their passage through any part of the country, that they marked their way by the utter ruin of the habitations, leaving nothing behind but the bones of the inhabitants. When these failed them, they supplied their craving hunger by feeding on their own people, beginning with the sick and aged.

Even their women, though ugly and deformed, were as hardy and warlike as their husbands, carrying their children and household goods on their backs, and going armed with bows and arrows, which they used with as much courage and dexterity as the men. These barbarians used defensive armour, and even employed the precaution of fortifying their camp wherever they happened to halt. While passing the castle of Tete upon the Zambeze in the interior of Mocaranga, Jerome de Andrada who commanded the Portuguese garrison sent out against them a party of musketeers, and in two encounters killed above 5000 of them, while the multitude fled in the utmost dismay, having never, before experienced the effects of fire arms.

Passing onwards from thence, the barbarous multitude came to the neighbourhood of Mozambique, destroying everything in their course like an inundation of fire; and as the situation appeared inviting to one of their chiefs named Mambea, who commanded about 6000 warriors, he built a fort and some towns on the main, about two leagues from Mozambique. As the fort of Cuama, where Nuno Vello Pereyra commanded, was much incommoded by the neighbourhood of these barbarians, he sent out Antonio Pimentel against them with 400 men, four only of whom were Portuguese, who falling unexpectedly on the barbarians slew many of them and burnt the fort; but retiring in disorder, the enemy fell upon Pimentel and his men, all of whom they slew except three Portuguese and a small number of negroes. All the slain were devoured by the victorious Kafrs, except their heads, hands, and feet.

The country about Mozambique is full of orchards and fruit trees, especially citrons, lemons, and oranges, and has all kinds of wild and tame beasts like those in Europe, together with prodigious numbers of elephants. The principal food of the people is maize. The woods mostly consist of ebony, being a very lofty tree with leaves like those of our apple trees, and fruit resembling medlars, but not eatable, the whole stem and branches being thickly covered with thorns. The bark is as susceptible of fire as tinder, and when one of these trees is cut down it never springs up again. There is another sort, of a yellowish colour, which is reckoned valuable. The best manna is produced in this country.

Among the fish of this river is one equally voracious with the crocodile, from which no man escapes that gets within their reach; but they never injure women. One of these of a prodigious size was caught having gold rings in its ears, which was supposed to have been done as some species of witchcraft or incantation by the Kafrs to clear the river from these dangerous animals. In confirmation of this opinion, we read in an Arabian author named Matude, giving an account of prodigies, that about the year 863 a brazen crocodile was found under the ruins of an Egyptian temple, on which certain characters or symbolical letters were impressed, and when this image was broken in pieces the crocodiles of the Nile began again to devour men.

During the viceroyalty of Don Duarte de Menezes fresh troubles broke out in the kingdom of Visiapour, in consequence of which the Moguls invaded the country, and after laying it waste to a great extent possessed themselves of many of its towns cities and districts. The occasions of these troubles was this: the king being ill of a contagious distemper, his two favourite ministers, Acede Khan and Calabate Khan, kept him concealed in the palace, so that no person was allowed to see him. The prince and the people had recourse to arms, in order to force these tyrants to admit them into the king's presence; on which they persuaded the infirm king that the prince wished to depose him, so that the king went to war against the prince, and defeated him with great slaughter, upon which the Moguls were called in to their assistance, and used the opportunity to plunder the country and appropriate it to themselves.

Towards the close of the viceroyalty of Don Duarte de Menezes, Raju, who had usurped the sovereignty of Ceylon, determined upon making a conquest of the Portuguese fortress of Columbo, with a view of expelling them from that island. For this purpose he collected an immense army, in which were 50,000 soldiers, 60,000 pioneers, and nearly as many artificers of various descriptions, with 2200 elephants, 40,000 oxen, 150 pieces of cannon, and 50,000 intrenching tools, axes, shovels, spades, and mattocks, with an innumerable quantity of spare arms and ammunition; among which were two wooden castles built upon enormous carriages, each of which had nine wheels. Added to all which he had nearly 500 craft of different kinds.

Before proceeding upon this expedition, he deemed it proper to consult the idols respecting its success; and on this occasion he secretly placed men behind the idols, who answered to his supplications for a favourable termination to his great design, If you, would take Columbo you must shed innocent blood! The people were astonished at this familiar and direct intercourse between their idols and their prince; and he, pretending obedience to the divine commands which they had all heard, caused 500 children to be taken from the arms of their mothers, all of whom were sacrificed, and the idols sprinkled with their blood.

After all his preparations were completed, he marched with his prodigious army and invested Columbo, choosing the ground which he deemed most advantageous, as the garrison was not sufficiently strong to contend with him in the field. Joam de Britto, who then commanded in Columbo, had sent intimation of his danger to the other Portuguese possessions, and had arranged everything for defence as well as he could. To defend the place against the vast army by which he was now assailed, he had only 300 Portuguese, a third of whom were useless, as being old men or children; besides whom he had 700 armed natives and slaves. This incompetent force he posted to the best advantage around the walls, which were far too extensive, reserving 50 picked men to attend upon himself to give relief wherever it was most needed.

After the commencement of the siege, Raju spent a whole month in draining a lake which secured one side of Columbo from being assailed, and as the Portuguese had several boats on the lake, there were frequent skirmishes in which the enemy suffered considerable loss. The side of the fort which had been covered by the lake was much weakened by the drawing off its water, which had been its chief defence on that side. In consequence of the advices sent by Brito to the commanders of the neighbouring forts, reinforcements were prepared at different quarters. The first relief, consisting of 40 men, was sent by Juan de Melo the commander of Manaar, under the command of his nephew Ferdinand de Melo, who likewise brought a supply of ammunition; and Ferdinand was posted with his men to strengthen the defence upon the side towards the drained lake.

On the 4th of August before day-light,[406] Raju advanced in silence to give the first assault, but was discovered by the lighted matches of his musketeers. The enemy applied their scaling ladders at the same time to the three bastions of St. Michael, St. Gonzalo, and St. Francisco, while 2000 pioneers fell to work below to undermine the works. Many of the assailants were thrown down from their ladders on the heads of the workmen employed below, while numbers of the enemy who were drawn up in the field before the town were destroyed by the cannons from the walls. Everywhere both within and without, the fort resounded with the cries of women and children, and the groans of the wounded, joined to the noise of the cannon and musketry and the shrill cries of elephants which, forced to the walls by their conductors, were driven back smarting with many wounds, and did vast injury in the ranks of the besiegers.

Such was the multitude of the enemy that they did not seem lessened by slaughter, fresh men still pressing on to supply the places of the killed and wounded. Brito was present in every place of danger, giving orders and conveying relief, and after a long and arduous contest, the enemy at length gave way, leaving 400 men dead or dying at the foot of the walls. During this assault, some Chingalese who had retired into the fort to escape the tyranny of Raju, fought with as much bravery as the Portuguese. Twice afterwards, Raju made repeated attempts to carry the place by escalade, but was both times repulsed with much slaughter. After which he repaired his entrenchments, and prepared to renew the assaults.

After the commencement of the siege Diego Fernandez Pessoa came from Negapatnam with a ship of his own, and Antonio de Aguilar brought another ship, by means of which the besieged were much encouraged. Don Joam de Austria the Modeliar of Candea,[407] and the Arache Don Alfonzo, did at this time eminent service against the enemy; and a soldier of vast strength, named Jose Fernandez, having broken his spear, threw several of the enemy behind him to be slain by those in his rear. On learning the danger of Colombo, the city of Cochin fitted out six ships for its relief, with a supply of men and ammunition, which were placed under the command of Nuno Alvarez de Atouguia. Before their arrival, Raju gave another general assault by sea and land, in which the danger was so pressing that even the religious were forced to act as officers and soldiers to defend the walls, and the enemy were again repulsed with great slaughter.

Immediately after this the relief arrived under Atouguia from Cochin, and nearly at the same time arrived from St. Thomas's and other places several ships brought by private individuals of their own accord; and in September six ships and a galley arrived with reinforcements from Goa under Bernardin de Carvallo. On the arrival of such numerous reinforcements, Raju, giving up all hopes of carrying the place by assault, endeavoured to undermine the walls; but this attempt was effectually counteracted by Thomas de Sousa, who found out a way of destroying the miners while engaged in the work.

Foiled in all his attempts to gain possession of Columbo, Raju now endeavoured to attain his end by treachery, and prevailed on some of his wizards to pretend discontent, and desert to the town, that they might poison the water in the garrison and bewitch the defenders. Being suspected, these men were put to the torture; on which they confessed their intentions, and were put to death. "While one of the wizards was on the rack, he uttered certain mysterious words which deprived the executioners of their senses, and left them struggling under convulsions for twenty-four hours." Treachery failing, Raju had again recourse to open force, and ordered his fleet to attack that of the Portuguese commanded by Thomas de Sousa; but two of the Ceylon ships were sunk and two taken, in which most of the men were slain, and those who survived were hanged at the yard-arms. In this naval battle 300 of the enemy were slain, with the loss of two men only on the side of the Portuguese.

Raju was so enraged at the bad success of the naval attack, that he ordered two of his principal sea-officers to be beheaded. Soon after this a ship arrived with ammunition sent by the viceroy, and the enemy made another assault by night on the works, in which, as in all the others, they were beat off with great slaughter. After this, Juan de Gamboa arrived in a galley with a reinforcement of 150 men; and De Brito finding himself now confident in the strength of his garrison, sent out Pedro Alfonzo with a squadron to destroy the towns on the coast belonging to the enemy. In this expedition, the towns of Belicot, Berberii, and Beligao were plundered and burnt, and the Portuguese in their haste to get possession of the pendants and bracelets of the women barbarously cut off their hands and ears. After making prodigious havock in many other places, Alfonzo returned to Columbo with much spoil and many prisoners.

At this time sickness attacked the garrison of Columbo, and threatened to do more for Raju than all his force had been able to effect. The disease, which began in the neighbouring towns and spread to Columbo, baffled every attempt of the physicians for its cure. On opening some who died of it, the entrails were found impostumated, which was supposed owing to uncommon heat and drought, which had prevailed that year beyond any other in remembrance of the people. By the application of cold and dry remedies the disease decreased. By the beginning of January[408] Raju made two other attempts to gain Columbo by assault, in the last of which the bastions of St. Sebastian, St. Gonzalo, and St. Jago were in great danger, but the enemy were repulsed in both with great slaughter.

In the meanwhile the fleet was again sent out under the command of Thomas de Sousa, who ravaged the coast of Ceylon, and destroyed the villages of Coscore, Madania, Guinderem, Gale, Beligao, Mature, and Tanavar. To this last place the idolaters had imagined the Portuguese arms could never penetrate, as protected by the supposed sanctity of a pagoda in its neighbourhood. This pagoda was situated on a hill near the town, and appeared from sea like a city. It was above a league in circumference, ornamented with numerous domes, all of which were covered with copper splendidly gilt. In this pagoda there were above 1000 idols in the several chapels or large cloisters; the temple being surrounded with streets full of shops for the supply of the pilgrims and votaries who resorted thither from all quarters. Taking possession of this temple, Sousa cast down and destroyed all the idols, demolished all the curious workmanship of the pagoda, and carried away everything that could be removed, after which he killed some cows in its most sacred recesses, which is the greatest possible profanation in the opinion of the idolaters.

Among the prisoners taken at Cascore was a young woman who happened to be a bride. When the ships were about to weigh anchor, a young man came hastily to the place where the young woman was, and embraced her with much affection. By means of an interpreter, it was learned that this man was her destined husband, who had been absent when the town was attacked, and came now to offer himself for a slave rather than live free in separation from the woman of his affections. When this was told to Sousa, he determined not to part such true lovers, and ordered them to be both set at liberty; but they were so much affected by this act of generosity, that they requested to remain in his service. They lived afterwards in Columbo, where the man faithfully served the Portuguese on many occasions.

Scarcely had Sousa returned to Columbo from this last expedition, when Raju decamped, and began to march away, but the Portuguese fell upon the rear of his army, and cut off many of his men. In the course of this siege, some say that Raju lost 10,000 men, while others restrict the loss to half of that number. Besides the destruction of many towns, villages, and ships, burnt, plundered, and destroyed, the cannon, prisoners, and booty taken during this siege from the enemy were of considerable value. By these losses, and his inability to gain possession of Columbo with so large an army, Raju lost much reputation among the neighbouring princes, who waited the success of his preparations to declare for either side. The loss on the side of the Portuguese during this siege, consisted of 140 men slain, 50 only of whom were Portuguese; but 500 died of the sickness formerly mentioned.

On the day after the siege was raised, Don Paul de Lima came to Columbo with a powerful reinforcement from the viceroy. Eight days were spent in levelling the works which Raju had thrown up, after which the damage done to the fort was repaired, and it was furnished with a garrison of 600 men, plentifully supplied with arms and ammunition. Soon after receiving the joyful news of the glorious and successful defence of Columbo, the viceroy, Duarte de Menezes, died of a violent sickness in the beginning of May 1588, to whom succeeded Emanuel de Sousa Coutinno, in virtue of a patent of succession, being every way well qualified for the office by his singular bravery and thorough experience in the affairs of India.

In the homeward fleet of this season Don Paul de Lima embarked for Portugal in the ship called the St. Thome, of which Stefano de Vega was captain. While off the coast of Natal the ship sprung a leak in the stern during a storm, and though all the rich commodities with which she was freighted were thrown overboard, it was found impossible to keep her afloat. In this extremity 120 persons took to the boat, and had hardly put off when the ship was swallowed up by the waves. Finding the boat overloaded, it was found necessary to throw some of the people into the sea. At length the boat reached the shore, on which ninety-eight persons landed, several of whom were men of note with their wives, and some friars, one of whom after confessing the people who remained in the ship wished to have stayed with them, that he might aid their devotions to the last.

After landing, the women put themselves into men's habits, after the Indian manner, for the greater ease in travelling, and the whole company set off on their march in good order, a friar going before carrying a crucifix on high. The place where they landed was on that part of the coast of Natal called by the Portuguese the country of the Fumos, but by the natives the country of Macomates, being inhabited by Kafirs of that name. It is in the latitude of 27° 20' S. beyond the river of Semin Dote, 50 leagues south of the bay of Lorenzo Marquez.[409] All the lands of the Fumos belongs to the king of Virangune,[410] and extends 30 leagues into the interior, bordering on the south with the country of Mocalapata, which again extends to the river St Lucia, in lat. 28° 15' S. and to the kingdom of Vambe, which contains a great part of the Terra de Natal.[411] From thence to the Cape of Good Hope, the natives have no king, being ruled only by ancozes or chiefs of villages.

Next to the kingdom of Virangune to the north is that of Innaca, towards the N.E. to the point of the bay of St. Laurence, in lat. 25° 45' S., opposite to which are two islands, named Choambone and Setimuro, the latter of which is uninhabited, and is the station of the Portuguese who resort to this bay to purchase ivory. About this bay many great rivers fall into the sea, as those named Beligane, Mannica, Spiritu Santo, Vumo, Anzate, and Angomane.[412] Anzate runs long the edge of vast inaccessible mountains, covered with herds of elephants, and inhabited by a gigantic race of people.[413] In the latitude of 25° S. the river De los Reyes, or Del Ouro, likewise named the river Inhampura, falls into the sea, to the west of which in the interior are the kingdoms of Innapola and Mannuco.

From this place to Cape Corientes, the sea makes a great bay, along which inhabit the Mocaranges, a nation much addicted to thieving.[414] Opposite to Cape St Sebastian are the islands of Bazaruto or Bocica, and not far from it the kingdom of Innabuze which reaches to the river Innarigue.[415] After which is the country of Pande, bordering on Monnibe, which last extends to Zavara in the interior. Near these are the kingdoms of Gamba and Mocuraba, which last is near Cape Corientes.[416]

After suffering much from hunger, thirst, and fatigue, the survivors from the San Thome arrived at the town of Manica, where they were courteously received by the king, who offered them permission either to live in his town or in the island where we have formerly said the Portuguese used to reside during their trade for ivory on this coast, at which place they might remain till the arrival of the Portuguese merchants.[417] They preferred the island, where some of them died; and as they were ill accommodated here, they passed over in boats to the continent and renewed their weary pilgrimage to the northward, but separated. Some got to the fort of Sofala, and others to the town of the king of Innaca, where they found some Portuguese traders who like themselves had suffered shipwreck. After enduring great hardships, many of them died, and among these was Don Paul de Lima. Those who survived, returned after a long time to Goa, among whom were three ladies. Two of these, Donna Mariana and Donna Joanna Mendoza, dedicated themselves to a religious life; but Donna Beatrix, the widow of Don Paul de Lima, having conveyed her husband's remains to Goa, returned into Portugal, and was afterwards married at Oporto.

In May 1591, Matthew de Albuquerque arrived in India as viceroy. About this time the Portuguese met with a heavy loss in Monomotapa in a war with the Muzimbas, a savage nation of Kafrs. Tete, a fort belonging to the Portuguese high up the river Zambeze, has the command of all the neighbouring district for three leagues round, which is divided among eleven native chiefs, who are all obliged to repair with their armed followers to the fort when ordered by the Portuguese commandant, to the number of 2000 men. Pedro Fernandez de Chaves, who commanded in Tete, with these Kafrs and some Portuguese marched against Quisura chief of the Mumbos at Chicaronga, a town on the north of the Zambeze about 30 miles from Tete. He defeated these Mumbos in battle and relieved many prisoners who would otherwise have been slaughtered like cattle for the shambles, as the Mumbos feed on human flesh. The chief Quisara was slain, who used to pave the way to his dwelling with the skulls of those be had overcome.

About the same time Andrew de Santiago, who commanded in Sena, another Portuguese fort lower down the Zambeze, marched against the Muzimbas, a barbarous race of Kafrs on the river Suabo which runs into the northern side of the Zambeze; but found them so strongly fortified that he sent to Chaves for aid. Chaves accordingly marched from Tete with some Portuguese and the Kafrs under his command; but the Muzimbas fell upon him unexpectedly and slew him and all his Portuguese, being advanced a considerable way before the Kafrs, who got time to escape. The victorious Muzimbas quartered the slain for food, and returned to their fortified post. Next day the Muzimbas marched out against Santiago, carrying the head of Chaves on a spear. Santiago was so astonished at this sight that he endeavoured to retire in the night, but was attacked by the Muzimbas in his retreat, and he and most of his men slain. In these two unfortunate actions, above 130 of the Portuguese were cut in pieces and buried in the bellies of these savage cannibals.

Don Pedro de Sousa commanded at this time in Mozambique; and as Tete and Sena were under his jurisdiction, he set out with 200 Portuguese soldiers and 1500 armed Kafrs to take revenge upon the Muzimbas and succour the two forts on the Zambeze. He battered the entrenchments of the barbarians to no purpose, and was repulsed in an attempt to take them by assault. Having nearly succeeded by raising a mount of fascines as high as the works of the enemy, he was induced to desist by some cowards among his men, who pretended that the fort of Sena was in danger of being taken. He drew off therefore to its relief, and was attacked by the Muzimbas who slew many of his men, and took all his cannon and baggage. Yet the enemy offered peace, which was concluded.

Soon afterwards one of the chiefs of the Muzimbas, having gathered about 15,000 men, marched to the southwards destroying everything in the way that had life, and invested Quiloa, which he gained possession of through the treachery of one of the inhabitants, and put all to the sword. After this he caused the traitor and all his family to be thrown into the river, saying that those who had betrayed their country deserved to die, yet were unfit to be eaten, as they were venomous, and therefore fit food for the fishes. The Mozimba chief endeavoured to destroy Melinda in the same manner, but the sheikh was assisted by 30 Portuguese, which enabled him to hold out till 3000 Mosseguej Kafrs came to his relief, when the Mozimbas were defeated with such slaughter that only 100 of them escaped along with their chief, after they had ravaged 300 leagues of country.

We now return to the affairs of India, where Chaul was again besieged. Malek[418] had erected a new city opposite to Chaul and bearing the same name, well peopled with Moors who carried on an extensive trade, as it had an excellent port and the inhabitants were famous silk-weavers. The commander of this new city was an eunuch, who had been formerly a slave to the Portuguese and now to Malek. Immediately to the north of the Portuguese fortress of Chaul, from which it was divided by the river of that name, is a noted promontory called Morro, on which the eunuch took post with 4000 horse and 7000 foot, and cannonaded the Portuguese fort of Chaul from that commanding ground with 65 pieces of large cannon.

These hostilities were countenanced by the Nizam, though contrary to the peace which had been established when Francisco Barreto was governor, but were now justified by some complaints against the conduct of Albuquerque the present viceroy, and in addition to the siege of Chaul, several military parties belonging to the Nizam infested the districts, dependent upon the Portuguese forts of Basseen and Chaul. As the Moors considered the capture of Chaul to be near at hand, seeing that their cannon had made considerable impression on its walls, fourteen Mogul chiefs came to be present at its reduction; but in a sortie made by the Portuguese, nine of these were slain and two taken. Talador the eunuch commander of the besiegers was wounded, and died soon afterwards, as did a Turk who was next in command, on which Farete Khan succeeded in the conduct of the siege, and gave the Portuguese no respite by day or night, continually battering their works with his powerful artillery.

The garrison in Chaul consisted of 1000 men, to which place Alvaro de Abranches brought 300 from Basseen and 200 from Salcete; and being now at the head of 1500 Portuguese troops and an equal number of natives, so brave and faithful that they often voluntarily interposed their own bodies to protect their masters, Abranches appointed a day for making an attack upon the enemy. Having all confessed, the Portuguese embarked in a number of small vessels and crossed the river, after which they forced their way to the plain of Morro on the top of the promontary, where the battle was renewed. Ten elephants were turned loose by the Moors, in expectation that they would force the Portuguese troops into disorder; but one of these being severely wounded by a Portuguese soldier, turned back and trampled down the enemy, till falling into the ditch he made a way like a bridge for passing over. Another of the elephants, forcing his way in at a wicket in the works of the enemy, enabled the Portuguese to enter likewise, where they slaughtered the enemy almost without opposition. Some accounts say that 10,000 men were slain on this occasion, and others say no less than 60,000. Farate Khan with his wife and daughter were made prisoners, and only 21 Portuguese were slain in this decisive action. The principal booty consisted of 75 pieces of cannon of extraordinary size, a vast quantity of ammunition, many horses, and five elephants. Farate Khan became a Christian before he died, as did his daughter, who was sent to Portugal; but his wife was ransomed.

[Footnote 405: We have here omitted from de Faria several long and confused dissertations on subjects that will be treated of more satisfactorily in the sequel of this work, from better sources of information. These are, 1. Of the religion of Hindostan. 2. Of the empire of Ethiopia, or Abyssinia. 3. Of Japan. 4. Of China. 5. Of the traditions respecting the preaching of Christianity in India by St Thomas. Likewise, in the sequel of the Portuguese transactions in India from de Faria, we have omitted a vast deal of uninteresting events, confining our attention only to such as are of some relative importance.--E.]
[Footnote 406: The date of the year is omitted by DeTaria, who, always rather negligent of dates, now; hardly ever gives any more light on this subject than the years in which the respective viceroys and governors assumed and laid down their authorities. The siege therefore must have happened between 1584 and 1588, during the government of Duarte de Menezes.--E.]
[Footnote 407: It will be afterwards seen in the particular history and travels in Ceylon, that this person was the native sovereign of the central region or kingdom of Ceylon, called Candy or Candea from the name of the capital, who had acquired the same in the text in baptism.--E.]
[Footnote 408: Probably of the year 1588; as the death of the viceroy, who died in that year, is soon afterwards mentioned by De Faria.--E.]
[Footnote 409: If the latitude in the text could be depended on, this shipwreck seems to have taken place on the coast now occupied by the Hambonaas, near the small river Bagasie, 85 miles south from the entrance into Delagoa bay. The river of Semin Dote is probably that now called Mafumo, which agrees with the country of Fumos in the text; and the bay of Lorenzo Marquez may possibly be Delagoa, though only 28 leagues north from the latitude of the text, but there is no other bay of any importance for 400 miles farther along this coast.--E.]
[Footnote 410: In modern maps, the country along the south side of the river Mafumo, is said to be the dominions of Capellah.--E.]
[Footnote 411: To the south of the Hambonaas at Delagoa bay, the coast of Natal is inhabited by the Tambookies and Koussis. The river St Lucia still remains in our maps in the latitude indicated, but the other names in the text are unknown in modern geography.--E.]
[Footnote 412: Of these rivers only that of Manica, called likewise Spiritu Santo, retains the name in the text. That circumstance and the latitude indicated, point out Delagoa bay as that called St Lawrence by De Faria; unless we may suppose St Lawrence bay includes the whole bend inwards of the coast from Cape Corientes to point St Lucia on the coast of Natal, and that Delagoa bay, in the bottom of this large sweep, is that formerly called the bay of Lorenzo Marquez.--E.]
[Footnote 413: No trace of Anzate can be found in modern maps.--E.]
[Footnote 414: The text in this place is assuredly erroneous, as the Mocaranges have been formerly described by De Faria as the ruling nation in Monomotapa, which runs along the great bay of Sofala to the north of Cape Corientes.--E.]
[Footnote 415: Probably the country and river now called Inhambane.--E.]
[Footnote 416: These five last mentioned kingdoms, probably named from the barbarous chiefs of roving savage tribes, are now unknown to geography.--E.]
[Footnote 417: Manica is far inland, but the place indicated in the text was probably near the mouth of the river of that name, on the north, side of Delagoa bay.--E.]
[Footnote 418: This unusual name seems from the context to be here given to the Nizam-al-mulk or sovereign of the Decan.--E.]


-- *Index of Part Two, Book Three* -- *Glossary*-- *Robert Kerr index page* -- *FWP's main page* --